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Biology II Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Rocket

Biology II Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 1144

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > BIO 1144 > Biology II Exam 2 Study Guide
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Finally got the study guide up!
Thomas Holder
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Friday February 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.


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Date Created: 02/19/16
Exam #2  Plant Growth  Indeterminate Growth: ​ Continual growth until Death  ­ Increase of Cell Number/Size   ❖ Sexual Cycle of Angiosperms  ­ Alternation of Generations between Diploid (2n) and a Haploid (1n)    Sporophyte (2n) Gametophyte (1n)  ­ Spore producing platform ­      Gamete producing platform  ­ Macroscopic ­       Microscopic  ­ Dominant Part (mostly) ­       2­7 cells in size  ­ Produces flowers/fruits ­  Pollen in Male + Embryo Sac in Female                                        Key Terms:  ­ Meiosis→ changes chromosomes number by ½, changes in generation  ­ Syngamy → will restore chromosomes number , also causes change in generation            Plant Organs:  ­Roots, Leaves, Stems combine into Shoots  ­Development due to rapid production of cells in Mitosis+Cytokinesis    ➢ Primary growth (1 °)  ­ Elongation of plant organs  ­ All Plants have Primary tissues resulting from growth    ❖ Primary Tissue:  1 ° Xylem​: Conducting tissue, water, minerals  1 ° Phloem​: Conducting tissue, food, solutes  Epidermis​: outermost tissue  Parenchyma: ​ storage tissue of food/water  Collenchyma​ : protection of plant organs for support in elongated  Sclerenchyma​ : protection of plant organs for support in non elongated plant organs    ❏ Secondary Growth  ­ Expansion of plant organs  ­ Only in Root+Stems  ­ Producing “woody tissue”  ­ NOT IN ALL PLANTS    2 Major Groups of Angiosperms:  ­ Monocots​ : Primary growth  ­ Dicots: All primary growth, mostly secondary growth    ● Tips of Root + Shoot   ­ Meristems:​ cells constantly divided for plant growth  + Apical (tips) Meristem (AM)  ­ RAM (Root AM)    ­ SAM (Shoot AM)    ­ Lateral Meristems​: “rings” in stems or root, in secondary  growth cause expansion in increased diameter (root/stem)  Roots Function:  ­ Anchorage  ­ Storage of food and water  ­ Absorb water/ minerals of soil      VCyl: Vascular Cylinder(inside endodermis) : where xylem and phloem are located                                                                   Shoot  ­ 1​° = Elongation  ­ Inside Bud is the SAM (Shoot Apical Meristem)        Node​ : any point along stem where leaf, bud, or branch arises  Internode​ : region between 2 nodes, elongation occurs within these  Stem​: region where all elongation occurs                      Dicot Leaf Monocot Leaf  ­ Net Vernation      ­     Parallel venation (no branching)                    Stems  ­ 1​° Growth  ­ Leaf and Stems develop differently   ­ VB= Vascular Bundle  Monocots Dicots  ­ 1°  ​rowth (elongation) ­ 1​° growth (elongation)   ­ Scattered VB ­ 2​°Secondary growth (expansion)  ­ Ringed VB (also pith and cortex)                Dicot 1st Growth    ­ VC+CC produce “rings” of secondary tissues  inside/outside of the cambium ring  ­ VC+CC are lateral meristems = 2​°growth   ­ Inside Cell = Secondary xylem(wood)   ­ Outside cell = Secondaryphloem​ (inner bark)   ­ CC Inside Cell/Outside Cell =​eriderm ​outer bark)  function as protection, starts growing late first year          Dicot 2°Growth  ­ Stem after 3 years of secondary growth,  begins LATE in first year    Comparison Between Plant Organs  ❖ Growth  Leaves:  ­ 1° growth   ­ Dicot: Net Venation  ­ Monocot: Parallel Venation  Roots:  ­ Monocots: 1°​ growth  ­ Dicots: °  + 2​growth  Stems:  ­ Monocots: 1°​ growth  ­ Dicots: ° + 2° growth    ➢ Layout  Roots:   ­ Endodermis Pericycle  ­ Monocots: Pith + Cortex  ­ Dicot: Cortex (Xylem at core)  Stems:  ­ Monocot: Scattered VB’s, no pith or cortex  ­ Dicot: Pith + Cortex, VB’s in ring pattern        1° Growth= Elongation (Apical Meristems: SAM + RAM)  ­ 1​°tissues  2° Growth = Expansion (Vascular and Cork Cambium)  ­ Stem and Roots only  ­ 2​°tissues    Hormones ​ “chemical messengers”  ­ Transported in Phloem tissues, Require energy (ATP)   ­ Interact with external environmental factors ex. temp, moisture, soil  ­ Controls plant growth, seed germination, flowering, fruiting, shedding leaves, color loss,  changes in color  Growth inhibiting​­ mostly in fall/winter  (slow growth)  Growth promoting​ ­ mostly in spring/summer (kick in growth)    Growth promoting  ❏ Auxins   ­ Produced in shoot tips, leaves, fruits, and seeds, not produced in roots  +Effects:  ­Promotes cell/stem elongation  ­Promotes stem expansion  ­Promotes development of fruit  ­ Inhibits bud development  ­ Inhibits theabscission    ❖ Cytokinins  ­ Produced in seeds, fruits, and roots  +Effects:  ­Promotes Mitosis+Cytokinesis, production of new cells as quickly as possible  ­Promote development of buds  ­ Inhibit leaf senescence: loss and breakdown of chlorophyll in leaves     3. Gibberellins (​ ibberellic Acid)  ­ Produced throughout plant, but highly concentrated within seeds  Effects:  ­Promote stem elongation  ­Promote cell division  ­Promote the breakdown of food preserves, in germinating seeds    Corn seed  Aleurone Layer (outer layer + stored food)  Embryo  Stored food (mostly starch)            Food Breakdown  1. Water intakes causes cracking of seed coat  2. Embryo secretes ​ Gibberellins  3. Gibberellins ​transported to Aleurone Layer  4. Aleurone layer secretes enzyme (​ α­amylase) which breaks the bonds of starch molecules  5. Starch→ Glucose→ Cell respiration→ yields ATP for growth  * Advantage of seed plants: able to regulate water intake and determine when to sprout or stay  dormant     Growth inhibiting  4. Abscisic Acid  ­ Produced in mature leaves, dormant buds, and seeds  Effects:  ­Inhibits cell elongation  ­Inhibits​­amylase secretion by Aleuron layer  ­Promotes production of storage compounds   ­Promotes leaf senescence     5. Ethylene  ­ Gas released from plant  Effects:  ­Interacts with the 3 growth promoting hormones to regulate cell size and shape  ­If cells grow too fast then the cell wall isn't strong enough to support  ­Promotes abscission of leaves fruits and flowers  ­Promotes fruit ripening    ❏ Growth from Seed Requires   + Breaking of Dormancy­  ­ Combinations of Internal/External Factors    Internal External  ­Hormones ­Sunlight  ­Stored food  ­Temp.  ­Absorption water ­Day lengths  ­Embryo swelling ­Soil moisture     *Seed contains: Seed coat(s), embryo, stored food  +As seed coats crack:  ­ Radicle (1st root) → grows down  ­ Shoot (stem + leaves ) → grows up  +Cotyledons emerge “embryonic leaves”  1. Cotyledon (monocot)  2. Cotyledons (dicot)    ➢ Seedling plant  + Results of mitosis/cytokinesis (cell reprod.)  ­ Increase in cell size  +Internal Development:  Plant Cells → Plant Tissues→ Plant Organs      ❖ Plant Nutrition  +Essential Elements (nutrients) 16 in total  C, H, O → from CO2 + H2O  +13 Soil Nutrients (minerals)  ­ Absorbed dissolved in H2O through roots, follow pathway with H2O    +Macronutrients (6): require more than 1 gram  ­ Nitrogen (N): Component of proteins, nucleic acids, coenzymes, chlorophyll  ­ Potassium (K): Enzyme activator, open/closing of leaf stoma, ionic balance of cells   ­ Phosphorus (P): nucleic acids, ATP, coenzymes, phospholipids   ­ Calcium (Ca): cell walls, regulator of membrane and enzyme activities, membrane  permeability   ­ Sulfur (S): proteins, coenzymes  ­ Magnesium (Mg): enzyme activator, chlorophyll    +Micronutrients (7): trace elements less than 0.1 gram   ­ Molybdenum (Mb): nitrogen fixation/absorption  ­ Copper (Cu): activator/component of many enzymes  ­ Zinc (Zn): activator/component of many enzymes  ­ Manganese (Mn): enzyme activator, chloroplasts membranes, oxygen release from  chloroplasts  ­ Chlorine (Cl): ion balance, oxygen production during photosynthesis   ­ Boron (B): membrane structure, nucleic acid synthesis   ­ Iron (Fe): chlorophyll production     Plant Transport Ch 38   +Movement of Water and Solutes in plants  ­Water (Soil Nutrients) ­Food (Carbohydrates Hormones)  ­Xylem ­Phloem    +Importance of Water:   ­  Photosynthesis  ­ Support for plant organs  ­ Conduction  ­ Cell elongation  ­ Nearly all chemical reactions  ­ Avg. plant cell → 90% water  +Solvent for most substances  Solution:​ mixture of +2 compounds  Solvent​: compound in solution, usually in greater quantity, usually liquid   Solute​: compound in solution in lesser quantity, usually dissolved     ❏ Physical Properties of Water  +Polar molecule overall charge neutral               +Hydrogen bonding­ each water molecule is Hydrogen bonded to 4 others “tight net”              *Cohesiveness­ water molecules stick together tight  *Adhesiveness­ sticks to other polar compounds (cellulose)   *Temp. Stabilizer­ water can heat/cool things  *Transport medium­ water flows in response to pressure/concentration    Principles of Water + Molecule Movement  Physical processes­ no energy expended  1. Bulk flow​ : movement of molecules in response to pressure/gravity, high to low  2. Diffusion​ : movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from high →  low  concentrations  3. Osmosis​ : diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, water passes  freely through membrane, solutes do not!           Transpiration  Ex. Each Individual Corn Plant­ requires apprx. 55 gallons  of water  ­ 2% Normal Maintenance (cell  elongation/photosynthesis etc.)  ­ 98% Transpired  Transpiration​ : the loss of water (vapor form) exiting through stomata of leaves    Photosynthesis    Leaf      Transpiration          ❏ Guard Cell Pair:  Function: Regulate stomatas; controls water loss  Closed→ low in water/ keeps water and oxygen in, CO2 out  Open → guard cells full of water (turgid)/ water and oxygen out, CO2  comes in  ● Mechanisms:  1. Daytime/Sunlight­ CO2 low in leaf  2. Guard cells “pump in” Potassium (ATP expended), changes solute(increase) and water  concentration(decrease)  3. Water from Xylem moves by osmosis into guard cells → “turgid” (swell)  4. Guard cells swell and open stoma  5. “Pump out” potassium (ATP expended), water moves out, guard cells shrink, closed  again    Causes of Water Loss  ­ Evaporation  ­ Water concentration is lowered in mesophyll, which  causes a “pull” of water molecules via osmosis  ­ Loss of water from leaf xylem,  causes “pull” from stem  xylem  ­ Root xylem “pulls” water from soil        C­A­T Mechanisms:  ­ Once stomata opens, it then becomes a purely physical  process, no ATP  ­ “Pulling” of water molecules one at a time   C:Cohesion­ keeps water molecules together  A:Adhesion­ water adheres to cellulose in walls  T:Tension­ “pulling” due to water loss via evaporation from  mesophyll    Translocation    ­ Movement of solutes  +Similarities between transpiration and translocation:  ­ Physical properties of water  +Differences  ­ Trans L (food/solutes)                            ­Trans P (water/minerals)  ­ Bidirectional    ­ Unidirectional  ­ Phloem (short/fat tubes)    ­ Xylem (long/slender tubes)  ­ Must expenditure of ATP by Plant   ­ Sunlight energy (no ATP expenditure by plant)  *Food dissolves in water; moved in a form of sucrose     Source                              →              Sink  Site of excess carbohydrates      Storage site/site where sugar is quickly needed    Pressure Flow Hypothesis   Phloem tissue    ­ Sieve tube members companion cells­ load/unload STMS (ATP expended)    At Source:  1. Companion cells “pump” sucrose into  STM’s (ATP expenditure)  2. As sucrose concentration increases in  STM’s, water potential(pressure) goes  down within STM  3. Adjacent xylem tissue has higher water  potential than STM’s, water moves into  STM’s by osmosis  4. BULK FLOW of Sucrose (higher pressure  to lower pressure)    At Sink:  1. Companion cells must unload sucrose  (ATP expended)  2. Sucrose converted to starch for storage in root cortex  3. Without sucrose, water potential changes, higher water potential in STM  4. Water moves via osmosis from the phloem STM to the adjacent xylem   *ATP spent only on companion cells from loading and unloading   *No energy expended from movement  ­ Bulk Flow (pressure/potential diffs)  ­ Osmosis (water concentration diffs)    Flowers + Sexual Cycle   Flowers only found in angiosperms approx. 300,000 species  ❏  Essential processes of Sexual Reproduction occur within flower  Meiosis/Cytokinesis: diploid to haploid  Syngamy(fertilization) haploid to diploid    “Ideal Flower”  ­ 4 sets of highly modified leaves in whorls   at tip of modified stem  Highly modified, Short­term, Shoot system     Diagram  +Calyx​ and Corolla are “sterile” modified leaves  ­ Calyx:​ Protection of unopened bud  ­ Corolla:​ attract pollinators  +Androecium + Gynoecium​  are “fertile” modified leaves  ­ Androecium​ (all stamens): “male household” male  portion of flower, production of pollen (sperm)  ­ Gynoecium​ (all pistils): “female household” eggs  are produced, female gametes   +Sporophyte Generation ​ (2N)  ­ Pedicel, Receptacle, 4 sets of modified leaves are  2n   ­ 4 sets of modified leaves arise from the receptacle  +Gametophyte Generation​  (1N)  ­ Pollen (sperm)  ­ Egg    Sexual Cycle  ➔ Male side:  ­ Pollen formation within formation of stamen  ­ Anther:​ bilobed structure with 2 pollen chambers per lobe    +Pollen diagram          +Each 2N microscopic mother cell produces four 2­celled pollen  gametophtye  Pollination  +Self Pollination:  ­ Transfer within same flower/same plant  ­ Low genetic Diversity  +Cross Pollination  ­ Transfer of pollen between plants  +Pollinating Agents  ­ Wind  ­ Water  ­ Animals  Sexual Cycle  ❖ Female Side  +Ovule = future seed  ­ Enclosed within ovary of pistil (carpel)  ­ 1 to many per ovary   +Ovule attached to central axis of hollow ovary or to the ovary wall  ­ Ovules are always “enclosed”  +Within ovule there is a single large 2N cell        ­ Called Megaspore Mother Cell (diploid  structure )                        *Embryo Sac is within Nucleus and Integuments  inside ovary of pistil            Syngamy:   1n egg + 1n sperm = 2n Zygote(single  cell)(fertilized egg)            +Pollen “germinates”  ­ Tube cell produces pollen tube  ­ Generative cell (1n) divides by mitosis/cytokinesis to  produce two 1N sperm  ­ Pollen tube enters micropyle, digests nucellus   Tip of pollen tube diagram  ­ Pollen tube enters one synergid , releases its contents,  synergid ruptures, tube nucleus degrades, 2 sperm released  into the large central cell  ­ Micropyle closes (seals up) pollen is trapped    Double Fertilization   1n egg + 1n sperm = 2n Zygote(single cell)(fertilized egg)  1n sperm + 2 (2N) central nuclei (polars)+ 3N (1 °) Primary  endosperm cell    Post Fertilization:  (within ovule)  2n zygote → mitosis +cyto = Multicellular 2n embryo  3n primary → mitosis + cell = multicellular 3n endosperm  (nutritive tissue for embryo)  endosperm cell    Ovule with 2n zygote matures into seeds within 2n embryo   Ovary of pistil matures, enlarges with sugar and water into a fruit  with enclosed seeds     Seed Dispersal (enclosed in fruit)  Mechanism  ­ Wind  ­ Water  ­ Animals  Seed Germination  Seed with 2n embryo → period of Dormancy → Broken by combo of environmental and internal  factors     *END OF MATERIAL FOR EXAM NUMBER 2               


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