New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: jpb1997

INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide INR2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > Political Science > INR2001 > INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide
GPA 3.94

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here is my study guide for our second exam on Wednesday, February 24th. This study guide is comprised of detailed notes of each and every term on the review list, which was handed out last Wednesday.
Introduction to International Relations
Nolan,Richard Anthony
Study Guide
INR2001, international relations
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to International Relations

Popular in Political Science

This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by jpb1997 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to INR2001 at University of Florida taught by Nolan,Richard Anthony in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at University of Florida.


Reviews for INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/20/16
INR2001 Exam 2 Terms Review: 1. Security Dilemma: The tendency of states to view the defensive arming of adversaries as threating, causing them to arm in a response so that all states’ security declines a. Creates a chain-reaction of states arming themselves for better protection, when in reality, more arms in circulation creates less security than before 2. Democratic Peace: The theory that although democratic states sometimes wage wars against non-democratic states, they do not fight one another a. Most democratic states end up going to war with the ideals of spreading democracy, thus there is not reason to fight other democratic nations. 3. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): A condition of mutual deterrence in which both sides possess the ability to survive a first strike with weapons of mass destruction and launch a devastating retaliatory response a. Most related to a counter-value strategy, in which the aggressor targets civilians and cities, as MAD would likely result in the end of the human race 4. Nuclear Utilization Theory (NUTs): A hypothesis regarding the use of nuclear weapons often contrasted with mutually assured destruction (MAD). a. NUTs theory at its most basic level asserts that it is possible for a limited nuclear exchange to occur b. This leads to a number of other conclusions regarding the potential uses of and responses to nuclear weapons. c. Most related to a counter-force strategy, in which the aggressor targets military objects 5. Strategic Arms Limitations Theory (SALT): Two sets of agreements reached during the 1970s between the USA and USSR that established limits on strategic nuclear delivery systems a. Created a ceiling level of the amount of delivery systems that could be built 6. Nuclear Proliferation: Since WWII, the number of nuclear arsenals and the number of states that possess nuclear capabilities has grown, but many have also come to think of biological, chemical, and radiological weapons as weapons of mass destruction because of their capacity for large-scale devastation and casualties. 7. Balance of Power: The theory that peace and stability are most likely to be maintained when military power is distributed to prevent a single superpower hegemon or bloc from controlling the world a. This idea is a major part of the realist view of the world 8. Militarization: The process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence. a. It is related to militarism, which is an ideology that reflects the level of militarization of a state. 9. Nuclear Winter: The expected freeze that would occur in the Earth’s climate from the fallout of smoke and dust in the event nuclear weapons were used, blocking out sunlight and destroying the plant and animal life that survived the original blast 10. Realpolitik: The theoretical outlook prescribing that countries should increase their power and wealth in order to compete with and dominate other countries 11. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM): Part of the triad of Cold War missiles a. Has a minimum range of more than 5,500 kilometers (3,400 mi) primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more nuclear warheads) 12. Civil War: Wars between opposing groups within the same country or by rebels against the government a. 3 Reasons for Civil War: i. Autonomy (Ethnic Groups) ii. Gain control of the state iii. Failed state b. Types of Civil wars i. Internal rebellion (due to relative deprivation [we are getting screwed, and they are not]) ii. Secessionist iii. Nationalist movements/liberation movements iv. Ethnonationalist/Racial hatred v. Failed state (can often be caused by a large presence of youth) 13. Alliance: Coalitions of two or more states that combine their military capabilities and promise to coordinate their policies to increase mutual security a. Realists picture alliances as temporary, opportunistic agreements to cooperate that predictability come into being when two or more parties face a common threat 14. Bipolarity: Power is concentrated in two competing centers so that the rest of the states define their allegiances in terms of their relationships with both rival great power super- states, or poles a. Recent example: Cold War b/w the USA and USSR 15. State: An independent legal entity with a government exercising exclusive control over the territory and population it governs 16. Nation: A collectivity whose people see themselves as members of the same group because they share the same ethnicity, culture, or language 17. Nation-state: A convergence between territorial states and the physiological identification of people within them 18. Relative Deprivation (Also see civil wars): Inequality between the wealth and status of individuals and groups, and the outrage of those at the bottom about their perceived exploitation by those at the top 19. Antipersonnel landmines (APLs): Weapons buried below the surface of the soil that explode on contact when any person, soldier or citizen, steps on them a. It’s thought that more than 100-300 million landmines are scattered in more than 70 countries b. It’s estimated that about one mine exists for every 50 people in the world and each year they kill/murder more than 26,000 people (almost all civilians) = One victim every 20 minutes 20. National Morale: Popular dedication to the nation and support for its policies even when support requires sacrifice a. Also equates to rallying the nation even if the government isn’t popular 21. Conventional weapons: Refer to weapons that are in relatively wide use that are not weapons of mass destruction (e.g. nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons). a. Conventional weapons include small arms and light weapons, sea and land mines, as well as (non-weapons of mass destruction) bombs, shells, rockets, missiles, and cluster munitions. These weapons use explosive material based on chemical energy, as opposed to nuclear energy in nuclear weapons. 22. Low-intensity Conflicts: The use of military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with the policies or objectives of the political body controlling the military force. a. The term can be used to describe conflicts where at least one or both of the opposing parties operate along such lines. 23. Economic Sanctions: Disciplinary economic actions, such as the cessation of trade or financial ties, by one global actor against another to retaliate for objectionable behavior a. This tactic has been used very often in history, from Woodrow Wilson, to using them at the end of WWI and WWII, to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton working with the global community to impose sanctions on Iran to get them to the negotiating table to work on a nuclear-weapons deal 24. Anarchy: The units in the global system are subjected to few, if any, overarching institutions to regulate their conduct a. Overall, no authority 25. Third World: A cold war term to describe the less developed countries of Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America a. ¾ of the worlds population lives in the 3rd world, but only 1/5 of the wealth b. Generalities of these states: Colonization, poverty, low levels of education/literacy, weak capacity of the states, lower economic development (inequality), few democratic successes, political corruption, instability, and ethnic conflict 26. Counterforce strategy: In an event of a nuclear attack, a strategy to target military objects a. A target is one that has a military value, such as a launch silo for intercontinental ballistic missiles, an airbase at which nuclear-armed bombers are stationed, a homeport for ballistic missile submarines, or a command and control installation. The intent of a counterforce strategy (i.e., attacking counterforce targets with nuclear weapons) is to disarm an adversary by destroying its nuclear weapons before they can be launched, thereby minimizing the impact of a retaliatory second strike 27. Countervalue strategy: In an event of a nuclear attack, a strategy to target civilians and cities a. The targeting of an opponent's assets which are of value but not actually a military threat, such as cities and civilian populations 28. Calculating Power/Components of Power (Tangible Components): a. Geography i. EX: Last time UK (an island) was invaded: 1066 ii. Technology now reduces this significance b. Population c. Natural resources d. Economic Capacity (to support citizens, defense, etc.) i. Often measured by GDP or GDP/capita ii. A balance between industrial and agricultural industries is key 1. EX: China’s first push into the global economy was through the agricultural field iii. Science and technology are also keys e. Military Strength i. Also plays into economic capacity (how much is spent on military) 29. Calculating Power/Components of Power (Intangible Components): a. Political System and Leadership i. Who determines how and when the power is used ii. Priorities/objectives of the state iii. Ability of the state to move quickly in decision making iv. Every type of regime is different b. National Morale (see #20) 30. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT): An international agreement that seeks to prevent horizontal proliferation by prohibiting further nuclear weapons sales, acquisitions, or production (signed in 1968, went into effect in 1970) a. Many countries such as North Korea and Iran see this treaty as hypocritical, as it provides a seal of approval to the USA, Russia, China, Britain, and France from possessing nuclear weapons while denying it to all others 31. Sovereignty: The full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. a. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity. It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation. 32. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): also known as Star Wars, was a program first initiated on March 23, 1983 under President Ronald Reagan. The intent of this program was to develop a sophisticated anti-ballistic missile system in order to prevent missile attacks from other countries, specifically the Soviet Union. a. From the Soviet’s view, they saw this as giving the USA the ability for a preventive strike, so the Soviet’s now believed they could preform a preemptive strike, thinking that the USA would launch a preventive strike 33. Hegemonic Stability Theory: A body of theory that maintains that the establishment of hegemony for global dominance by a single great power is a necessary condition for global order in commercial transaction and international military security a. By exercising its preponderance of power, the hegemon establishes the conditions necessary for order in the international system, and discourages aggressors who would challenge the global status quo 34. Disarmament: Agreements to reduce or destroy weapons or other means of attacks a. Aims to reduce or eliminate armaments or classes of armaments completely, usually by negotiated reciprocal agreements between 2+ rivals, in an effort to prevent their use in warfare 35. Arms Control: Multilateral or bilateral agreements to contain arms races by setting limits on the number and types of weapons states are permitted a. Less ambitious than disarmament, as it’s designed to regulate, not eliminate, arms levels either by limiting their growth or by restricting how they might be used b. Results from agreements between potential enemies to cooperate in order to reduce the probability that conflicting interests will erupt in warfare, and to reduce the scope of violence in any armed conflict that many nonetheless occur 36. Multipolarity: The distribution of global power into three or more global power centers, with most other states allied with one of the rivals a. This was a key factor in the start of WWII, as economic ruin as well as a doubling in the number of nations in Europe led to the major centers of powers, ending up in another war breaking out 37. Burdens of defense expenditures: Military spending is extremely extensive and can eat up a large portion of a nation’s GDP a. Between 1960-1990 (Cold War era), defense spending = $15 trillion b. In 1990, the USA’s defense budget = $300 Billion (all African nations’ GDPs combined) c. Today, military budgets total to equal the combined income of HALF of the world 38. Fallout: Long-term exposure from a nuclear attack a. After radiation is released, it will be carried throughout the atmosphere. It is heavier than air thus it will be carried throughout the world for years and years following the attack b. The residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast or a nuclear reaction conducted in an unshielded facility is the fallout, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed. 39. Megaton: A unit of explosive power chiefly used for nuclear weapons, equivalent to one million tons of TNT. 40. Massive retaliation: The Eisenhower administration’s policy doctrine for containing Soviet communism by pledging to respond to any act of aggression with the most destructive capabilities available, including nuclear weapons a. This doctrine called to aim US nuclear weapons at what the Soviets valued most, their populations and industrial centers b. This doctrine heightened fears in the Kremlin that a nuclear exchange would destroy the Soviet Union but permit the survival of the USA. In addition to responding by increasing their nuclear capabilities, Soviet leaders accelerated their space program and successfully launched the world’s first space satellite (Sputnik). c. This demonstrated the Moscow’s ability to deliver nuclear weapons beyond the Eurasian landmass, shifting new attention to space and forcing the USA for the first time to face a nuclear threat to its homeland, which up to this point had been relatively isolated due to both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 41. Credible commitments: If the threatened nation does not believe that the aggressor will actually carry out the threat, that nation will not be as threatened to give in to the aggressor a. The entire idea of power is having the capacity to exert influence over others in accordance to your own desires, so if the nation you threaten doesn’t believe you’ll actually carry-out the threat, you won’t get anywhere 42. Preemptive Strike: When you believe you’re going to be attacked, you strike first out of caution (* Out of fear) a. A quick first-strike that seeks to defeat an adversary before it can organize an initial attack or retaliatory response 43. Preventive Strike: When you’re confident enough that you can get away with it, you strike first (* Out of confidence) a. Strictly outlawed by international law b. A war undertaken by choice against an enemy to prevent it from suspected intentions to attack someone in the distant future- if and when the enemy might acquire the necessary military capabilities 44. Arms trade: From the cold war to today, arms sales and arms trading has drastically increased a. During the cold war, most states sought to increase their security by purchasing arms produced by suppliers eagerly seeking allies as well as profits from exports b. Since the cold war has ended, and continually throughout the era of global terrorism, the total value of all international arms transfers through 2012 was $535 Billion and the volume of arms transfers each year continues to grow c. Many global south nations have drastically increased their purchases of arms d. #1 Sellers of Arms = USA | #2 seller of arms = Russia e. #1 Buyer of American arms = Saudi Arabia f. Arms sales have drastically increased in the Middle East i. In 1967, the region accounted for 11% of arms sales ii. After the 6-day war in 1967, the level of uncertainty increased, and spending amount rocketed in the region 45. Terrorism: Predetermined violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets, by subnational, transnational groups, or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. Now seen as: a. Global, in the sense that with new technology redefining limitations of distance, borders no longer serve as barriers to terrorism b. Lethal, because now terrorists have shifted their tactics from theatrical violent acts to gain media attention to purposeful destruction of a target’s civilian noncombatants, to kill as many people as possible to instill fear in as many people as possible c. Waged by civilians without state sanction as a way to erase classic boundaries between terrorism and a formal declaration of war d. Reliant on the most advanced technology of modern civilization e. Orchestrated by transnational nonstate organizations through global conspiratorial networks of terrorist cells located in many countries, involving unprecedented levels of communication and coordination f. Terrorism targets noncombatants: i. “One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter” ii. Causes of terrorism can range from religious, ideological, political, etc. iii. They choose targets based on their symbolic value iv. Terrorism is increasingly transnational, but still primarily domestic v. Technology has made terrorism easier and more random (harder to track and predict) vi. Terrorism has raised the issue of personal security 46. Diversionary Theory of War: The hypothesis that leaders sometimes initiate conflict abroad as a way of increasing national cohesion at home by diverting national public attention away from controversial domestic issues and internal problems a. These leaders would look to intentionally provoke an international crisis, hoping their citizens will become less rebellious if their attention is diverted to the threat of foreign aggression b. This theory draws a direct connection between civil strife and foreign aggression 47. Failing states: Countries whose governments have so mismanaged policy that their citizens, in rebellion, threaten to revolutionize to divide the country into separate independent states a. Global Trends: i. Poverty and extreme gender and income inequality are indicators of a failed state ii. Often ruled by corrupt governments widely regarded as illegitimate and ineffective iii. Democracy lowers the chance of a failed state; autocracy increases the chance iv. Poor or young democracies are more unstable, and poor democracies that do not raise living standards are exceptionally vulnerable v. Population pressures, exacerbated by internally displaced people, refugees, and food scarcity, contribute to failure and civil unrest vi. Governments that don’t protect human rights are vulnerable vii. “Petrostates” relying on oil and gas for income are shaky, especially if the governing authority is weak and permissive of huge gaps in the distribution of political power and wealth viii. States with governments that don’t protect freedom of religion are prone to fail ix. States that have strong rules protecting free international trade gain stability, while states with high inflation are prone to fail x. The existence of a youth bulge increases the risk of state failure through war b/c large pools of underemployed youths are easily mobilized into military action 48. Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC): Ratified by 188 (96%) of the world’s nations, this requires the destruction of existing stocks of chemical weapons a. This came after the 1925 Geneva Protocol banned the use of chemical weapons in warfare, but needed to go further b. Israel and Myanmar signed the treaty in 1993, but as of May 23, 2013, have yet to ratify it c. Only Syria, North Korea, Angola, Egypt, Somalia, and South Sudan have declined to sign or accede to the chemical weapons convention d. The legal barriers aren’t very strong, as demonstrated by the use of chemical weapons by Iran and Iraq against each other in the 8-year 1980s war and Iraq’s use in 1989 against its own Kurdish people e. Many radical extremists see chemical and biological weapons as cheap and efficient terrorist methods 49. Characteristics of Crisis: a. Taken by surprise b. Rapid response time needed c. Vital interests at stake i. Best example is JFK and the USSR placing nuclear missiles and Cuba 50. Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs): A technological innovation permitting many weapons to be delivered from a single missile a. The U.S. MX Peacekeeper missile could carry 10 nuclear warheads, enough to wipe out a city and everything else within a 50-mile radius 51. START (Strategic Arms Reduction Theory): The US-Russian series of negotiations that began in 1993 and, with the START-II agreement ratified by Russia in 2000, pledged to cut the nuclear arsenals of both sides by 80% of the Cold War peaks, in order to lower the risk of nuclear war 52. Nationalism: The strong belief that the interests of a particular nation-state are of primary importance. a. Also, the belief that a people who share a common language, history, and culture should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination. b. These strong beliefs often lead to wars between nations as public opinions become so strong that they can boil over into political issue c. A strong level of nationalism and dedication towards one’s country is often a large part of one nation’s level of power, as if people feel strongly about their nation, they’ll fight to protect it in the event of a war 53. Second-strike capability: A state’s capacity to retaliate after absorbing an adversary’s first-strike attack with weapons of mass destruction a. To guarantee that an adversary is aware that a second-strike capability exists, deterrence rationalizes an unrestrained search for sophisticated retaliatory capacities 54. Power relationship Factors: a. Conflict of interests: i. If country A and country B agree, power isn’t necessary b. Country B complies with Country A’s demands, as Country B knows that Country A would act on their threat(s) c. Cost of compliance < Cost of resistance d. If differences are extreme/stakes are high, use of force is likely 55. Long Cycle Theory: A theory that focuses on the rise and fall of the leading global power as the central political process of the modern world system a. Transitions in world leadership unfold through a series of distinct phases where periods of global war are followed by relatively stable periods of international rule making and institution building b. Shifts in the cycle have occurred alongside changes in the major states’ relative power, changing their relations with one another 56. Power transition theory: The theory that war is likely when a dominant great power is threatened by the rapid growth of a rival’s capabilities, which reduces the difference in their relative power (states are always trying to gain more power, so the balance of power is always in flux) a. This theoretical explanation of armed conflict is a central tenant of structural realism- the neorealist theory that emphasizes that change in the great powers’ military capabilities relative to those of their closest rivals is a key determinant of the behavior of states within the global system and of the probability of warfare 57. Gunboat diplomacy: A show of military force, historically naval force, to intimidate an adversary a. This is among the coercive diplomacy in the arsenal of military operations envisioned by realist policy makers to pursue power 58. Zero-sum: An exchange in a purely conflictual relationship in which what is gained by one competitor is lost by the other a. Politics isn’t seen as a zero-sum game as the use of persuasion rather then coercion, and a reliance on judicial methods to settle rival claims, is the primary means of dealing with conflict b. War is pretty much a zero-sum game (someone always wins and someone always loses, most of the time) 59. Collective Security: A security regime agreed to by the great powers that set rules for keeping peace, guided by the principle that an act of aggression by any state will be met by a collective response from the rest. Key thinking of liberal idealistic thought a. Maintaining collective security through international organizations: In order for collective security to function in a rough-and-tumble international arena, its advocates usually translate the creed, one for all and all for one, into these rules: i. All threats to peace must be common concern to everyone ii. Every member of the global system should join the collective security organization iii. Members of the organization should pledge to settle their disputes through peaceful means iv. If a breach of peace occurs, the organization should apply timely and robust sanctions to punish the aggressor v. Examples: The League of Nations, United Nations 60. Cold War: A state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact). a. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, although there were major regional wars, known as proxy wars, supported by the two sides. b. The Cold War split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences: i. The former being a single-party Marxist–Leninist state operating a planned economy and controlled press and owning exclusively the right to establish and govern communities ii. The latter being a capitalist state with generally free elections and press, which also granted freedom of expression and freedom of association to its citizens. 61. High politics: Includes issues that are vital to the survival of a state, such as national security or warfare a. Low politics deals with matters that are not essential to the nation's survival, such as social issues. b. It gained increased usage during the Cold War Era, when questions of international security and possible nuclear warfare were paramount political issues. 62. Deterrence: Preventive strategies designed to dissuade an adversary from doing what it would otherwise do a. The chief assumption of deterrence is that the defender has the ability to punish an adversary with unacceptably high costs if it launches an attack b. Key Elements: i. Capabilities: The possession of military resources that signal to the adversary that threats of military retaliation are possible ii. Credibility: The belief that the actor is willing to act on declared threats iii. Communication: The ability to send a potential aggressor the clear message that the threat will be carried out c. Other keys to deterrence: i. Deterrence = Capability x perceived resolve ii. Each side must feel comfortable that they can retaliate iii. Delivery systems must be strong (aided by increasing technology) 63. Neonationalism/hypernationalism: From “Oxford Journal”: a. The increasing popularity of radical right parties in Western Europe has received widespread attention. Despite a rather large literature on parties with explicitly anti-immigrant platforms, there is surprisingly little consensus about the underlying political ideology of this party family and its supporters. b. Current parties differ fundamentally from their predecessors in that nationalist claims are paramount. Our results point to a coherent political ideology, which may partially explain these parties’ recent electoral successes. c. Based on our combined analyses, we conclude that contemporary anti-immigrant parties constitute a new and distinct party family, which we term neo-nationalist. 64. System Level Explanations of War: Overall, this looks at anarchy a. Links to the distribution of power b. Power asymmetries: i. More inequality of power = more wars ii. Skewed distribution of power = more wars iii. WWI and WWII were balance of power wars iv. *See Hegemonic Stability Theory (#33), Power Transition Theory (#56), Arms Races (#35), and Civil Wars (#12) 65. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): A nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (buildings), natural structures (mountains), or the biosphere. 66. Individual Level Explanations of War: a. Human Nature b. Leadership: Wars often results from the decision of leaders i. Checks and Balances aim to limit this in democracies c. Misperception: Rationality is about coming up with a solution at the lowest cost i. Can often get incomplete info or biased info, leading to bad decisions or incomplete ideas ii. ***Interpreting reality is based on how you see the world iii. 3 types of misperception: 1. Underestimate of your adversaries’ capabilities 2. Exaggerate/Underestimate the adversaries’ intentions 3. Misperception d. Loss on control i. In crisis, leadership could lose control e. Expected utility of war i. Gains of war > Loss of War 67. State Level of Analysis and War Involvement: a. Duration of Independence: Newly independent countries usually go through a period of political unrest following their acquisition of independence as sovereign members in the international community i. They then are likely to seek resolve longstanding internal grievances and take up arms over contested territories with their neighbors b. Cultural Determinants: A country’s behavior is strongly influenced by the cultural and ethical traditions of its people i. In a world of diverse national cultures, the messages of obedience and of duty to make sacrifices to the state through such cultural conditioning are common 1. Cultural conditioning: The impact of national traditions and societal values on the behavior of the state, under the assumption that culture affects national decision making about issues such as the acceptability of aggression c. Poverty: A country’s level of economic development affects the probability of its involvement in war and armed revolution i. Armed conflict, often an angry response to frustration, is a product of relative depression (See #18) ii. This is partially why the probability of armed conflict is the highest in the global south, where people’s expectations of what they deserve are rising more rapidly than their material rewards, and the existing gap in the distribution of wealth and opportunities is widening iii. The relationship between poverty and armed conflict is all the more pronounced in countries where there is a youth bulge (See #47, A, Part X) d. Militarization: Realism states that if you want peace, prepare for war; however, this strategy has not panned out perfectly i. Most global south countries agree with realists’ thesis that weapons contribute to their security, as they’ve been among the biggest customers in the robust global arms trade and have built huge armies to guard against their neighboring states’ potential aggression ii. However, militarization has not led to peace in the global south iii. This pattern is common, as shown in Europe. When European nations were peaking, the world’s deadliest and frequent wars occurred in Europe 1. Between 1817 and 1945, 3/5 of all interstate wars took place in Europe e. Economic System: Since Marxism took root in Russia in 1917, communist theoreticians claimed that capitalism was the primary cause of imperialistic wars and colonialism i. According to the Communist Theory of Imperialism, capitalism is mired in excess production, thus its imperialist ways caused these nations to be driven for a need for foreign markets to generate capitalism (laissez-faire economics rationalized militarism and imperialism for economic gain ii. Contrary to Marxist theory, Commercial Liberalism contends that free- market systems promote peace, not war 1. Defenders of capitalism have long believed that free-market countries that practice free trade abroad are more pacific 2. They cite the fact that commercial enterprises are natural lobbyists for an Economic Peace: The premise that economic institutions associated with a contract-intensive economy are the source of peace between countries 3. War interferes with trade, blocks profit, destroys property, causes inflation, consumes scarce resources, and necessitates big government, counterproductive regulation of business activity, and high taxes f. Regime Type: Realist theories discount the importance of government type as an influence on war and peace, while liberalism assigns great weight to the kinds of political institutions that states create to make policy decisions, and it predicts that the spread of “free” democratically ruled governments will promote peaceful interstate relations g. Military Industrial Complex: Features of society that would profit from war i. Term coined by Dwight D. Eisenhower when he left office 1. National politics are made by those who benefit from it h. Marxism and state control and competition: See Part E on previous page i. Democratic Peace Thesis: If we have democratic forms of government, war is a less-likely outcome of conflict i. Democracies tend not to fight each other ii. Solution: Make more democratic governments iii. Thesis also relates to elements of democratic society, from free press to fair elections, etc. 68. Human Development Index (HDI): An index that uses life expectancy, literacy, average number of years of schooling, and income to assess a country’s performance in providing for its people’s welfare and security a. A more comprehensive measure than per capita income and has the advantage of directing attention from material possessions towards human needs b. By focusing on aspects of human welfare beyond average income for each person, by treating income as a proxy for a decent standard of living, the HDI provides a more complete picture of human life than does income along c. A low HDI = Greater possibility of a failed state d. HDI ranges from 0 to 1. The value shows the distance that it has already traveled toward the maximum possible value of 1 and allows for comparison with other countries 69. Bush Doctrine: The unilateral positions of the George W. Bush administration proclaiming that the USA will make decisions to meet the US’s perceived national interests, not to concede to other countries’ complaints or to gain their acceptance a. This emphasis of self-interested unilateralism led to a surge of anti-Americanism between 2003 and 2008 b. As President Bush declared, “Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.”


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.