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Bio 361 Midterm exam 2 Study Guide

by: Andi Sprague

Bio 361 Midterm exam 2 Study Guide BIO 361-01

Andi Sprague
Cal Poly

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About this Document

Information to help students answer the problem sets, as well as detailed figure drawings.
Principles of Physiology
Liwanag, Heather Elizabeth
Study Guide
Principles of Physiology Bio 361 Midterm
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andi Sprague on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 361-01 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Liwanag, Heather Elizabeth in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physiology in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Study Guide Midterm 2 *Exam is cumulative *Bring Calculator Respiratory System Summaries: -The movement of gasses in the respiratory system occurs by simple diffusion across a thin membrane and requires a large surface area. -When mammals breathe in, the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles contract, and the volume of the chest cavity increases/ expands. -Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli in mammals. -Mammalian lungs adhere to the chest wall due to negative pressure. -Type II alveolar cells secrete surfactant into the liquid lining of the alveoli to reduce surface tension. -Surfactant reduces surface tension within the alveoli, makes breathing easier/possible, increases compliance, decreases work of breathing. The reduction in surface tension balances/ decreases pressure in small alveoli (keeps them from collapsing). -Laplace’s Law: Pressure = 2(Surace Tension) / Radius -The ratio of pressure/ volume dictates the rate of gas transfer across the alveolar membranes. -The most important muscle for inspiration in the human is the diaphragm. -Inhaled particles and dust tend to fall out in the terminal bronchioles because air flow tends to decrease in this area of the respiratory system. -A person’s vital capacity (max in to max out; ~5L) is always larger than his/her tidal volume (normal breath; ~500mL) Solutions to anatomical dead space: -Increase tidal volume and take bigger breaths Ex. Swan -Decrease the diameter of the neck in order to reduce anatomical dead space, but therefore must breathe slowly since a decrease in diameter increases turbulence. Ex. Giraffe Respiratory System Important Figures: Circulatory System Summaries: -Oxygen dissolves poorly in water - Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrier in vertebrates only; the carrier in invertebrates is Hemocyanin. -Respiratory alkalosis is an increase in blood pH due to hyperventilation: The blood increases in pH as it becomes more basic. Hydrogen ions increase acidity, so a decrease in H+ will increase the pH. Hydrogen ions decrease as carbon dioxide decreases, so decreasing CO2 by breathing quickly (hyperventilation) will increase blood pH. -Blood pressure is greatest in the aorta (or pulmonary arteries) within mammalian circulation. -Within the mammalian circulatory system, arteries always carry blood away from the heart and veins always carry blood toward the heart. -The majority of carbon dioxide in the blood is transported in the form of HCO3- (bicarbonate ion) floating in red blood cells and hemoglobin. -The Sino-Atrial (SA) Node is “self-excitatory” because it has a high proportion of Ca2+ leak channels. -The P-wave (part of the EKG) corresponds to the depolarization of the ventricles. Skeletal Muscle:


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