Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide BIOL 1040
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by kqmorgan on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Tamera Wales in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapters 4-6 Review Chapter 4 Macronutrients: Nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, that organisms must ingest in large amounts to maintain health Macronutrient Subunit Carbohydrates Simple Sugars Proteins Amino Acids Fats Fatty Acids and Glycerol Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Foods Rich in Foods Rich in Foods Rich in Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Fruits and Vegetables Meats Meats Grains Dairy Dairy Legumes Legumes Oils Micronutrients: Nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health Vitamin: An organic molecule required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance Mineral: An inorganic chemical element required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance; examples are calcium, iron, potassium, and zinc Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients, needed in small amounts, and serving as cofactors and coenzymes. Metabolism: All biochemical reactions occurring in an organism, including reactions that break down food molecules and reactions that build new cell structures Catabolic Reaction: Any chemical reaction that breaks down complex molecules into simpler molecules Anabolic Reaction: Any chemical reaction that combines simple molecules to build up more- complex molecules Enzyme: A protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction; They catalyze reactions by lowering activation energy Substrate: A molecule to which an enzyme binds and on which it acts Active Site: The part of an enzyme that binds to substrates Activation Energy: The energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed. Enzymes accelerate reactions by reducing their activation energy Cofactor: An inorganic substance, such as a metal ion, required to activate an enzyme Coenzyme: A small organic molecule, such as a vitamin, required to activate an enzyme Factors of Enzyme Activity: o pH o Temperature Chapter 5 Energy: The capacity to do work. Cellular energy includes processes such as building complex molecules and moving substances into and out of the cell Conservation of Energy: The principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to another Potential Energy: Stored energy (Found in food) Kinetic Energy: The energy of motion or movement (Found in Light) Renewable Energy Sources (9% of Energy): o Water (Hydroelectric) o Biomass Waste and Wood o Biofuels o Wind o Heat (Geothermal) o Sun (Solar) Non-Renewable Energy Sources (91% of Energy): o Petroleum o Natural Gas o Coal o Nuclear Electric Power Biofuels: Renewable fuels made from living organisms (e.g., plants and algae) Fossil Fuels: Carbon-rich energy sources, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which are formed from the compressed, fossilized remains of once-living organisms Autotrophs Heterotrophs Get energy from sunlight Get energy by eating organic molecules (obtained through photosynt(produced by other organisms) Ex. Plants, Algae, BacteriaEx. Humans and Other Animals Photosynthesis: The process by which plants and other autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy-rich molecules using carbon dioxide and water Photosynthesis Reactants Products Light+ H O+2CO = Suga2+ O 2 Light Reaction Carbon Reaction (synthesis) (photo) Makes Makes Makes ATP the the *Used in Oxygen Carbon Sugar Reaction *In the light reaction, both Oxygen and ATP ar2 made2 ATP then reacts with H O and CO to make sugar. Light2 H O= AT2; CO + ATP= Sugar 1. Light Reactions: Chlorophyll pigments with internal chloroplast membranes absorb photons. Chlorophyll electrons (e-) become excited and enter a series if reactions that generate an energy-carrying molecule called ATP. 2. Carbon “Synthesis” Reactions: Energy from the breakdown of ATP used in the carbon reactions to fix carbon dioxide into organic sugar molecules, a form of stored chemical energy. Photons: Packets of light energy, each with a specific wavelength and quantity of energy Red and Blue wavelengths are used in photosynthesis (Green is in the middle, so that is what the plant reflects) Chloroplast: The organelle in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs Chlorophyll: The pigment present in the green parts of plants that absorbs photons of light energy during the “photo” reactions of photosynthesis Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): The molecule that cells use to power energy-requiring functions See above infographic or light and carbon reaction definitions for ATP generation. Carbon Fixation: The conversion of inorganic carbons (e.g., CO )2into organic forms (e.g., sugars) Chapter 6 calorie (lower case c): The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1° C. Calorie (upper case C): 1,000 calories or 1 kilocalorie (kcal); the capital “C” in Calorie indicates “kilocalorie.” The Calorie is the common unit of energy used in food nutrition labels Macronutrient Calories per Gram Fats 9 Proteins 4 Carbohydrates 4 When we eat Calories beyond what our bodies require, the extra energy is stored as: o Glycogen in muscle in liver cells o Triglycerides in fat cells Glycogen: A complex animal carbohydrate, made up of linked chains of glucose molecules, that stores energy for short-term use Triglycerides: A type of lipid found in fat cells that stores excess energy for long-term use Unsaturated Fat: A plant fat, such as olive oil; unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature Saturated Fat: An animal fat, such as butter; Saturated fats are solid at room temperature Trans Fat: A type of vegetable fat that has been hydrogenated, that is, hydrogen atoms have been added, making it solid at room temperature Unsaturated Saturated Trans Fat Fat Fat From From From Plant Fat Animal Fat Vegetable Fat Liquid at Room Solid at Room Solid at Room Temperature Temperature Temperature Hydrogen atoms Ex. Olive Oil Ex. Butter are added Aerobic Respiration: A series of reactions that occurs in the presence of oxygen and converts energy stored in food into ATP Aerobic (“In the presence of Oxygen”) vs. Anaerobic (Lacking Oxygen) Cellular Respiration Reactants Products Sugar+ O = AT2+H O+CO 2 2 Gloycolysis Electron Citric Acid Happens in Transport Cycle Cytoplasm Happens in Happens in Makes 2 ATP Miochondria Mitochondria Makes 32 ATP Makes 2 ATP Makes Water Makes and CO 2 MANY (Uses electrons but does not generate them) Electrons For Anaerobic Process: 1. Glycolysis (makes 2 ATP) 2. Fermentation (makes no ATP- either lactic acid or alcohol) Aerobic Respiration Processes: 1. Glycolysis: Breaks down food molecules (glucose) into smaller molecules in the cell’s cytoplasm, which enter the cell’s mitochondria. Converts some energy into ATP molecules (2). 2. Citric Acid Cycle: High-energy electrons are separated from Carbon and Hydrogen bonds, then sent to the inner membrane of the mitochondria by NADH molecules. ATP molecules are made (2). 3. Electron Transport: High-energy electrons are passed from NADH down a chain of molecules in the mitochondrial membrane, powering a series of reactions that form ATP molecules (32). Fermentation: A series of chemical reactions that takes place in the absence of oxygen and converts some of the energy stored in food into ATP. Fermentation produces far less ATP than does aerobic respiration *Most definitions are taken directly from the textbook. Though I compiled the study guide, the information used to make it is the work of Michele Shuster, Janet Vigna, Matthew Tontonoz, and Gunjan Sinha. Textbook: Scientific American Biology for a Changing World with Core Physiology 2nd Edition by Michele Shuster, Janet Vigna, Matthew Tontonoz, and Gunjan Sinha.
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