BA 352 Exam 2 Study Guide
BA 352 Exam 2 Study Guide BA 352
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Tucker on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BA 352 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Chad in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Managing Individual and Team Performance in Business at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Session 8: Motivation Foundations Motivation: A set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction (i.e., what you do), intensity (i.e., how hard), and persistence (i.e., how long). Engagement: high levels of intensity and persistence 13% of workers feel engaged by their jobs 70% emotionally disconnected Expectancy Theory Vroom: Expectancy beliefs (E P; 0 to 1): If I exert a lot of effort, will I perform well? o Self-efficacy Instrumentality beliefs: If I perform well, will I receive outcomes? Valence beliefs (-1, 0, +1): Will the outcomes be satisfying Motivational direction (what you put effort into) = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence What are the sources of self-efficacy Past Accomplishments, Vicarious experience (learned through experiences of others), verbal persuasion, emotional cues (how you feel about the situation) What determines the degree of positive valence? Needs: cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences o Love, meaning, autonomy, competence o Food, shelter, safety (physiological) Extrinsic outcomes: pay, bonuses, promotions, benefits, praise, support, etc (physical rewards) Intrinsic outcomes: enjoyment, accomplishment, knowledge gain (non-physical rewards) Money may be motivation, but does it always lead to task performance? Job type and characteristics are a boundary condition Money = better motivation WHEN task is mechanical WORSE performance when open ended, creative tasks Goal-setting theory Goals = objective or aim of an action Specificity, difficulty: benchmark against which intensity and duration of effort can be determined Task performance peaks when goals are difficult and falls off when goals become impossible or unattainable. (Intensity and persistence are maximized when a goal is difficult) Moderators = feedback, task complexity, and goal commitment Equity theory Motivation depends on what other people get “Mental ledger” each person keeps on own inputs and outputs and the inputs/outputs our “comparison other” receives o Inputs: time, effort, performance, education o Outcomes: pay, benefits, etc What are the possible responses in each scenario? 3 outcomes o Equity: you = your comparison other No actions needed o Underreward: comparison other gets more than you for inputs Grow your outcomes by talking to your boss or by stealing from the company Shrink your inputs by lowering the intensity or persistence of effort o Overreward inequity: comparison other “gets” less than you for inputs Shrink your outcomes (yeah right…) G your inputs through more high quality work or through some “cognitive distortion” Equity comparisons are subjective For example, most people believe they are underpaid; example of congressmen Different men [and women] are moved by different incentives or combinations of incentives, and by different incentives or combinations at different times. Men [and women] are unstable in their desires, a fact partly reflecting the instability of their environments.” (Barnard, 1938) Psychological empowerment Energy rooted in the belief that your work contributes to a larger purpose and it satisfying in itself What shapes psychological empowerment? o Meaningfulness: articulate a vivid, inspiring vision o Self-determination: don’t micromanage o Competence: give personalized, sincere feedback that highlights personal growth o Impact: celebrate “small wins” How important is motivation? Motivation is strongly correlated with job performance; moderately correlated with organizational commitment “Middle-range” theories Work motivation theories are similar to General relativity and Quantum field theory in that they are “middle-range theories” o Each focus on different aspects of the phenomenon at hand o Their applicability is limited to those aspects Law of requisite variety In order for you to even recognize the complexity of something in your environment, you must have a “conceptual toolbox” of a least equal complexity and variety. Such a toolbox makes you adaptable and innovative as an employee and manager Without it, you may overgeneralize and oversimplify, and you’ll miss what’s really going on— you won’t even notice it Session 9—Learning & Decision Making Does money make you happy? Historically, the gross domestic product (GDP) of a country is a good indicator of its wealth o As GDP Increases, so does accessibility of food, clothing, shelter, transport, etc. If by “happiness” we mean overall life satisfaction, then, well, yes (kind of) Across countries, life satisfaction generally increases with GDP What about the other way to define subjective well-being, feeling happy? Subjective well-being (daily ratio of positive to negative emotions) increases as income increases but is unaffected over $75,000 $75,000 indicates an income plateau Up until this plateau, there is a relationship between subjective well-being and income o Money makes certain parts of life “easier”, increasing life satisfaction rather than really giving us joy o Does money make you happier? IT DEPENDS on the aspect of happiness you are addressing Learning Permanent changes in an employee’s knowledge (e.g., what to do when faced with a specific situation) or skill (i.e., capabilities) Measured by post-training cognitive evaluations or by skill demonstration following training Decision-making The process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem Expertise: the pinnacle of learning Expertise: the knowledge and skills that distinguish experts and novices Explicit knowledge: general, easily-communicated and conscious Tacit knowledge: job-specific, difficult to articulate, based on experience and unconscious Explicit/Tacit knowledge: see above Five-stage model of expertise Five-stage model Stage 1: Novice—follow rules, no consideration of situational features Stage 2: advanced beginner—situation features considered Stage 3: competence—no more calculation or problem-solving, developing a “feel” for how things work Stage 4: proficiency—situation viewed holistically, processed quickly Stage 5: Expertise—self-conscious application falls away, explicit and tacit knowledge, but tacit knowledge is key here in embodying knowledge Four contingencies of reinforcement Reinforcement: We learn what to do and what not to do through rewards and punishments o Positive reinforcement: if you do desired behavior A, then I WILL give you positive outcome B o Negative reinforcement: if you do desired behavior A, then I WON’T do negative outcome C o Punishment: if you do undesired behavior D, the I WILL do negative outcome E o Extinction: If you do undesired behavior D, then I WON’T do positive outcome F Which contingencies (methods) of reinforcement are best? Positive reinforcement and extinction o Because negative reinforcement is threatening, and punishment is disruptive Reinforcement Schedule o Continuous: reward following every desired behavior o Fixed Interval: reward given following fixed time periods (paycheck) o Variable interval: reward given following variable time periods o Fixed ratio: reward given following fixed number of desired behaviors o Variable ratio: reward given following variable number of desired behaviors How do employees learn? Observation of others Social learning theory o Tacit knowledge is best communicated sometimes through behavioral modeling 1. Attentional processes: learner focuses attention on behaviors of model 2. Retention processes: learner remembers behaviors without model present 3. Production processes: learner must have skill set to reproduce behavior 4. Reinforcement: learner sees model receiving reinforcement and receive it his/herself. Employees approach learning differently—not everyone wants to learn Learning orientation: failure is good (signals improvement) Performance-prove orientation: failure is bad because I want people to think I’m great Performance-avoid orientation: failure is bad because I don’t want to look stupid Programmed/nonprogrammed decisions Programmed (automatic and intuitive): common when situation is frequent and known Non-programmed (step-by-step, rational, deliberate): common when situation is new and unknown Identifying the problem is the problem recognized? Has it been dealt with before? o Yes: programmed decisions o No: non-programmed decisions Rational decision-making model 1. Determine criteria for making the decision: what’s the ideal outcome? 2. Build a list of all potential solutions 3. Evaluate potential solutions against established criteria 4. Choose the solution that maximizes values Crisis situations Any event with the potential to cause sudden and serious damage to the company’s employees, customers, reputation, or bottom line non-programmed situations, but they often do not allow time for a non-programmed decision— instead intuition and tacit knowledge are critical o Expertise allows effective response here (Ex: Miracle on the Hudson—Plane emergency landing) Bounded rationality (heuristics, satisficing) Human beings do not have the ability or resources to make perfectly rational, optimal decisions So… we look for shortcuts (heuristics)—sometimes based on biased perceptions/information without us knowing it We satisfice: choose the first, acceptable option Perception: process of selecting, organizing, storing, and retrieving information about the environment Availability bias: base their judgments on information that is more vivid, easier to recall (Ex: plane crash news coverage making unreasonable fear of flying) Selective perception: employees tend to see things in their environments only insofar as they are consistent with their expectations and desires—what appears to be the “best” decision is thus driven by desires We see what we want to see, but…. Seeing and believing are both often wrong resulting in bad decisions (ex: Gulf of Tonkin) Framing bias: : We tend to make different decisions based on how a question or situation is phrased/framed—what appears to be the “best” decision changes accordingly Fundamental attribution error: We tend to see other’s behaviors as due to internal factors/attributes (i.e., He’s lazy) But we don’t do that for ourselves—our successes are internally-caused, and our failures are externally-caused self-serving bias Self-serving bias: above ^^ Consensus-Distinctiveness-Consistency model of attribution Low consensus, low distinctiveness, high consistency internal attribution (individual factors such as ability, motivation, or attitudes are to blame High consensus, high distinctiveness, low consistency External attribution (environmental factors are to blame) Escalation of commitment/ “go fever” Nonsensical decision to stick with a failing course of action o In order to avoid looking incompetent and having made the wrong decision o Already invested so many resources into implementing original decision (Ex: Denver Baggage automated system) Go Fever intensifies the escalation process o Lots of money on the line o Very close to completion How important is learning? Learning moderately correlated with job performance; learning weakly correlated with organizational commitment Session 10: Personality & Cultural Values Personality/traits Personality: Structures and propensities inside people that explain their characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior Bundle of traits: reoccurring regularities or trends in people’s responses to their environment What people are like –adjectives often capture traits o Traits come from genetics and our environments The Big Five (CANOE) 1. Conscientiousness: most important factor in job performance; dependable, organized, reliable… a. Accomplishment striving is priority: strong desire, motivation to accomplish task-related goals 2. Agreeableness: kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful a. Communion striving is a priority: strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships—to get along with others 3. Neuroticism: AKA Emotional Stability; nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, jealous, etc. Second most important dimension for job performance a. Synonymous (VERY strongly correlated) with negative affectivity (NA) i. Emotional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility and annoyance b. Highly neurotic people are more likely to be stressed i. Differential exposure: everything seems more stressful ii. Differential reactivity: stressors seems less manageable 4. Openness (to Experience): curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined a. Key driver of creative thinking 5. Extraversion: talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive a. Status striving is priority: strong desire to obtain power & influence in a social structure b. Moderately strong predictor of leader emergence (0.33) c. Extraverts high in positive affectivity: tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm, excitement, and elation Gripe Index: Are you an NA (negative affectivity) person? Locus of Control: A person’s dispositional tendency to attribute the causes of life events to her/himself or to the external environment o Internal locus of control: I have control over the events of my life o External locus of control: My life is determined by chance and/or by powerful others pulling the strings Ideally, you’d have an internal locus of control while also believing in the power of luck or chance (Richard Wiseman) Personality: Nature or nurture? Twin studies at University of Minnesota o How much of personality is accounted for by genetics 49% of variation in extraversion 45% for openness 41% for neuroticism 38% for conscientiousness 35% for agreeableness Which personality dimensions fluctuate most over time? Which personality dimensions fluctuate the most over time? o Extraversion and openness are relatively stable o Continuing decline over time in neuroticism o Consistent increases in agreeableness and conscientiousness over time Cultural values Culture: the shared values, beliefs, motives, identities, and interpretations that result from common experiences of members of a society and are transmitted across generations Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural values 1. Individualistic v. collectivistic 2. Power Distance (high v low) 3. Uncertainty avoidance (high v low) 4. Masculinity v Femininity 5. Short-term v. long term orientation Other cultural differences time orientation Monochronic o North America/ Northern Europe o Time is linear, keeps going. It is like money: spent, saved, or wasted o Time is segmented into smaller units, schedule-driven o Tend to do one thing at a time (work v personal for example) Polychronic o Latin America/Mediterranean/Middle East/ Asia o Time is flexible, fluid, multi-dimensional (no separation between work/personal time) o Clocks are arbitrary, being “late” is OK given concurrent involvement with lots of people More committed to building relationships than efficiently moving through appointments Other cultural difference: proxemics Proxemics: unspoken rules regarding the amount of physical space to give people you’re communicating with. Ex: Violations of norms about personal space Beware of ethnocentrism! Managers must be aware of and sensitive to different cultural values Otherwise organizational commitment and firm performance can suffer How important is personality? Conscientiousness is moderately correlated with job performance and organizational commitment Session 11: Ability Is humor an ability or a skill? Social benefits of humor Humorous individuals are perceived as more socially adept Humor is a critical factor in maintaining friendships Humor is an effective ingratiation tactic for gaining social visibility and social capital in the workplace Historical theories of humor Superiority theory (Plato/Aristotle) o Situations when misfortune befalls others—this is funny o We laugh when we feel superior to others Incongruity theory o Situations when something unexpected happens—this is funny o We laugh because we are surprised Benign violation theory of humor Benign Violation theory (currently most accepted theory) o Problems with existing theories o Instead, humor occurs when… A (physical, social, symbolic, or linguistic) norm is violated AND The violation is perceived as benign Ability/skiils Ability: The relatively stable capabilities people have to perform a particular range of different but related activities o Cognitive: 50/50 genes and environment What non-genetic factors impact cognitive ability? Schooling/education Choice of occupation Cognitive ability (all the types) Capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving o Verbal: Capacities associated with understanding and expressing oral and written communication (Politicians) o Quantitative: Simple math equations (number facility) The ability to choose and apply formulas to solve problems that involve numbers (mathematical reasoning) Accounting/Engineering o Reasoning: Sensing problems (problem sensitivity) Solving problems using insight, rules, and logic (deductive/inductive reasoning) o Spatial: Capabilities associated with visual and mental representation and manipulation of object in space Spatial orientation: understanding where one is relative to other things in the environment Visualization: ability to imagine how separate things will look if they are rearranged o Perceptual: Being able to perceive, understand, and recall patterns of information Speed and flexibility of closure: pick out incomplete pattern in the presence of distracting information Perceptual speed: being able to examine and compare data and objects quickly The Wonderlic: A popular test of cognitive ability One of the most widely used measures of cognitive ability is the Wonderlic Personnel Test o 50 questions in 12 minutes o A score of 20 is equivalent to an IQ of 100, which is average o A score of 10 indicates literacy General cognitive ability o Each type of cognitive ability is tapping into a broader kind of cognitive capacity o Often referred to as IQ o 50-145, mean is 100 James Flynn and the strange case of our increasing IQ over time General cognitive ability is evident in the following… o Classification of the concrete world o The use of logic on abstractions o The serious consideration of hypotheticals—what if, what might be, what could have been Key to advancing a moral argument with someone How would you feel if you were… Emotional ability: measure of efficacy in social situations Four components of emotional intelligence 1. Self-awareness: ability to recognize and appropriately express the emotions one feels 2. Other awareness: ability to recognize, understand, and predict emotions of others 3. Emotion regulation: ability to control impulses and to recover quickly from emotional experiences a. Don’t flip out, don’t get too excited b. Delayed gratification—instead of impulsivity—is evidence of regulation 4. Use of emotions: the degree to which people can harness emotions and employ them to improve their chances of being successful How can we improve our emotional abilities? Practices empathy (other awareness—sensitivity to feelings/plight of others) o Don’t take your abilities for granted—EI doesn’t come easily for everyone o Put yourself in others’ shoes—literally o Active listening How important is ability? Cognitive ability strongly correlated with job performance; Cognitive ability weakly correlated with organizational commitment Session 12—Organizational Culture Organizational Culture The shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms, and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employees. “The way we do things around here…” Culture at its core Basic Underlying Assumptions o Taken-for-granted beliefs and philosophies (usually values-based) that are so ingrained that employees simply act on them rather than questioning the validity of their behavior in a given situation Espoused values o The beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly claims are important to it Values statements (because public, aren’t necessarily the best indication of culture) Where is culture most apparent? Observable artifacts o The manifestations of an organization’s culture (sites of enacted values) that employees can easily see or talk about Symbols Physical structures Language Stores Rituals Ceremonies Example of an observable artifact: the fraket Culture types Sociability: represents how friendly employees are to one another Solidarity: the degree to which group members think and act alike Networked: high sociability, low solidarity Fragmented: low sociability, low solidarity Mercenary: low sociability, high solidarity Communal: High sociability, high solidarity Culture strength Exists when employees definitively agree about the way things are supposed to happen within the organization (high consensus) and when their subsequent behaviors are consistent with those expectations (high intensity). Strong Culture Weak Culture Organizational subcultures Differentiated culture Maintaining a culture (ASA framework, socializations) ASA framework o Employees are attracted to organizations that fit their values o Organizations select employees that fit its values (“misfits” are not hired) o Current employees who don’t fit will be unhappy, leading to attrition These mechanisms go a long way in maintaining a culture… Socialization o A complex process whereby new members learn (and are taught) the organization’s culture and how to align themselves with it Anticipatory stage: learn about the culture/values prior to starting the job Application and interview process Encounter stage: learn about the culture/values the day you start the job Reality shock: expectations don’t match up Adaptation stage: fully internalized the org’s values, become a true insider Where do organizational cultures come from? Leaders; mergers and acquisitions How important is culture? Person-organization fit weakly correlated with job performance; strongly correlated with organizational commitment
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