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Bio II Notes 2/16

by: Rocket

Bio II Notes 2/16 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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Last notes for Exam 2!
Thomas Holder
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
“Ideal Flower”  ­ 4 sets of highly modified leaves in whorls   at tip of modified stem  Highly modified, Short­term, Shoot system     Diagram  +Calyx ​and Corolla ​re “sterile” modified leaves, not  directly involved in sexual reproduction  ­ Calyx:​ Protection of unopened bud  ­ Corolla:​ attract pollinators, contain aroma    +Androecium + Gynoecium​  are “fertile” modified leaves,  directly involved in sexual   reproduction  ­ Androecium​ (all stamens): “male household” male  portion of flower, production of pollen (sperm)  ­ Gynoecium​ (all pistils): “female household” eggs  are produced, female gametes     +Sporophyte Generation ​ (2N)  ­ Pedicel, Receptacle, 4 sets of modified leaves are  2n   ­ 4 sets of modified leaves arise from the receptacle    +Gametophyte Generation​  (1N)  ­ Pollen (sperm)  ­ Egg    Sexual Cycle  ➔ Male side:  ­ Pollen formation within formation of stamen  ­ Anther:​ bilobed structure with 2 pollen chambers per lobe    +Pollen diagram          +Each 2N microscopic mother cell produces four 2­celled pollen  grain  Pollination  ­ Pollen produced within Anther of Stamen(s)  ­ Transfer of pollen from an ​ Anther ​ to a Stigma    +Self Pollination:  ­ Transfer within same flower/same plant  ­ Low genetic Diversity    +Cross Pollination  ­ Transfer of pollen between plants    +Pollinating Agents  ­ Wind: tiny lightweight pollen, requires zero energy from plant, not very accurate  ­ Water: only truly aquatic plants use this, pollen can float, very inaccurate  ­ Animals: majority of plants use animals, plants are tricking animals with reward, nectar  found in base of flower attracts animals who consumes it and at the same time pollen gets  all over animal, animal moves around and spreads pollen, petals and aroma attract  pollinators    Sexual Cycle  ❖ Female Side  +Ovule = future seed  ­ Enclosed within ovary of pistil (carpel)  ­ 1 to many per ovary   +Ovule attached to central axis of hollow ovary or to the ovary wall  ­ Ovules are always “enclosed”  +Within ovule there is a single large 2N cell        ­ Called Megaspore Mother Cell (diploid  structure )                            *Embryo Sac is within Nucleus and  Integuments inside ovary of pistil        Syngamy:   1n egg + 1n sperm = 2n Zygote(single  cell)(fertilized egg)      +Pollen “germinates”  ­ Tube cell produces pollen tube  ­ Generative cell (1n) divides by  mitosis/cytokinesis to produce two 1N  sperm  ­ Pollen tube enters micropyle, digests nucellus   *Tip of pollen tube diagram  ­ Pollen tube enters one synergid , releases its contents,  synergid ruptures, tube nucleus degrades, 2 sperm  released into the large central cell  ­ Micropyle closes (seals up) pollen is trapped                    Double Fertilization     1n egg + 1n sperm = 2n Zygote(single cell)(fertilized egg)    1n sperm + 2 (2N) central nuclei (polars)+ 3N (1 degree)  Primary endosperm cell        Post Fertilization:  (within ovule)  2n zygote → mitosis +cyto = Multicellular 2n embryo  3n primary → mitosis + cell = multicellular 3n endosperm (nutritive tissue for embryo)  endosperm cell      Ovule with 2n zygote matures into seeds within 2n  embryo   Ovary of pistil matures, enlarges with sugar and water  into a fruit with enclosed seeds (= ovules) (fruit defined  with nature ovary with ovules)        Seed Dispersal (enclosed in fruit)  Mechanism  + Wind: windblown fruits, goes a distance but not that far, has to be lightweight  + Water: seeds able to float, minimum effective  + Animals: Majority! trick/reward respond, animal consumes fruit, passes through animals,  seeds disperse with feces    Seed Germination  Seed with 2n embryo → period of Dormancy → Broken by combo of environmental and internal  factors *temp, soil moisture, hormones    ­ Radicle 1st root emerges goes downwards, shoot emerges after going upward    *END OF MATERIAL FOR EXAM NUMBER 2     


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