Biology Exam 2 Review
Biology Exam 2 Review 20146
Popular in Principles of Cellular and Molecular Biology
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20146 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Robert Major in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Principles of Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/19/16
Cellular and Molecular Biology Exam #2 Thursday, Mar. 3, 2016 Membrane Transport 1) Which would you expect to diffuse through a membrane? a. O 2 CO 2 H+, K+ 2) Which would you expect to be on the outside of a membrane? a. Na, K+, Cl- 3) Define a. Passive Transport: b. Active Transport: c. Hypertonic: d. Hypotonic: e. Isotonic: 4) True or False: Membrane potential will affect solute movement because of the differences in charge across the membrane. 5) Explain why when going in the opposite direction, the positive extracellular side will not help positive solutes pass through the membrane. 6) True or False: If a solute concentration is high on one side, the water concentration is also high on that side. Explain why this is true/false. Transporters 1) If a transporter needs a pump, what type of transporter is it? 2) What is the difference between favorable and unfavorable transports? Give an example. 3) Define a. Symport: b. Antiport: Channels 1) Explain the differences between voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels. What must these channel experience to work? 2) What is resting membrane potential? Energy and Catalysis 1) Define a. Anabolism: b. Catabolism: c. Oxidation: d. Reduction: e. Free Energy f. Entropy 2) What are the Laws of Thermodynamics? 3) What are the specialized molecules used to carry electrons? 4) True or False: Energy is used to create order, which makes it unfavorable. 5) True or False: Creating disorder releases energy, therefore it does not happen spontaneously. 6) Why is a lower energy state more stable than a higher energy state? 7) What is the formula for free energy? a. What happens when ΔG is negative? What about when it’s positive? 8) Why is the hydrolysis of ATPADP energetically favorable? a. Does this happen spontaneously? Why? Enzymes 1) Define a. Activation energy: b. Feedback inhibitor: c. Competitive inhibitor: d. Non-competitive inhibitor: 2) Explain the differences between the competitive and non-competitive inhibitors. 3) What does the feedback inhibitor turn off in the pathway? Cellular Respiration 1) Three stages of Metabolism a. Digestion: larger polymers are broken down to subunits in the digestive system b. Glycolysis: breakdown of glucose into pyruvate c. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs/TCA): acetyl CoA is added to oxaloacetate to form citrate, which is later oxidized d. Electron Transport Chain: electron and proton movements drive ATP production 2) Glycolysis a. Where does it occur within the cell? b. What is the beginning substance? c. What is glucose turned into? Include numbers of carbons. d. How many ATP are used? What is the net ATP? e. How is NADH made? i. What role does oxygen have here? f. What are the final products? 3) Citric Acid Cycle? a. Where does it occur within the cell? b. What is the beginning substance? c. What happens to the carboxylic groups of the two pyruvates? d. How many NADH are made for every turn of the cycle? How many FADH2? e. How many turns is one glucose worth? 4) Electron Transport Chain a. Where does it occur within the cell? b. What is/are the beginning substance(s)? i. How do they change right away? c. What is the final electron acceptor? What is formed from this? d. How are the proton pumps powered? e. Define ATP Synthase: f. What is must consumed to make ATP? Is this a favorable or unfavorable reaction? Why? g. How many ATP does one glucose make? Glycolysis NADHATPATP 1 Glucose(6C)2 ATP 2 Pyruvate(3C) Red=Molecules put in NADHATPATP Green=Molecules produced Citric Acid Cycle + + NADH+H CO 2 GTP NADH+H Oxaloacetate O II 4C H 3 - C-S-CoA (Acetyl CoA) 2C 6C5C4C4C4C4C4C + NADH+H CO 2 FADH 2 C=Carbon Made from the cycle= Electron Transport Chain H+ H+ Cytocrome C H+ Ubiquinone NADH 2e- H+ H+ H+ NAD+ H 0 2 2 H2+1/2 O2 Photosynthesis 1) Where does it occur? In what type of cells? 2) What are the roles of the photosystems? 3) In Photosystem 2, what does water split into? 4) How does NADP+ turn into NADPH? 5) What are the products of the light reactions? Include amounts 6) Define Carbon Fixation: 7) How is sugar stored? What is it stored as? 8) What are the equations for Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration?
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