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Quiz 2 Review

by: Amy Brogan

Quiz 2 Review HIST 2051-001

Amy Brogan
GPA 3.7

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The Civil War through World War 1. More centered around understanding why things happened than when, and seeing the big ideas during the times.
American Military History
James Streckfuss
Study Guide
civil war manifest destiny WWI Indian War
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan Quiz 2 Review Civil War  Underlying causes of the war o Slavery: undoubtedly but why? African slave trade was outlawed 1 Jan. 18108  Economics  Voting rights political clout (3/5 clause 1787)  Religion and morality  Abolitionism “domino theory” o State rights and constitutionality  Really just an excuse o Cultural societal differences  Proximate preludes to war o Uncle tom’s cabin: against the horrors of bondage, makes enough importance for Lincoln to introduce Harriet Beecher Stowe as the “little lady who started the war” o Dred Scot: slave, master taken him out of the south into free territory, where they stayed a while and sued to be given his freedom. Supreme court (worst decision ever made) rules that property rights not destroyed  Fugitive slave act: made law enforcement officers responsible for the return of runaway slaves; before this, slaves could escape  North begins to believe slavery may not die out on its own and may spread back into the north o John Brown Abolitionist leads raid on Harper’s ferry - captured, judged, and hanged  Hero in the north, villain in the south o Lincoln’s election and rise of republicans  Victory hailed in the north and condemned in the south  4-way race: red states Lincoln wasn’t even on the ballot o Population density:  North more populated than the south  Slave population is dense in the south, but not about to give them a gun, slaves more likely to join the north anyway o South Carolina first states to leave, only one to leave before 1860 when Lincoln elected o West Virginia seceded from Virginia because they don’t want to leave the union  Confederate Constitution: State’s rights? o Article VI Section 3 – strong federal government from the start  “This Constitution… under the authority of the Confederate States, shall be the supreme law of the land…”  Revolutionary problems: hadn’t developed national identity. Same here  Robert E Lee became a confederate general because his state Virginia left, so he felt compelled to as well o Article I section 10 – trying to make a one country, and scrap the state militia  “No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation…[or] coin money…”  “… nor shall any State keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war…” o Article IV section 2 – slavery built right in  “… and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby impaired.”  “No slave… in any State…escaping… shall, in consequence… be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such slave belongs, or to whom such service or labor may be due.”  replicates Dred Scott decision  replicates fugitive slave act o Article IV section 3 – intended to bring slavery back into concurred territories  “In all… {newly acquired] territory, the institution of negro slavery… shall be recognized and protected by congress… and the inhabitants… shall have the right to take to such territory any slaves lawfully held by them in any of the States…” o Confederate States of America: Alexander Stephens  “[The Confederacy’s] foundations are laid, and its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and moral condition.” – Alexander H. Stephens Vice President, CSA  Slavery is why they are fighting, Negros are not equal to white people The North had more of everything compared to the South except in cotton production. The South was relying on this to get through the war (continue to trade with other countries for resources) but all able- bodies men left the plantations to go fight. This left the women, who weren’t given this power before, to rule over the slaves and make them work the land. Then there was the blockade and trade was cut off. And then Sherman marched through Georgia and burned everything from Atlanta to Savannah.  Civil War strategies o US Strategy: boa constrictor, squeeze the confederate forces further and further into their own center and prevent outside supplies o Confederate Strategy:  Perimeter strategy: defensive strategy, defensive operationally, attempt to cover all possible avenues of approach, cedes initiative to the federals  Results: middle and west Tennessee lost, Union coastal enclaves in NC, SC, GA, and Louisiana; Manassas, Frederiksberg, Yorktown, and Norfolk lost; McClellan at the gates of Richmond; Confederates kicked out of Missouri.  Army of Northern Virginia (CSA) vs. Army of the Potomac (USA) o Army of Northern Virginia:  army suffers of lack of initiative, fails to take advantage  logistically weak  generally outnumbered  extremely mobile  weak on engineering and artillery o Army of the Potomac:  Logistically strong, usually has numeral superiority  Usually has numerical superiority  Generally, slow  Very strong engineering and artillery o Big question: was the Union military inferior? Does it matter?  McClellan Takes command o Conciliation  “We are fighting only to preserve the integrity of the Union... Make it apparent to all that their property, their comfort, and their personal safety will be best preserved by adhering to the cause of the Union.” o Operations  “Move into the heart of the enemy’s country and crush the rebellion in its very heart.”  Mississippi River - flows north to south, like most rivers, so North has advantage of flow of supplies o Most expectation centered on the east, focused move on Richmond, but moved too slowly o Winfield Scott: strangling the Confederates like a python o Naval advantage the union enjoyed having played a big part  Resources: o Strategy: can be too far away from a supply line because you will have to bring supplies up, only the railroads and rivers can provide resources o Waters and RR supply allowed your army to be in groups of 100,000 rather than smaller groups o River:  Security: RR can be blown up and taken out of commission, but the river can’t  Ohio river steamboat of 500 tons carried enough supplies for an army of 40,000 men and 18,000 horses for nearly wo days. This is equivalent of five 10-car freight trains o Railroad:  North has advantage because of railroads line more plentiful in north than south, turning out more railroad cars and engines, advantage of south flowing rivers, south has to push again the current, south doesn’t have the industrial capacity to build steam fleet to fight the north  River has its path; RR can be laid down where river can’t go  The Final Months o 1864 election: Lincoln afraid he would lose the election, the war was going well for the union but it had taken four years, war against a general fired by the president, Lincoln needs another win to wrap up re-election, Sherman gives him Atlanta as political advantage. o Liberated slaves: can’t afford to have these people trailing after the army to have protection, then there’s that many more to feed and to be slowed down by.  Field Order #15: gave 40 acres and farm animals to newly liberated slaves so they could grow for themselves. (If they can farm, then they can’t slow down the army, only for military gain so the army can advance) [later recanted, everything taken back]  Are slavery reparations overdue? Paid? Practical impossibility by now?  Often cited as reasons for reparations, but it wasn’t made for payment or request for forgiveness. Was made to help the army o Aftermath: Lee surrenders to Grant (April 1865), Davis is captured (may 10, 1865) and held as a POW for ten years after war ends  Civil War Legacy: o Power of the federal government begins to expand, Lincoln the first to function as a hands on commander in chief. o Total War  Scorched earth vs. annihilation  Deprive enemy forces of I supplies and resources o Sociopolitical Factors  Assembled mass armies – power of the Federal Government  Created and enforced conscription acts  Mobilized societies to support the war  Individual loses identity  Darkness and Light: 1865-1898 o Old Things: still chasing Indians and trying to control them o New things:  Lieutenant Henry Flipper: born 1886 – Georgia – goes to West Point and becomes first African American graduate, commission 2 Lt. in Calvary, post engineer, construction supervisor, acting assistance, 1881: court marshaled for embezzling funds unbecoming an officer and gentleman (or for being black), couldn’t make embezzling charges stick. June 1882 – thrown out of army; served in government posts afterwards, wrote a book about days in the army. 1999 = pardoned by Clinton. Maintained his innocence of embezzlement.  New: 1 black graduate of West Point  Old: Military still racist o Reconstruction  Bring the states back into the union  Lincoln: soft reconstruction, treat south with kindness, not seek revenge  Andrew Johnson: sought to continue that policy after Lincoln’s assassination, radical republicans disagreed, wanted the South to pay, waned revenge  Freedmen’s Bureau: already up and running before the war ends; first fed social agency (protect and educate) – supposed to mean that the slaves would be trained and given new skills and receive job placement help; practical: were never realized, the south’s economy had to be rebuilt, south was physically and working-ly destroyed (no more slaves)  Best short term solution? : hire the freed slaves to put plantations back in business, just pay them this time o FB: instead of helping them, they send the slaves back to the plantations into adhesion contracts, is the offer you can’t refuse, brains or signature on the contract. Contracts were set up so that once you signed it, you couldn’t work anywhere else, and south was enacting laws making it illegal for anyone to mess with that contract (outside leaders can offer hired slave a job) o Slavery doesn’t end, it just takes new form o The Dark Ages:  Read the Law: apprentice with another lawyer until you’re ready, and also in the medical field, not schools for either until this point, minimum education requirements  The Age of Enlightenment  Sherman succeeds Grant as General in Chief, training in schools when not in war o Lots of military colleges, higher earning for soldiers o Emory Upton: wrote textbooks about Asia and Europe (1904: argued for professional standing army, shot down case for militia) had a role for militia, the become part of expandable army o John Logan: Volunteers Soldiers of America o Stephen Luce forms the Navy  Open discussion: o What role should the US Army have in domestic disturbances?  There were police departments/forces  1980’s Ken State riots: UC Shuts down because National Guard fired on students o To what extent should the Army be involved in “civilian’ occupations?  Did we really need to take military men and have them do civilian work?  Undiscovered territory: unknown threats that makes sense to send the army  Fighting the Indians because we were trying to fulfil Manifest destiny o What does military professionalism mean?  Classically trained military force, not just farmer-joe out of the field  Big first for the nation, first time not pulling in untrained civilians to defend the nation Winning the West – 1865-1890 Military’s role is clearing the path to the land we know we own between Canada and Mexico o 1865 – we have run out of land  After the Civil war, more land than ever before, better position to use to best advantage because not dealing with slavery anymore (Slave and free states)  But either already squeezed Native Americans or in the process of doing so: parting with less desirable land to give to them  The Bozeman trail o Gold in Bozeman, Montana o Best route went through lands reserves for Sioux, Arapaho, and northern Cheyanne tribes o Red Clouds (leader) walks out of peace talks  Forts go up during talks  Warriors win at Red Hills o Loose association made treaties hard o Indian tribes always assumed to be wrong o Road is abandoned in 1868. Even though it was cleared  “Galvanized” Yankees o Confederate POWs offered opportunity to get out of jail, given a gun but out in the middle of nowhere to combat the Indians o Draftees, no stake in outcome of war (came from lower white classes without a plantation) o POWs as work detail is common  Henry vs. Spencer = longer barrels o Spencer is short and can be fired from horseback, use in the calva o Henry for sitting on the ground o But the Indians keep winning  9 /10 Calvary – Buffalo soldiers o African Americans troopers/units o Union army mobilized freed slaves under command of White officers, once the war was over, the usual thing was to let the army go o Now the AA units to keep them active, cultural shift or at least the beginnings of one (not integrated till Korea)  From removal to reservation o Removal act: whole state of Oklahoma for them o Reservation: specific tracks of land inside thee states is for the Indians  Communities not accustomed to living close together are forced to live next to one another, leads to bloodshed  Some tribes refused to moves, the army called to force compliance  Waging total war in the winter o Indians fight during the warm months and suspend fighting during the winter months, as well as the Americans, and in WWI. WWII leads to winter wars o General Sheridan planned to attack during the winter months when the Indians are most vulnerable and won’t fight back, camps and food supplies are low and they are going to raid the Indian stores. Tactics started in the Civil War (Sherman) campaigns continued through winter months  Northern Plains o Custer’s Last Stand (7 Calvary): Little Bighorn: overconfidence, wanted the press to see him witness the victory  Ignored scouts  Custer would move in from the south, but others would move in from the north; but Custer moves a day early and runs into a force of Sioux and other tribes that had been vastly underestimated.  Army responds by pressing harder for Sioux to return to the reservation o Their greatest victory led to their defeat o Wounded Knee  Ghost dance (tradition) made settlers nervous. Army called in to stop it, a gun went off accidentally and the fight started. 180 Indian died  Dec. 29, 1890 – end of the war th  Were we 19 century terrorists? o Army not policy makers, Washington would have had to decide o Wounded Knee didn’t have to end in a massacre, Washington could have honored the treaties Modernization  World Power: 1890-1914 o Isolationist: frontiers closed with borders from “sea to shining sea”, Manifest destiny fulfilled o Expansionist: leading industrial nation on the imperialist global scale o Foreign policy based on pragmatism, notoriously short-term, famous for not thinking beyond next election/little bit o Causes of Expansion:  Economic: desire for new markets and raw materials  Military: desire for naval and coaling stations, also, though not as important, have to re-supply the holds with food for the crew  Ideological: desire to bring Christianity, western-style culture, and democracy to other peoples; idea that we were civilizing the world of heathens  White-man’s burden: obligation to spread out culture an idea of civilization o Liberal Developmentalism: Emily Rosenberg  Belief that other nations could and should replicate America’s own development experience  Faith in private free enterprise  Support for free or open access for trade and investment  Promotion of free flow of information and culture  Ours out, not theirs in  Growing acceptance of governmental activity to protect private enterprise and stimulate and regulate American participation in international economic and cultural exchange o Hey’s Open Door: doors open to trade out with anyone, less concerned with markets in other countries  Open Door Policy: the traditional policy of imperil powers was to divide the world into spheres of influence, this locked new powers out of opportunities for new markets. To open up opportunities, US Secretary of State John Hay advanced this policy to China. Called for free and equal access to Chines ports and markets for western powers  Boxer Rebellion: brief, bloody war (for the Chinese) led by a group named “Fists of Righteousness Harmony”, Chinese nationalist’s expert in the art of Kung Fu. The boxers wanted to rid China of Americans forever and allow the Chinese to govern themselves  Imperialism Righteousness: Josiah Strong (Congregationalist minister): called for the US to create an empire to bring “civilization” to remote parts of the world o The Anglo-Saxon “race” had on obligation to evangelize the world o “White-man’s Burden” to bring liberty and Christianity to the “darker races”  Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History: bedrock of naval literature, still widely read enough for a modern publication of the air force based on this outline, Teddy Roosevelt reads it and steps up construction of steal navy to take over islands in the Pacific. Mahan had a big hand in building the Panama Canal o Every nation that became a great nation did so because they had a great Navy  Anti-imperialist League: said it was hypocritical for Americans to talk about a right of self- government and then take over foreign lands. o William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Grover Cleveland o Doesn’t reflect majority opinion or policy  Spanish-American War (1898-1901) o Jose Marti: Cuban poet; exiled from Cuba, led the Cuban independence movement from New York. When the revolution began, he went back and was killed by Spanish troops. Marti became a martyr and created sympathy for Cuba among the Americans. o Yellow Journalism: type of news reporting that exaggerates events to get more readers or viewers and thus sell more newspapers  William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal), Joseph Pulitzer (New York World)  drum up support for the war by misrepresenting what was happening o The De Lome Letter: Written by Spanish foreign minister Dupuy de Lome to a friend in Havana. Calls POTUS William McKinley “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd,… who tries to leave the door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his pary.” A Cuban spy intercepted it and leaked it to Hearst’s newspaper. American outrage cause Lome to resign. o Jingoism: from the letter, means extreme nationalism, marked by an aggressive foreign policy o Battleship Maine: US gunboat that blew up and sank in the Havana harbor after de Lome’s resignation  260 sailors killed  widely publicized the Spanish were at fault, turns out it was a mechanical thing (the boiler blew up), but by the time it was discovered, it was too late and we were at war  War declared April 25, 1898 o The Splendid Little War:  Only takes nine months from declaration of war to Treaty of Paris  Treaty of Paris of 1898: Americans gets Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines  Teller Amendment: added to the declaration of war with Spain, it declared that when US defeated Spain, Cubans would be given complete independence, US given practical control over Cuba (until Fidel Castro’s rebellion)  Platt Amendment: negotiated by Secretary of State Elihu Root: added to the treaty giving sovereignty to Cuba after the Spanish-American war o Specified:  Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that could weaken its power or allow a foreign power to gain territory in Cuba  Ciba had to let the US buy or lease naval stations in Cuba  Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to prevent foreign countries from landing troops to enforce payment  The US had the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order. o It showed the US still wanted to control Cuba despite the Teller Amendment. Cuba reluctantly accepted. It was repealed in 1934.  Dollar Diplomacy: term coined to describe William Howard Taft policy: use banks to prop up foreign economy, where “Banana republic” comes from, Latin America came out on the short hand as the investors and companies become the powers (they make the laws) o Banana Wars: (1898-1934) informal term for minor intervention in Latin America. Includes military presence in Cuba, Panama (Panama Canal Zone), Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua. US marine corps specialized in long-term military occupation of these countries, primarily to safeguard customs revenues (cause of local wars). World War I (1914-1916) o What were the European’s Expectations of “the next great war in Europe” before 1914?  everyone convinced that the war is going to be short and that they will win o War plans: German war plans based on idea that they are going to fight both French and Russians, they expect that Russians will be slower to mobilize. They will defeat the French first and then turn it back to Russia and fight them. (Basic thesis of von Schlieffen plan, dies in 1905, plan trusted to Helmet von Mulke [second one, the original was the one who put his own money into railroads] if he had been alive they might have won) this is the nephew and not nearly as gifted  Who Has your back? o Bismarck’s League of the Three Emperors: Germany/Russia/Austria (1873-1884) o Triple alliance: military supplementary agreement Germany/Austria/Italy (1882) o German-Russian Reassurance Treaty – 1887 – Germany rejects Russia’s request to extend the treaty in 1890, shortly after Kaiser Wilhelm sacked Bismarck o Dual Alliance: France and Russia (1892) o Triple Entente: France/Russia/Britain (1907) o Railroad lines 1914 made certain alliances necessary (for moving troops and supplies through other countries and/or to opposite fronts)  What were the assumptions about the nature of the coming war? o Lack of understanding how new machinery was going to work; fighting with 20 century weapons but with 19 century tactics, old style uniform (France, quickly discovered it’s not what you want to be wearing running towards machine guns) o Tried to use Calvary, present in every army at the start of the war (first month or so), but as the war goes on they fade away and give in to airplanes as the new scouts [Tanks 1916]  Armies have spent a lot towards developing airplanes and constructing the air force, Germans slower because et hey spent it on airships/zeppelins  Precedent: WWI not the first to use airplanes, small war between Spain and Portugal that used airplanes, but not widespread adoption and several skeptics  Ferdinand Fosch: French general 1918 supreme Allies commander, brings in unity of command, beginning of the war claims the airplane is useless. By 1918 his is a true believe and has extensive use of them  General Assumptions (1914) o War is inevitable o We can win o War will be short o Victory will go to the attacker o Losses will be heavy  Mobilization and Logistics: does mobilization really mean war? o Didn’t have too, but it did in this instance. Once the Germans started moving there wasn’t anything that could really stop it.  How did the Great Power’s war plans influence the decision for, and early course of, the war? o Everybody was thinking about timing, about when to launch an attack with the greatest success, although condemned for starting the war, it is better than waiting to be attacked. Von Schlieffen plan wasn’t what Schlieffen had planned, Mulke the younger had altered it too much to be truly recognized o Von Schlieffen plan: cut through Belgium and attack France’s flank from inside their own country and take Paris (assumed Belgium stepped aside so they wouldn’t be attacked themselves)  French plan: attack Germany head on  Assumptions (all wrong)  Belgian rail network will be captured largely intact  Belgians will put up only a token of resistance  The Russians will be unable to attack until their mobilization is complete  The right wing will be able to sustain high speed of advance  The French will be unable to switch forces from Alsace-Lorraine to counter the right wing  The British don’t really matter  Why did the von Schlieffen plan fail? o Headquarters is at the back of the army; communication is nearly impossible  Why stalemate in 1914? o Exhaustion of armies o Exhaustion of ammunition  Shell scandal (no ammunition), bars/pubs closed at 11 o’clock because the workers were showing up to make shells drunk, or not at all. Pub ban in effect till a few years ago o Density of forces o Lethality of weapons o Limited heavy artillery (industrial war, who can build more and the longest?) o No assailable flanks o All war plans failed  Why not just stop? o Politically impossible o Spontaneous outburst of peace on Christmas day – both sides meet out in no-mans-land and exchange gifts and play soccer together. Goes back the next day  Technological development at the beginning of the war o Shoot: machine gun, artillery pieces o Move: horse carts, trucks, ships, airplanes o Communicate: Trenches hardwired between layers and works until no-man-land. Then runners are sent, or carrier pigeons, signal flags  Contact patrol – airplane sent out to find how far the advance has gone. Advancing infantries carried white bedclothes to communicate with the plane’s cloxonhorn to layout the panels to say where the front line is. Or Backpacks with mirrors. Problems: infantry didn’t trust the airplane: either hide, or shoot at it because assumed it was the enemy. Planes then had to fly low enough to distinguish uniform colors. Frequently unsuccessful  Carrier pigeons, telephone, telephone exchange (system of wires) o How do you fight through this?  Trenches outlined in white because French soil is chalky  Aftermath of artillery attack, the ground is pox-marked with shell holes  Trenches built in zig-zag: invaded trenches can’t be mowed down by enemy fire, straight lines are weak structurally  America’s Role o What do the French and British want the Americans to do?  Make a second front where he Germans just left?  Fill in where the home army is the weakest?  Sep up production of shells and weapons?  Send them bodies. Home will teach them how to do everything, just send them o Why not?  would be sending the men to die, too many deaths would lose support of the war. Wilson and Persian wanted a self-standing independent army. Wilson for political reasons: wanted a seat at peace agreements that America could gain from. Persian wanted it in case we had to fight our way out of Europe.


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