COMM 415 Nonverbal Exam 1 Study Guide
COMM 415 Nonverbal Exam 1 Study Guide COMM 415
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Cracchiolo on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 415 at University of Arizona taught by Chris Segrin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
COMM 415 Nonverbal 2/19/16 8:10 PM 1/19 Categories of NV behavior, distinctions and history: I. Given vs. given off behaviors • Given: purposive and intentional; under control of actor o Talk • Given off: not purposive or intentional; not under control of the sender o Nervous gestures- unaware o Can learn a lot about someone by given off behaviors- not masked II. Aspects of meaning in NV behavior • Intention(encoding): what are people’s intentions when they emit this behavior? • Perception/interpretation (decoding) how do receivers of this behavior interpret it? • Interactive: are there behaviors that have a reliable behavioral effect on others? o Contagious smiling, yawning, adjusting space • Shared encoding-decoding: are there behaviors whose meaning senders are receivers consistently agree on? o Thumbs up: generally accepted one meaning III. Usage of nv comm behaviors • External conditions(context) o Touch- touching hips in a nightclub vs. at work • Relationship to the verbal o Sarcasm- tone of voice • Awareness- are you aware of what you are doing? o Ex: facial expression • Intent- are you doing behavior on purpose? • Feedback- external feedback- feedback from other people o Commenting on facial expressions vs. hand gestures • Type of info conveyed- what does behavior tell us? o 4 types of info conveyed § 1. idiosyncratic: usage and meaning is peculiar to the individual. Hard decode unless you know the person really well- mannerisms § 2. informative: shared encoding and decoding- all agree what they mean. Traffic police- ‘stop’ hand signal, reff- touchdown § 3. Communicative: enacted with clear conscious intention to convey a message- specific intention § 4. Interactive: influence or modify another person’s behavior- invading space= step back. Reciprocated touching in a relationship § **Can be overlaps in these 4 types Origins/Sources of Behavior • Innate neurological mechanisms- born to engage in nonverbal behavior- smile, flinch, • Species constant experiences- response to environment- posture, eat with hands, • Learning and socialization- taught behaviors/symbols- ‘okay’ hand signal Coding of nv behavior • Arbitrary: no intrinsic meaning in behavior; meaning happens by convention • Iconic/metaphoric: preserve SOME aspects of the referent, do not need verbal to be understood- ‘call me’ hand signal, symbolizing hand gun • Intrinsic: the act IS a case of the thing that it is signifying- behavior is case of what it represents 5 categories of NV behavior • 1. emblems- function like words- shaking head= no, ‘stop’ ‘touchdown’ • 2. illustrators- illustrate verbal behavior- hand gestures to show size o words and gestures go hand in hand- need both • 3. adaptors- use to manage our arousal- excited or bored • 4. regulators- manage flow of conversation between people • 5. emotions displays- function to convey emotions Relationship between verbal and nv behavior • Substitute- street cop= use ‘stop’ hand gesture instead of saying it • Compliment- angry face, raised voice, and shaking hand o More intense meaning- whole package • Accent- drawing attention to particular part of message- emphasize/stress certain words- one part • Regulate- 1/21 Gesture • Revival of interest in gesture stems from: o Speculation about origins of language for gestural origin of language Gesture- a movement of the body or any part of body that is considered to be expressive of thought or feeling • Different form practical action- handing someone a pencil, picking up keys- action that serves a particular goal that does not serve communicative purpose Types of gestures: • Emblems- nv behaviors that replace words- defined in 1-2 words, substitute speech, meaning on their own. Nodding head, waving goodbye • Illustrators- gestures ties to language, do NOT replace language. Create visual image of message that allows message to have meaning. “I would like a xmas tree this big” while showing height with hand • Regulators- group of nv gestures to manage flow of conversations. • Adaptors- Behaviors that manage human arousal- under/over= bored/excited o Self-adaptors: contact with self o Object-adaptors: contact with objects 2 Groups of Gestures • object focused gestures (illustrators)= expressivity, outgoing o positive state of mind • body-focus gestures (self-adaptors)= discomfort, nervousness Development of Gesture • Chimps show preference for gesturing with right hand while vocalizing.. humans do too. Left brain controls language and gesture use. • Chimps intentionally alter use of gesture to match attention focus of human partners • Children’s capacity to gesture expands in conjunction with capacity for language use • Parents produce gesture simultaneous with speech when interacting with their infants, encouraging them to decode both simultaneously • 12-18 months: kids show intensive development of gesture decoding skills. Particularly response to pointing Aphasia and Gesture • Broca’s Aphasia severe impairment of speech output o Also interrupts orchestration of gesture • Wernicke’s Aphasia: severe disruption of speech comprehension o Gesture lacks intelligible semantic content Social Aspects of Gesture • People seem to have strong desire to use gesture o Talking on cell phone in car and using gestures even though no one is watching • Gestures aid in communication o They contribute to the redundancy of the uttered message o They enable listener comprehension and speech production of the sender- more fluent and understandable Gestures Aid Listener’s Comprehension • Meta-analysis of 63 studies • Comprehension of speech with vs. without gesture • Average effect size for comprehension of speech with vs. without gesture was d=.61 (medium sized effect) • Effects strongest when: o Gestures depicted motor actions vs. abstract concepts o Are not completely redundant with speech o The listeners are children 1/26 Why do we use gesture? • When comm is difficult or impossible (inside a burning house- firefighter needs to communicate with others) • To substitute for speech when speech might be regarded as too explicit or delicate- gestures are rarely challenged • When the spoken utterance, taken by itself, is incomplete o “I need this group over here to move over there” (while pointing) *wouldn't make sense w/o pointing motion • to add an additional component to the utterance that is not represented by the words Speech and gesture • body movements tend to bunch up at the beginning of phonetic clauses- basic elements of speech • there are fewer body movements during fluent phonetic clauses • there are more body movements during dysfluent clauses • body movements occur at the beginning of clauses • gestures that occur at the beginning of clausess often carry info about the word choices Illustrators and Conditions • Face to face(illustrators increase) • Complicated(increase) • Familiar(decrease) Illustrators in face to face comm • Subjects described drawing of a skirt face to face or over the telephone o Face to face mostly gestures o Over phone- still uses gestures “It looks like a table” Gesture and Recall • 6-7 year old children • pirate game • interviewed 14-17 days later • some allowed to gesture, some instructed to gesture (“use your hands and body”), others could NOT gesture (“memory apron”- tells the kids it will help them remember) • children instructed to gesture provided more correction information than other 2 conditions • no gesture= least information • gesture reduces processing demands • offloading allows for more allocation to retrieval Grounding thoughts in Action • Tower of Hanoi task • Then described how they solved the problem • Researchers switched smallest disk so that it was too heavy to lift with one hand • Task performed again • The more the switch group’s gestured depicted moving the smallest disk one-handed, the worse they performed • When gestures are no longer compatible with the action constraints of task, problem solving suffers Gesture and Word Retrieval • Degraded images (airplane, microwave) • When viewing them, subjects make gestures that are congruent with the image (flat hand with airplane) • Or incongruent with the image (clenched fist with airplane) 1/28 Gesture and Computational Task Performance • Kids 7-10 yrs watched video taped math lessons • Speech only • Speech + gesture (sweeping motion one side of problem to other) • Kids did better with speech + gesture Decoding gestures • Emblems: very well shared; agreement between encoders and decoders • Illustrators: degree to which there is shared meaning is unclear (the more iconic they are the easier they are to understand) • Adaptors: the most difficult to decode; interpretation is probably idiosyncratic Interactive aspects of gesture • Interactive phenomena- behavior of one person has a reliable impact on another- when you make a stop sign with your hand and someone actually stops o Postural congruence- mimicking each other (subconsciously)(sitting on a park bench, each person has arm on bench with hand on face, babies, primates) Interactive Aspects of gesture and Body Movement • Postural congruence • Synchrony • Sensitivity to behavioral mimicry- sitting in movie theater and backing up during violent scene • Greater mimicry of in-groups (vs. outgroup) and liked (vs. disliked) actors o Mirror neurons-brain cells that respond equally when performing vs. Observing same action (eating pizza yourself vs. watching someone else eat pizza- neurons act the same) o First discovered in Monkeys- Neurons in brains of monkeys who grabbed object vs. observed another grabbing same object o Human documentation o Experience of disgust vs, observation of disgust o Touch on upper leg vs. observation of touch to upper leg o Empathy: “experience” through observation The Nature of Language • Simplify the original material- “dog” could mean Retriever, Chihuahua… “Home” could mean big house, small house, apartment, sorority house… • Organize so that relationship among elements is clear- syntax- set of rules on how to organize items. Ex: adverb before noun • Restructure the whole for easy transmission American Sign Language • 12 basic hand positions • 19 configurations • 24 movements • involves a lot of facial animation • loose syntax (organization) Indian Sign Language • 18 hand configurations • 24 movements • no facial expression • very loose syntax Discrete Behavior– more language like quality • Emblems • Kinesic markers • Eye contact • Smile • Nod • Head shake • Arms akimbo (arms on hips) • Leg position (open/closed) Continuous Behavior- less language like • Gesture that accompanies speech • Posture shifting • Forward/backward lean • Body orientation • Adaptors 2/2 Gaze Gaze is… • Salient- stands out • Arousing • Involving- draws us into social interactions Functions of Gaze • Primary: regulate information input o Let people know we are receptive, or not • Attraction • Dominance (ex: sports) Behavioral Terminology • Gaze or faced-directed gaze- looking at face (where on face is not certain) • Gaze aversion- look away “I’m busy” “Can’t talk right now” • Mutual gaze- both people engaging in face-directed gaze at same time- actually rare in conversation The Range of Human Gaze • Total gaze during conversation: 18-70% • Looking while speaking: 20-65% • Looking while listening: 30-80% • Mutual gaze: 10-30% Individual Differences • Sex o Female>Male o Even in infants o Female visual monitoring effect • Age o Young & old> middle aged • Personality Traits Associated with Gaze o 1. Extroversion (gaze more)/introversion (gaze less) o 2. Self-monitoring- consciously change behavior to best fit into social surroundings § High self-monitor engage most in Gazing o 3. Social anxiety § High anxiety=little gaze § Social Anxiety and Gaze Aversion ú Participants viewed video clips ú 13 involved positive feedback ú 13 involved negative social feedback ú computerized eye tracking system on computer ú people with social anxiety disorder exhibited greater global gaze avoidance in response to both positive and negative video clips, compared to controls- don’t want any kind of spotlight on them o 4. Dominance § More dominant people use gaze more freely Speaker and Listener Roles • %LL > %LS • LL= looking while listening • LS= looking while speaking • Norm of attention- most societies, when someone is talking to us, we feel like we need to show them we are paying attention, its polite/respectful • Look away at beginning of speaking turn- planning • Look toward at end of turn Using gaze to manage cognitive load • Abstract shapes described to children and adults • Children made more correct responses when they looked at the floor while listening to the description • Adults performed equally well when looking at the floor or face of speaker during description • Looking at another’s face increases cognitive load • We manage this by looking away during mentally challenging tasks Breed and Colaiuta (1974) • Sampled the visual attentiveness of college students in social psychology lectures • Samples were 20 sec per class for 15 class sessions • Those who received the highest midterm and final scores spent more time looking at the instructor and less time :looking around” than those who performed poorly 2/4 looking away infers that you are anxious credible people make more eye contact Gaze and Perceptions of Attractiveness • Ss viewed 40 pics of unfamiliar models • Brain activity monitored with functional magnetic resonance imaging • Gaze directed at Ss: brain activity in ventral striatum (=) correlated with perceptions of attractiveness • Gaze directed away from the Ss: brain activity in brain (-) correlated with perceptions of attractiveness • Ventral striatum associated with reward prediction • This region is activated when deciding gaze Attractiveness and Perceptions of Gaze • Participants viewed attractive and unattractive faces that gazed or averted gaze • Participants judged whether the face was gazing at them • Attractive faces increased participants’ tendency to perceive eye contact • Self-referential positivity bias- you want attractive people to look at you • Facial context influences decoding of gaze Preference for Gazing Faces • Participants viewed photos of gazing or non-gazing faces • They had a preference for that faces that were gazing at them Processing of Gaze and Emotion • Ss watched video taped actors looking at or away • Asked if actors looked friendly or hostile • PET scans while watching clips Decoding Gaze and Emotion o The brain activates specific regions in response to direct gaze and perception of emotion o Gaze makes others’ emotions salient o Activity in amygdala and prefrontal cortex (emotion) o Similar brain regions for decoding gaze and emotion Sex Differences in Gaze Decoding 1979 • Students participated in a series of 12 minute interviews • Females felt more observed than males • Feeling observed was unrelated to the confederate’s level of gaze Sex Differences in Gaze Decoding 2004 • female students lead to believe that they would soon be interacting with male, female, or no one • then completed questionnaires • those who anticipated gaze form a male reported greater body shame and social physique anxiety (gaze never actually happened) • self-objectification- I begin to see myself as an object when I think that others are going to be looking at me Sex Differences in Gaze Decoding 2011 • objectifying gaze (brief gaze at chest) from opposite sex confederate • followed by math performance test and desire for suture interaction measure • objectifying gaze caused decrements in women’s math performance but not men’s • objectifying gaze increased women’s, but not men’s motivation for subsequent interactions with their partner Interactive aspects of gaze • (= or +): increased gaze -> increased gaze (reciprocal response) • (-): increased gaze -> decreased gaze (compensatory response) • being observed -> increased arousal Developmental Aspects of Gaze • Non-human Primates: gaze = threat • Infants: look more at adults with eyes open vs. closed- WAY more gaze when eyes are open o Look more at adult with headband vs. blindfold – Headband = WAY more gaze o Infants recoding interacting with gazing mother or father § When infants displayed a vocalization in combo with a smile, they also gazed at parents 80% of time § Infants use combo of vocals, positive facial expressions and gaze § Gaze at parents directs the expression of the emotion § Infants gaze more at mom than dad • Children: o Gaze in Autistic Children- believed hat gaze aversion in autistic kids reflects attempt to reduce external stimulation, due to already high levels of arousal o They observed 8 male autistic kids playing o They were almost always solitary rather than interacting with others o Put 5 drawings on wall, autistic kids spend less time looking at human face and more time looking at inanimate faces, non-autistic kids are opposite • Gaze in kids with Autism Spectrum Disorder o Children with ASD look significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter o Kids with ASD look downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral fields Adults • Initiating and Avoiding Interaction o Eye contact is a prerequisite to starting convo in a live setting o Termination of gaze signals the end of convo o Why? – Eye contact primes the brain to process language • People laid in MRI scanner • Had convo with partner thru screen • Look, look (mutual gaze) • Look, not look (participant looks, partner doesn't) • Not look, look • Look picture (saw still photo of partner • Look yourself (saw self in mirror) o Parts of brain used to process language and make inferences of partners intentions are same parts activated by mutual gaze Emotion and Gaze • Decrease with sadness, depression, sorrow • Decrease with anxiety (esp. social) o People with social phobia gaze less at partner than those with general anxiety or normal controls • Decrease with embarrassment (allows for disengagement) Lying and Credibility • Instructing people to lie causes no change or increased gaze • Videotapes of criminal suspects • Had corroborating info (info to prove) • When lying, 55% shoed more gaze aversion • 44% showed less gaze aversion – stepped up their gaze • *gaze is not a reliable indicator of deception Lying and Credibility • Lairs displayed more deliberate eye contact than truth tellers • Gaze aversion did not differ between truth tellers and liars • Liars are more inclined than truth tellers to report that they had displayed deliberate eye contact to convince the interviewer and to check whether the interviewer believed them 2/9 *Last material on Gaze* Relationship Qualities • Intimacy= more gaze • Rubin (2970) romantic love scale=more mutual gaze • Couples who engage in more mutual gaze perceived as liking each other more Cultural Differences • Arabs> Americans on gaze • Contact cultures(Italy, Morocco, Costa Rica, Thailand, etc)=more gaze (vs. United States, Russia, Finland) • Blacks gaze more while talking, less while listening compared to whites • LIMITATION: research based on Black-black conversations Clothing • Uniquely human • Clothing: any artifactual addition to the body that changes its appearance • First nonverbal cue to be noticed • A nonverbal comm system nd • 1 of 2 nonverbal behaviors regulated by law (2 is touch) Vicary 1989 • “clothing on the moving body becomes a sign and symbol of a comm system as complex and precise as most verbal languages” Components of Clothing • Garments- dress, costume, apparel, headwear, footwear, underwear • Ornaments (artifacts)- badges, tattoos, masks, jewelry, chains, straps, buttons, buckles, ribbons, lace, fur • Cosmetics- paints, powders, oils, perfume, makeup • Devices- wigs, corsets, braces, padding, dentures • Treatments- hair dying, tattoos, curling, dyes • Equipment- eyeglasses, watches, ice skates, pocket watch, pipes, backpacks, gloves, crutches • Tools- knives, combs, mirrors, scissors, pens, toothpicks Functions of Clothing • Decoration • Protection (physical and psychological) • Sexual attraction and availability • Self-assertion • Self-denial • concealment • group identification • status or role Encoding • Artifacts- jewelry as emblematic comm (wedding ring), tattoo emblems (cross, teardrop), badge emblem (police badge) Clothing Style and Self Description • Police line-up study • Suspect described as well-dressed or casually dresses • Self-description inventory • Well-dressed participants: neat, cultivated, accurate, restrained, strategic • Casual-dresses participants, easygoing, clumsy, tolerant, emotional, nonchalant Effects of Business Attire on the Wearer • Survey of Business Professionals • Felt most competent and authoritative when wearing formal business or business casual • More trustworthy and productive when wearing business casual • Least friendly and creative when wearing formal business attire Formal Clothing Enhances cognitive processing • When university students wore more formal clothing they performed better at abstract processing tasks • Clothing formality may actually improve people’s cognitive processing capacity Group membership • The wearer is similar to other people who wear such clothes Status • Conspicuous consumption-> social status • Clothes indicate affluence, nut only for certain groups o Kardashians vs. Steve Jobs • Working class students use brand name clothes to suggest economic capital • Upper class students distance themselves from this use of clothing- don't want to show off “aesthetic distance” 2/11 Clothing and Apparel (Con’t) Decoding Impression formation • grammar school girls judged photos o snobbish o fun-loving o shy o gay o intelligent o anxious Teacher attributes and clothing (Butler and Roessel) • long sleeve casual shirt, jeans, tennis shoes • long sleeve crew neck sweater with white shirt, grey dress pants, plain shoes • long sleeve shirt, sleeves rolled up, striped tie, dress pants, plain shoes • shirt with small print tie, navy sport coat, grey pants, dress shoes • students were asked what they thought about each teacher based on these different styles of dress o Jeans: could discuss problems with; fun in the classroom; given least respect; does not know anything o Sweater: neutral; little response, didn’t leave a bold impression o Shirt and tie: looks like a teacher, knows subject matter, graded fairly, approachable o Sport coat: knows subject matter; no sense of humor; doesn’t listen to opinions; too much homework; would embarrass students; would prefer not to have Replication: Sebastian et al. • Business professors • Formal dress led to greater attributions of expertise than did causal dress • Formal dress led to lower feelings of likeability than did casual dress Tipping Bartenders (karagiorgakis and Malone) • Female bartender, 4 outfits (with = proportion of M & F patrons in all conditions) • Little: black tank top and black form fitting shorts • Medium: black V-neck t-shirt and black form fitting capris • Full condition: black long sleeve shirt and black pants • Regular uniform: black V-neck t-shirt with blue jeans o Tipping highest when bartender wore “little” outfit but only when patrons paid in cash Clothing and Interactive Phenomena • Walk against traffic signal • Dress: high status (suit)/ low status (soiled and patched pants, denim shirt) • More pedestrians followed high status model against traffic signal Tattoos and Piercings • Encoding o Traits of people who get tattooed (Silver et al.) § Weaker social bonds to parent, school, religion § Victimized in the past § Negative self-appraisal (low self-esteem, depression, suicidal thoughts) § More involved in alcohol, marijuana, and delinquency § Less conscientious § More extraverted § High sensation seekers § More accepting of sex without commitment o What do tattoos mean to the wearer? § 18-38-year-old women with tattoos § major themes: ú connection to self ú life events ú relationships ú spirituality § obtaining tattoos resulted in a change in how participants viewed themselves and caused some behavioral changes o motivations for tattoos and body piercings § historically: ú a symbol of an important past evet, love, or friendship group membership ú a marker of individuality § more recently: ú “human canvas” hypothesis • the idea of people seeing their skin as a canvas to be decorated ú “upping the ante” hypothesis • trying to out do the other people who are tattooed or pierced • how far can I take this (how extreme) Decoding • Impressions of women with tattoos (Swami and Funrham) o university students rated tattooed women as: § less physically attractive § more sexually promiscuous ú heavier drinkers (cf. Gueguen) o line drawings of a model with 0-3 visible tattoos Gender Issues and Clothing • across all species of animals we studied the male is more brilliant in appearance and women are more dull • with humans it’s the opposite • more and more women wear the clothing style of men in business and corporate positions o have to adapt to the uniform of men o it’s seen as a sign of success (suite/men’s style) 2/16/16 Paralanguage- How you utter words Functions of Paralanguage • Regulate the flow of conversation • Emotional states • Cognition- planning utterances, thinking • Speaker characteristics- talking to a man vs. woman/ old vs. young(pitch) • Information “George hit Sam and then Bill hit him” • Impressions Behavioral Terminology in Paralanguage • Qualities: vary from speaker to speaker (articulation, resonance, thinness) • Vocalizations: characteristics that are modified by all speakers (loudness, fundamental frequency~pitch, stress) o Light house keeper • Temporal Characteristics: aspects of speech that are a function of time (speech rate, pause duration, response latency) o Pauses § Phone pause: duration of < 250 ms (1/4 sec) § Silent pause: duration > 250 ms § Filled pause (umm, ahh): duration > 250 ms Personality and Paralanguage • Extraversion- fluent speech, talk faster than introverts, louder, fewer pauses • Introversion- disfluent speech, quiet speech, lots of pauses • Dominance- a lot like extroverts, stress, articulation, power • Type “A” behavior- like to be in control, have things their way, get stuff done in short amount of time, impatient, filled pauses(want to hold the floor) Studying Emotional Qualities of the Voice (content free) • Read a standard passage (while in emotional state) • Random splicing- mixing up order of tape recording- content lost but pitch and volume preserved • Electronic content filtering • Synthesize voices (or vocal characteristics) play tones and guess emotional state Anxiety and Vocal Behavior • ^ non-ah speech disturbance ration (unfilled pauses, hesitancies, repetitions, false starts: fluent speech) • ^ speech disturbance ratio (SDR) repetition, sentence incompletion or reconstruction, omission, tongue slips, stutter, “ahs”: fluent speech • ^ response latency • ^ speech rate • negative effect of arousal on performance Fundamental Frequency Is a behavioral marker or social anxiety disorder in Men • Men with SAD spoke with higher pitch during diagnostic interviews than controls • The higher their pitch (FF) the greater the anxiety symptoms • There is a threshold FF value that clearly differentiates men with and without SAD Cognitive state and vocal bahvior • Speech production is very cognitively demanding • Decision making -> speech hesitation • Hesitations cluster at the beginning of clauses • 1968 abstract nouns -> longer response latency, more silent pauses, filled pauses than describing concrete noun • ambiguous interviewer probes (tell me about your family) -> more filled and silent pauses then specific interviewer probes (what kind of work do you do) • alcohol increases silent pauses and hesitations • speech arrors (insertions, repetitions, fillers, toungue slips) increase with alcohol consumption • 90% of utterances are 10 words or less; 33% are 3 words or less 2/18 Cognitive load: Pauses in speech= planning Sex differences and paralanguage • The easiest individual difference to identify from the voice • Fundamental frequency (ff) ~ pitch (larynx, vocal chords) o Men=lower o Women= higher Detecting Speaker Sex in Preadolescents (FF same in girls and boys) • 26 kids- 4-14 yrs. 14 read a standard passage • judges correctly guessed their sex 81% of time • there was no anatomical basis, yet, for the difference in male and female voice • boys appear to pronounce formant vowels at lower frequency than girls • a learned behavior?? Decoding Decoding Speaker Qualities • SS listen to speakers reading a standard sentence • They had to guess from 2 photos who the speaker was • They guessed 76.5% correctly • Then listened to voices and guessed age, height, weight • People who had photos did no better than those in the voice only condition • Slower speech rate= perception of older age Faster people talk, more expertise Amount of talk • Positively correlated with perceptions of: o Leadership o Control o Power o status Decoding Pitch • Made tapes of males answering inter view questions • Varied pitch by+ 20% (high) or -20% (low) • High pitched males were judges as less truthful, less empathetic, more nervous than low pitched males Attractive Voices • Student judges listened to 110, 30-sec segments of people reading a standard passage • Voices were rated on attractive-unattractive scale • Results: most attractive voices were… o Loudness range o Lack of monotone o Resonance (smooth, strong) o Lack of nasality o Good articulation Attractive voice=attractive face • Male judges (17-30 yrs) listened to female voices pronouncing vowel sounds and rated their attractiveness • Then rated attractiveness of photos • Those with attractive voices were also rated as having attractive faces • Low BMI = more attractive voice • Higher FF= more attractive voice (sound younger?) Recognizing a maternal voice • children born with ability to recognize and discriminate mother’s voice • tape recordings of mothers voice played • SS were 38.4 weeks Gestational Age (average) • Tapes of mothers voice played= increased fetal heart rate (FHR) • Tapes of strangers voice played= decreased FHR Filled Pauses and Recall • Subjects listened to spoken passage with either filled pauses, nonlinguistic interruptions, or fluent speech • Subjects recalled the content of the story best when they were filled pauses • Filled pauses may direct attention to the speech steam and this aids in recall Interactive Aspects • Accents match dialogue- after talking to someone for a while Interactive- Interruptions • Success depends on: o difference in loudness btw speakers, o how much loudness increases form normal level of dialogue o Interruption leads to interruption- you interrupt me, I interrupt you Tempo: you speed up, I speed up and visa versa Loudness: you speak loud, I speak loud Duration: long questions produce long answers. Short questions=short answers 2/19/16 8:10 PM 2/19/16 8:10 PM
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