Introduction to Astronomy SPRING 2016 Midterm Study Guide
Introduction to Astronomy SPRING 2016 Midterm Study Guide Phys 1055
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by austinc1 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phys 1055 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Astronomy Staff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Astronomy in Physics 2 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Introduction to Astronomy (PHYS 1055) MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2016 Historical Figures Aristotle: An influential Greek philosopher who presented arguments in favor of earth having a sphere shape, lived until 325 BC. Claudius Ptolemy: 140 AD - Solved problem of explaining observed motions of planets, by coming up with epicycles. He contributed a geometrical representation of the solar system that predicted the positions of the planets for any desired date and time. Aristarchus: Believed ahead of his time that the earth was moving around the sun. Aristotle rejected his idea. 310 -230 bc Nicolaus Copernicus: concluded that the earth is a planet and all planets rotate and revolve around the sun. Wrote book de revolutionists which described his heliocentric ideas. 1473-1535 AD. Galileo: 1564-1642 AD, Studied acceleration. Constructed his own telescope. Used this telescope to prove heliocentric model. Used Venus phases as proof. Hipparchus: Greatest observational astronomer of ancient times, cataloged a precise star chart, and discovered the precession of the earth's axis. Johannes Kepler: Used Tycho Brahe's data after he died to make discoveries. Discovered that the orbit of the plant had shape of ellipse. Came up with 3 laws describing the motions of the planets Celestial Vocabulary Constellation: One of 88 sectors into which astronomers divide the celestial sphere. Zodiac: A belt around the sky about 18 degrees wide centered on the ecliptic. Perihelion: The point in the orbit the object is closest to the sun. Aphelion: The point in the orbit the object is farthest from the sun. Laws of Astronomy and The Physical World Law of Inertia: First presented by Galileo it states that every body tends to continue doing what it already doing -- being in a state of rest, or moving uniformly in a straight line -- unless it is compelled to change by an outside force. Galileo’s Principle of Equivalence: Galileo stated that there is no way to tell locally the difference between being in reference frame that is at rest or one that is moving at constant speed in a constant direction Keplers 1 Law: Each planet moves about a star in an orbit of the shape of an ellipse. Keplers 2 nd Law: The speed of the planet is faster when it is closer to the sun and slower when it is farther in its orbit. Keplers 3 Law: The size and period of a planetary orbit around the sun are 2 3 mathematically related by ???? = ???? Newton’s First Law: An object in motions tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. Newton’s Second Law: The greater the force, the greater the acceleration. The change in momentum is represented by the equation: F=(Mass)(Acceleration). Newton’s Third Law: Every action always has an equal and opposite reaction. Forces come in pairs. Newton’s Law Of Gravitation: The force of gravity must drop off with increasing distance between two objects in proportion to the inverse square of their separation. If you double the distance of a planet, the force is 1/4 as large. This is represented as the (???? ????1)(????2) equation: ???? = ????2 Newton’s Version of Kepler’s Third Law: newton added the masses of both objects. he is essentially just adding the sun's mass because the mass of a planet is nothing, therefore it is like multiplying by approximately 1 thus M1 is approx... Represented by the Equations: ???? ???? + ????1 2) = ???? ????ℎ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ???? = ???? 2 Important Test Vocabulary Geocentric: The theory that the earth is the center of the universe. Heliocentric: The theory that the center of the universe is the sun. Mass: The amount of matter in a body (Base unit is Kg). Speed: How fast a body moves (Base unit is Meters/second). Velocity: Both the speed and direction a body moves (Base unit is Meter/second +direction). Acceleration: A change in velocity (either speed or direction). Force: Something can or does produce acceleration. Weight: A measure of force due to the gravitational contraction at a very massive object such as a planet, star or black hole. Escape Velocity: The velocity a body needs to escape the gravity of another body and never return to it. Volume: The physical space occupied by an object/body. Density: Amount of mass per unit of volume D=M/V. Angular Momentum: The momentum associated with motion around an axis or fixed point this is also dealt together with moment of Inertia. Calendar of The Universe: Phases of Astronomy (REMEMBER THE DIFFERENCES) Astrology: The study of the possible influence that the locations of the sun plants, and moon in our sky have on human affairs and destiny. Cosmology: The study of the universe as a whole: its contents, structure, origin, evolution, and ultimate fate Astronomy: The scientific study of the Universe and how it acts within itself. The Celestial Sphere-
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