HA & P Lecture Studyguide
HA & P Lecture Studyguide Bio 2010
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Organs and Organ Functions 1. Integumentary: A. Skin B. Hair C. Sweat Glands D. Nails E. Function: protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temperature, and provides sensory information 2. Skeletal A. Bones B. Cartilage C. Associated ligaments D. Bone marrow E. Function: provides support and protection from other tissues, stores calcium and other materials, and forms blood cells 3. Muscular A. Skeletal muscles and associated tendons B. Function: provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, and generates heat that maintains body temperature 4. Nervous A. Brain B. Spinal Cord C. Peripheral nerves D. Sense organs E. Function: directs immediate responses to stimuli, coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems, provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions 5. Endocrine A. Pituitary gland B. Thyroid gland C. Pancreas D. Adrenal glands E. Gonads F. Endocrine tissues in other systems G. Function: directs long term changes in the activity of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy used by the body, and controls many structural and functional changes during development 6. Cardiovascular A. Heart B. Blood C. Blood vessels D. Function: distributes blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, and distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature 7. Lymphatic A. Spleen B. Thymus C. Lymphatic vessels D. Lymph nodes E. Tonsils F. Function: Defends against infection and disease, returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream 8. Respiratory A. Nasal cavity B. Sinuses C. Larynx D. Trachea E. Bronchi F. Lungs G. Alveoli H. Function: delivers air to alveoli(sites to where gas exchange in the lungs occurs), provides oxygen to the bloodstream, removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream, and produces sounds for communication 9. Digestive A. Teeth B. Tongue C. Pharynx D. Esophagus E. Stomach F. Small intestine G. Large intestine H. Live I. Gallbladder J. Pancreas K. Functions: processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients, and stores energy reserves 10.Urinary A. Kidneys B. Ureters C. Urinary bladder D. Urethra E. Functions: excretes waste products from the blood, controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced, stores urine prior to voluntary elimination, and regulates blood ion concentrations and pH 11.Male Reproductive A. Testes B. Epididymides C. Ductus deferentia D. Seminal vesicles E. Prostate gland F. Penis G. Scrotum H. Function: produces male sex cells(sperm), seminal fluids, and hormones, and sexual intercourse 12.Female Reproductive A. Ovaries B. Uterine tubes C. Uterus D. Vagina E. Labia F. Clitoris G. Mammary glands H. Function: produces female sex cells)oocyte) and hormones, supports developing embryo from conception to delivery, provides milk to nourish newborn infant, and sexual intercourse Planes 1. Midsagittal: separates right and left into equal portions, passes through the midline 2. Sagittal: separates right and left portions 3. Transverse: or cross plane, separates inferior and superior portions of the body (lower half and upper half) 4. Frontal: or coronal plane, separates anterior and posterior portions of the body Directional Terms 1. Anterior or Ventral: the front surface 2. Caudal: toward the tail 3. Cranial or Cephalic: toward the head 4. Deep: toward the interior of the body, farther from the surface 5. Distal: away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk 6. Lateral: away from the midline 7. Medial: toward the midline 8. Posterior or Dorsal: the back surface 9. Proximal: toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk Anterior Landmarks 1. Abdominal: anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs 2. Acromial: point of the shoulder 3. Antebrachial: forearm 4. Antecubital: anterior surface of the elbow 5. Axillary: armpit 6. Brachial: arm 7. Buccal: cheek 8. Carpal: wrist 9. Cephalic: head 10. Cervical: neck 11. Coxal: Hip 12. Crural: leg 13. Digital: fingers or toes 14. Femoral: thigh 15. Fibular (peroneal): side of leg 16. Frontal: forehead 17. Hallux: Big toe 18. Inguinal: groin area 19. Mammary: breast region 20. Manus: hand 21. Mental: chin 22. Nasal: chin 23. Oral: mouth 24. Orbital: eye socket 25. Palmar: palm of hand 26. Patellar: kneecap 27. Pedal: foot 28. Pelvic: pelvis region 29. Pollex: thumb Posterior Landmarks 1. Acromial: point of shoulder 2. Brachial: arm 3. Calcaneal: heel of foot 4. Cephalic: head 5. Dorsum: back 6. Femoral: thigh 7. Gluteal: buttocks or rump 8. Lumbar: area of back between the ribs and hips 9. Manus: hand 10. Occipital: back of skull 11. Olecranal: posterior aspect of elbow 12. Otic: ear 13. Pedal: foot 14. Perineal: region between the anus and external genitalia 15. Plantar: sole of foot 16. Popliteal: back of the knee 17. Sacral: region between the hips 18. Scapular: scapula or shoulder blade 19. Sural: calf 20. Vertebral: area of the spinal column Positive vs. Negative Feedback Systems 1. Negative Feedback: a corrective mechanism that opposes or negates a variation from normal limits (control of body temperature) 2. Positive Feedback: a mechanism that increases a deviation from normal limits after an initial stimulus (blood clotting) Fill in the blank/ short essay question/ drawings 1. Adrenal gland: a small endocrine gland that secretes steroids and cataholamines and is located superior to each kidney A. Adrenal Cortex: the superficial region of the adrenal gland that produces steroid hormone; also called the suprarenal gland B. Adrenal Medulla: the core of the adrenal gland; a modified sympathetic ganglion that secretes cataholamines into the blood during sympathetic activation; also called suprarenal medulla 2. Pleura: the serous membrane that lines the pleural (lung) cavities 3. Pericardium: the fibrous sac that surrounds the heart; its inner, serous lining is continuous with the epicardium 4. Peritoneum: the serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity 5. Draw the reflex arch Clinical Note: 1. Adrenal Crisis: 2. Addison’s and Cushing’s disease: a) Addison’s disease: a condition b) Cushing’s disease: Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization Multiple choice questions 1. Neuron: a cell in neural tissue that is specialized for intercellular communication through changes in membrane potential and synaptic connections 2. Electron: a subatomic particle with a negative charge, found in the electron cloud orbiting the nucleus 3. Proton: a subatomic particle with a positive charge, found in the nucleus 4. Isotope: forms of an element whose atoms contain the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons 5. Atomic number: the number of protons in the nucleus 6. Ionic: relating to the occurring form of an ion 7. Covalent: the number of electron pairs an atom can share with other atoms 8. Polar bond: a molecule with a negative charge 9. Nonpolar: no charge 10. Hydrogen bond: a weak interaction between the hydrogen atom on one molecule and a negatively charged portion of another molecule 11. Cations: an ion having a positive chare 12. Anions: an ion having a negative charge Chemical Reactions 1. Decomposition Reactions: breaks a molecule into smaller fragments AB A+B a) Hydrolysis: one of the bonds in a complex molecule is broken, and the components of a water molecule are added to the resulting fragments A-B+ water A-H+HO-B b) Catabolism: the decomposition of complex molecules within the body’s cells and tissues 2. Synthesis Reactions: opposite of decomposition, assembles smaller molecules into larger molecules A+B AB a) dehydration synthesis: or condensation reaction, is the formation of a complex molecule by the removal of a water molecule A-H+HO A-B+water b) anabolism: the synthesis of new molecules within the body’s cells and tissues 3. Exchange Reactions: parts of reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new products AB+CD = AD+CB 4. Reversible Reactions: in theory chemical reactions are reversible A+B AB or AB A+B pH Scale 1. pH 7= neutral, contains equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions 2. pH below 7= acidic, contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions 3. pH above 7= basic, or alkaline, contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions Elements of the Human Body 1. Oxygen: O, gaseous form is essential for respiration 2. Carbon: C, found in all organic molecules 3. Hydrogen: H, a component of water and most other compounds in the body 4. Nitrogen: N, found in proteins, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds 5. Calcium: C, found in bones and teeth, important for membrane function, nerve impulses, muscle contraction and blood clotting 6. Phosphorus: P, found in bones and teeth, nucleic acids, and high- energy compounds 7. Potassium: K, important for proper membrane function, nerve impulses, and muscle contraction 8. Sodium: Na, important for blood volume, membrane function, nerve impulses, and muscle contraction 9. Chlorine: Cl, important in blood volume, membrane function, and water absorption 10. Magnesium: Mg, a cofactor for many enzymes 11. Sulfur: S, found in many proteins 12. Iron: Fe, essential for oxygen transport and energy capture 13. Iodine: I, a component of hormones of the thyroid gland 14: Trace elements: Silicon(Si), Fluorine(F), Copper(Cu), Manganese(Mn), Zinc(Zn), Selenium(Se), Cobalt(Co), Molybdenum(Mo), Cadmium(Cd), Chromium(Cr), Tin(Sn), Aluminum(Al), Boron(B), and Vanadium(V) Carbohydrates 1. An organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio that approximates 1:2:1 2. Includes sugars and starches 3. Are an important source of energy Proteins 1. Are the most abundant organic molecule in the human body 2. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen 3. Proteins support, provide movement, transport, buffer, metabolic regulation, coordinate and control, and defend Fatty Acids 1. Are long carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached 2. Have a very limited solubility in water 3. Can be saturated or unsaturated Basic Amino Acid Structure: drawing Define: 1. Metabolism: the sum of all biochemical processes under way within the human body at any moment, includes anabolism and catabolism 2. Anabolism: the synthesis of complex organic compounds from simpler precursors 3. Catabolism: the breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by the release of energy Steroids 1. Cholesterol: a steroid component of plasma membranes and a substrate for the synthesis of steroid hormones and bile salts 2. Estrogen: a class of steroid sex hormones that includes estradiol 3. Testosterone: the main androgen produced by the initial cells of the testes 4. Calcitriol: is a form of vitamin D, treats abnormal hormone levels or low levels of calcium in the blood Clinical Note 1. Cystic Fibrosis: Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization Define Epithelial Tissue: covers the whole surface of the body, is made up of cells closely packed and arranged in one or more layer, it is specialized to cover and line all internal and external body surfaces 1. Simple Squamous: reduces friction, controls vessel permeability, absorbs and secretes, in lung tissue and alveoli 2. Simple Cuboidal: reabsorbs and secretes, in kidney tubules 3. Simple Columnar: absorbs and secretes, in the small intestine and stomach 4. Simple Ciliated Columnar: provides cilia movement, in the fallopian tubes 5. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar: moves foreign materials (cilia), in the trachea and bronchi 6. Stratified Squamous- non- keratinized: provides protection, in wet places like the vagina, mouth, nasal cavity, and esophagus 7. Stratified Squamous- keratinized: provides protection and water proofing, in the epidermis 8. Stratified Cuboidal: provides protection, secretion and absorption, is in the ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands and salivary glands 9. Stratified Columnar: provides protection, in the male urethra and large ducts 10. Transitional: provides distention (stretches and recoils), is in the ureter and urinary bladder Junctions 1. Tight Junctions: closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together, forming a virtually impermeable m=barrier to fluid 2. Adhesion Belt: this junction encircles each of the interacting cells, they provide extra rigidity support to the epithelial cells, and the belt fibers anchor the terminal web to the cell wall and to the neighboring cells 3. Gap Junction: directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells 4. Spot Desmosome: a cell structure that is specialized for cell- to- cell adhesion 5. Hemidesmosome: they attach one cell to the extracellular matrix Glandular Epithelium 1. Endocrine Glands: produces endocrine secretions (hormones) which are released directly into the surrounding interstitial fluid 2. Exocrine Glands: produces exocrine secretions which are discharged onto the an epithelial surface 3. Modes of Secretion: A. Merocrine Secretion: the product is released from secretory vesicles by exocytosis, most common mode of secretion, in the salivary gland B. Apocrine Secretion: involves the loss of cytoplasm as well as the secretory product, milk production in the mammary glands C. Holocrine Secretion: which destroy the gland cell, the entire cell becomes packed with the secretory vesicles and then burst which releases the secretion, in sebaceous glands which associate with hair follicles D. Types of Secretions: a) Serous Glands: secrete watery solution that contains enzymes, salivary glands b) Mucous Glands: secrete mucins that hydrate to form mucus, the sublingual salivary glands and submucosal glands in the small intestine c) Mixed Exocrine Glands: contain more than one type of gland cell, these glands can produce two different exocrine secretions (one serous and the other mucous), the submandibular glands Connective Tissue: connects the epithelium to the rest of the body 1. Embryonic: Mesenchyme: give rise to all other tissues, only in embryos 2. Areolar: cushions organs, provides support and allows movement, around organs 3. Adipose: it insulates, stores fuel, cushions, supports and protects, is under the skin and around Kidneys 4. Reticular: provides supporting framework, in the Liver, Thymus, Lymph Nodes, Spleen and Bone Marrow 5. Dense Regular: provides firm attachments and stabilizes the positions of bones, in tendons (muscle-bone) and ligaments (bone-bone) 6. Elastic: provides structural strength, in the lower respiratory tract (elasticity, extensibility) and in large arteries like the aorta (tissue recoils) 7. Dense Irregular: it provides strength to resist force from many directions, in the reticular layer of the dermis and fibrous capsules of organs 8. Hyaline Cartilage: most abundant cartilage type, supports and reinforces, is in the rings of trachea, costal cartilage and articular cartilage 9. Elastic Cartilage: is able to maintain shape and is very flexible, is in the ear and epiglottis 10. Fibrocartilage: is the strongest cartilage type, in the intervertebral discs and pubic synthesis 11. Osseous Tissue: it supports, protects, provides levers for muscle movement and stores calcium, in bones 12. Nervous Tissue: transports nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes, in the brain, spinal cord and nerves Muscle Tissue 1. Skeletal Muscle: provides movement and support of the skeletal system and glycogen storage, in all voluntary movements 2. Cardiac Muscle: acts as a functional syncytium, is in the heart, has intercalated discs and branches 3. Smooth Muscles: provides involuntary movement, in the walls of the digestive tract and hollow organs, also in the upper and lower respiratory tract Nervous Tissue: transmits signals 1. Neuron: a cell in neural tissue that is specialized for intercellular communication through changes in membrane potential and synaptic connections 2. Neuroglia: cells of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that support and protect neurons Clinical note 1. Leukemia: 2. Osteoarthritis: is the most common form of arthritis, cause pain, swelling and reduces motion of joints, can occur in any join but usually occurs in hands, knees, hips, or spine. There is no cure, but you can help to reduce the pain by exercising, medication, PT, or joint replacement Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Multiple Choice Questions 1. Integumentary System: protects, excretes, maintains body temperature, poduces melanin and keratin, synthesis of Vitamin D, stores lipids, detects pressure, touch, pain, vibration and temperature, and coordinates the immune response of pathogens and skin cancers Epidermis 1. Stratum Basale: basal layer, contains melanocytes 2. Stratum Spinosum: made of Keratinocytes and dendritic cells 3. Stratum Granulosum 4. Stratum Lucidum: is a clear thick layer only found in thick skin 5. Stratum Corneum: the horny layer, is water resistant Dermis 1. Papillary Layer: is made of Areolar CT, holds small capillaries, lymphocytes and sensory neurons 2. Reticular Layer: made of dense irregular CT, contains large blood vessels and lymphatic, collagen and elastic fibers Hypodermis 1. is located below the skin, stabilizes the skin, allows separate movements 2. is connected to the reticular layer of integument by connective tissue fibers. Have few capillaries and no vital organs Perspiration Skin Color 1. Jaundice: skin turns yellow, happens first in the eyes, is cause by a buildup of bile (produced by the liver) 2. Pituitary Tumor: hormone (MSH) increases production of melanin, causing dark skin 3. Addison’s Disease: causes skin to turn bronze colored 4. Vitiligo: skin has patches of white skin, is caused by the loss of melanocytes 5. Skin Cancer: melanoma, A. asymmetry B. border C. color D. diameter E. evolving Clinical Note 1. Skin Color
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