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FOS2001 Man's Food Module 2 STUDY GUIDE

by: Haley Kairab

FOS2001 Man's Food Module 2 STUDY GUIDE FOS 2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > Nutrition and Food Sciences > FOS 2001 > FOS2001 Man s Food Module 2 STUDY GUIDE
Haley Kairab
Man's Food
Dr. Agata Kowalewska

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About this Document

This is everything you need to know for the Module 2 test for Man's Food.
Man's Food
Dr. Agata Kowalewska
Study Guide
Man's Food, Science
50 ?




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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
FOSZOOl Man s Food Study Guide Module 2 Test all notes taken from the online Pearson modules and the Kendall Hunt book Lesson 5 The Calorie 0 Calorie measures energy gt energy heat gt body burns heat with everything it does 0 To replenish that energy we eat food and the body metabolized chemicals which also produces heat 0 One unit of energy kilocalorie Kcal 3 Wines of organisms need energv 1 Autotrophic organisms a Need light water and carbon dioxide b These organisms are selfsufficientmake their own energy eX bacteriaplants 2 Heterotrophic organisms a Need energy taken from organic molecules in the environment food b Can t produce their own energy eX animals 3 Chemosynthetic organisms a Make their own energy though chemical reactions eX microscopic bacteria Requirement for energV BMR basil metabolic rate 1 Energy at rest or 8 hours after sleep or 14 hours after a meal 0 Five factors of energy requirement 2 Basil metabolism 3 Digestion 4 Excretion 5 Growth 6 Activity Measuring Energy 0 Direct approach aka direct calorimeter 0 Measures the energy of actual food with bomb calorimeter 0 Unit mass determines the nutrients that give energy to the body Allows you to calculate the energy in a food 0 Indirect approach 0 Focuses on public information like charts statistics and tables to find out what the energy requirements are NOT as accurate Weight Control 0 Trying to have the ideal body mass 0 lower risk for disease 0 Gets harder as we get older and growth and development stages are over 0 National Weight Control Registry NWCR 0 Investigate long term weight loss and upkeep 0 Look into what about a person with successful weight loss possesses or did to try and find the secret Activitv Expenditure 0 Intake is easy to determine but output is harder 0 Factors that affect energy expenditure 0 Body mass age activity temperature pregnancy location what you are doing Nutrition and Fitness 0 The kinds of nutrients that you need depend on what activity you are doing 0 Carbohydrate O 60 of daily calories should be carbs 0 Primary energy source for highintensity exercise 0 Liver glycogen Turns into glucose which then goes into the bloodstream to keep blood glucose energy source for brain levels normal Nutrition for Low to Moderate Activitv Levels Fats two forms 0 Fatty acids in adipose tissue or in muscle tissue 0 Amino acids from protein are the most important for muscles 0 Protein is used for energy but only if other levels are insufficient 0 Muscle protein becomes energy by breaking down amino acids Energv Before During and After Exercise 0 Small amount of carbs before exercise gives muscles immediate energy 0 Protein and carbs before exercise bigger increase in muscle glycogen synthesis than with just carbs 0 Fattier foods take a longer time to digest Eating carbs within 3045 minutes of exercise is recommended Fluids Before During and After Exercise 0 Water is extremely important during physical activity 0 Sodium and chloride are the electrolytes that we lose when we sweat Heat stroke 0 Build up of heat in your body 0 A warning sign is not sweating in situations where you should be 0 Daily uid is determined by dividing body weight in 2 to equal the number of ounces you needed Module 6 Water Compartmentalization 0 Compartments are in the body so that water can be controlled 0 Water inside the cells intracellular makes up 50 of water in the body and holds potassium 0 Water outside body cells extracellular holds remaining water holds sodium 0 Potassium and sodium work together to move water in and out of cells through quotpumpquot system Extracellular water had three subcompartments 0 Intravascular water in vascular system 0 Water in blood vessels 0 Extravascular water outside vascular system 0 Holds water surrounding the blood vessels 0 Interstitial 0 Water surrounding and in between cells 0 80 of extracellular cells Exchanges 0 Various body exchanges allow water to move through compartments 0 Water as a medium allows small molecules of nutrients to be transported 0 Specific exchanges 0 Alveolar Air lung blood plasma oxygen incarbon dioxide out 0 Blood plasma ervthrocvte uid oxygen carbon dioxide and other small molecules move in and out 0 Blood plasma interstitial uid water carbon dioxide inorganic ions and small organic molecules move in and out 0 Interstitial intracellular gases water and small organic molecules are exchanged Functions of water 0 Keeps bones healthy 0 Universal solvent most bodily nutrients are soluble in water allows it to efficiently transport nutrients the one nutrient not soluble in water is fat Biochemical reactions many biochemical reactions need water as a reactant ex digestion water is needed to break bonds 0 Lubricant helps moisturize skin and prevent heat damage etc Regulating body temperature we sweat so that our body can cool down sweat evaporating off the skin takes heat with it Sources of water 0 Water comes from the foods we eat as well as the liquids we drink 0 Another source is metabolic water that is produced through the metabolism of sugars fats and proteins Water Balance 0 There has to be a balance of water going into and out of the body 0 Condition of edema O Edema makes tissues swollen 0 Water acts as a transport system that is a giveandtake if it is not in balance then excessing uid Will move into tissues Edema normally causes swelling in various parts of the body Maintaining water balance 0 Balance in regulated by changes in osmotic pressure 0 Force that keeps water in the correct compartments 0 Osmotic pressure ratio of concentrations of solutes to concentration of solutions 0 Change in osmotic pressure picked up by osmoreceptors in blood 0 Signal the hypothalamus in the brain gt signal pituitary gland Which determines Whether to store or eliminate water Dehydration 0 Natural water loss occurs through 0 Kidneys skin lungs tear ducts of eyes intestinal udiarrhea Module 7 Proteins Amino acids 0 Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids made of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen Amino acids bind in various combinations 0 Muscle has unique shape gtproteins make up quotstructural functional relationshipsquot in the body How proteins are made 0 DNA is a genetic indicator that has template to making protein 0 RNA copies the DNA template 0 Messenger RNA signals the transport RNA to bring in individual amino acids 0 Three different codons represent 20 amino acids 0 Purpose is to indicate structural position of each amino acids 0 Amino acids are added to the chain at their appropriate structural positions 0 Process continues until the protein is done Structure of Proteins Proteins are formed in a threedimensional structure 0 Specific structure of proteins have 4 types 0 Primary 0 Amino acid backbone Forming starts with first amino acid and then moves on Dictates what will happen through all the other types Secondm tertiary and quaternary structures 0 Secondary 0 Twisting of the protein 0 Protein begins to twist on itself hydrogen bond 0 Has three substructures Helix sheeting and random coiling Tertiary 0 Molecule fold to make threedimensional shape 0 Includes interaction of amino acid side groups that cause the molecule to twist and bend 0 Drive it to a functional shape 0 Quaternary 0 Two or more protein molecules interact to make one functional protein 0 EX hemoglobin 0 Not all proteins have a quaternary structure Function of proteins 0 Muscle fibersbones and teethelastin and collagen 0 Skin hair nails blood vessels 0 All enzymes are protein 0 Proteins regulates actions within the body Dietarv requirements 0 World Health Organization WHO recommends that men and women obtain of their calories as protein approx 38 grams for a man burning 3000 caloriesday and 29 grams for woman burning 2300 caloriesday 0 Studies show that adult women have 46 grams of proteinday and adult men have 58 gramsday Measuring proteins 0 Protein quality can be measured with protein efficiency ratio PER technique TVDes of vegetarian diets Strict vegan eats only plant materialfoods of plant origins Selective vegetarian eats plant material and selectively chosen meat 0 Lactoovo vegetarian eats plant material eggs and dairy products 0 Fruitarian eats only fruits nuts oil honey 0 This diet makes it difficulty to meet body39s protein requirement Dietary risks and benefits 0 Risks 0 Lack of quality protein 0 Body not getting enough Vitamin B 12 calcium iron zinc 0 Plant toxicants 0 Benefits 0 Lower risk of heart disease and some cancers 0 Economical for environment because food takes less energy to produce 0 Diet results in a list of food that is almost identical to USDA recommendations for a healthy diet Mitigation 0 Eat a variety of foods to ensure the body has enough protein 0 Search for plant foods in these minerals or supplement the diet with Vitamins 0 Be knowledgeable about cooking requirements for plant foods Protein deficiencies Lack of protein protein deficiency Consequence of proteinless diets 0 Essential amino acids are needed in protein synthesis 0 Synthesis stops if not enough amino acids 0 Some symptoms if there are not enough quality proteins 0 Brittle hairnails fatigue aky skin cuts that won t heal Lesson 8 Carbohvdrates Part 1 The Mighty Carb Carbohydrates and the American Diet 0 Current American diet 0 48 of calories from carbs 0 40 of calories from fat 0 12 of calories from protein 0 Ideal diet based on dietary recommendations 0 60 of calories from carbs O 30 of calories from fat 0 10 of calories from protein Types of Carbohydrates 0 Glucose aka dextroseblood sugar 0 The first carb made by plants and is the main carb needed by the cell during digestion 0 Fructose aka levulosefruit sugar 0 Sugar found in fruits Galactose 0 Primarily in animal tissue 0 Monosaccharides form in a ring shape and have five or six sides 0 The position of the hydroxyl groups on the ring are what make monosaccharides different form one another Disaccharides Sucrose aka table sugarrefined sugarwhite sugar 0 These sugars are made of one molecule of glucose and one of fructose 0 Linked together by eliminating water 0 Maltose aka beer sugar 0 Product of grain starches used for fermentation 0 Made of two glucose molecules linked together 0 Lactose aka milk sugar 0 Consists one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose 0 Found in the body and mammary gland derived from animal sources like milk Polysaccharides Polymers of glucose Starch 0 Digestible by humans 0 Glycogen 0 Main storage carbohydrate for animal products digestible Fiber 0 Not digestible but a beneficial component of carbohydrates made of glucose Part 2 The Function of Carbohydrates CarbRich food 0 The sugars and starches in our diet 0 Sugars 0 Water soluble Starches 0 Form a paste when added to water swell when heated have viscosity Commercial Sugars The 1 type of sweetener used commercially in the US is corn syrup 0 Used in beverage and food manufacturing 0 Fructose is more economical to produce because it is twice as sweet 0 Starch from the cornseparation process can be converted to another type of sweetener in foods and sugar alcohol Dietary Guidelines Regarding Sugar 0 2006 Dietary Guidelines for Americans underscores importance of limiting the amount of sugar intake Fiber 0 Fiber is nondigestible and we benefit from fiber39s ability to pass directly through the body 0 A diet that is high in fiber is believed to reduce the risk of diverticular cancer and heart diseases Part 3 The Glycemic Index Hypoglycemia low blood sugar 0 The body needs glucose to have enough energy 0 After you eat blood absorbs glucose and if you eat more than you need then the muscles and liver store the extra 0 Signs 0 Hunger shakiness dizziness confusion hard time speaking feeling anxiousweak Diabetes 0 Disease associated With high glucose levels in the bloodinability to adequately regulate glucose levels 0 Two major types 0 Type 1 juvenile diabetes 0 genetic 0 Body does not produce enough insulin 0 Individual takes injections of insulin to regulate levels 0 Type 2 adult onset diabetes 0 Lifestyle factors that put adult at risk for this type overweighthigh stress 0 Body is resistant to insulin for this type but can also include insulin deficiency About 9095 of diabetes cases are Type 2 Diabetes Consequences 0 With diabetes cells can t take in glucose Which results in cells breaking down fat and protein Carbs and Dental Health 0 Large amounts of carbs can cause tooth decay 0 Tooth decay has three requirements 0 Bacterial plaquebacteria in the mouth 0 Introduction of sugar or starch to the mouth 0 A tooth that is susceptible to sugarsstarches contained in carbs TERMS FROM MODULE 2 These terms DO NOT need to ALL be memorized they are good to know to help understand the rest of the module Intracellular Fluid Compartment uids found inside the cell Extracellular uid compartment uids found outside the cell Interstitial uids uids found in between cells 0 Electrolytes charged ions that create an electrical current in solvents like water 0 Solvent the kind of liquids that substances dissolve in water is universal solvent 0 Water balance equal amount of water leaving and entering the body Insensible water loss water that the body loses through daily activity eX sweat Dehydration state Where there is not enough water in the body 0 Diuretics substances that make the body lose water eX alcohol Osmosis a solvent moving from higher concentrated areas to lower concentrated areas to create balance Antidiuretic Hormone ADH a hormone that makes the kidneys concentrate and reduce the volume of urine to bring down rates of water loss Hyponatremia a condition where there is not enough sodium in the blood Acid group The COOH group that is part of every amino acid Amine group part of amino acid with nitrogen Amino acid pools A limited supply of amino acids stored in your blood and cells that is used to build new proteins Amino acids The building blocks of protein containing carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen All amino acids are composed of an acid group an amine group and a unique side chain Catalysts Substances that speed up reactions in your body without being changed damaged or used up Coenzymes Substances that are needed by enzymes to perform many chemical reactions in the body Collagen A ropelike fibrous protein that is the most abundant protein in the body Connective tissues Tissues that support and connect body parts and provide protection and insulation Denatured The alteration of a protein s shape which changes the structure and function of the protein M The blueprint in cells that stores all genetic information DNA remains in the nucleus of the cell and directs the synthesis of proteins Enzymes substances that act like catalysts and speed up reactions in body Gei a DNA segment that codes for a specific protein Peptide bonds bonds that connect amino acids Precursor substance that comes before a step or reaction and converted to another substance in the body Protein turnover continual process of degrading and synthesizing protein Proteins compounds that are polymers of amino acids and are in all living cells m A molecule that carries out orders of DNA Sicklecell anemia blood disorder caused by a genetic defect in development in hemoglobin Side chain side group of an amino acid that provides with unique qualities m nitrogencontaining waste product that is excreted in urine Complex carbohvdrates compounds with combined sugar units ex polysaccharide Diabetes a medical condition where an individual doesn t have enough insulinresistant to available insulin Disaccharides two sugar units combined sucrose lactose and maltose m nondigestible polysaccharide Fructose aka fruit sugar sweetest monosaccharide Galactose monosaccharide that combines with to create the glucose that is found in dairy products Glucagon hormone that directs glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to increase glucose in blood Glucose most abundant sugar in foods and energy source in body Glycogen storage form of glucose in humansanimals Glycogenesis The process of converting excess glucose into glycogen in your liver and muscle GlVCOgenoleis The breakdown of glycogen to release glucose Hormones chemical messengers in the body that start specific actions Insulin a hormone from the pancreas that brings glucose from the blood in to your cells Maltose disaccharide composed of two glucose units Monosaccharide one sugar unit glucose fructose and galactose Photosynthesis the process where green plants make carbohydrates using energy from sunlight Poleaccharides numerous sugar units combined starch glycogen fiber Simple carbohydrate single sugar unit or two combined Starch storage form of glucose in plants Sucrose disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose aka table sugar


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