Bio Notes II 2/23
Bio Notes II 2/23 BIO 1144
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Exam 3 Ch. 40 Animal Form & Function +Levels of Organization: Cellular: Phylum Porifera Tissue: Cnidaria + Ctenophora Organ: liver, lungs, heart, etc Organ Systems: endocrine, skeletal, etc Organ Systems 1. Integumentary : external protection against injury/water loss 2. Digestive: breakdown of molecules, absorption, waste elimination 3. Nervous : regulation and coordination of body activities 4. Muscular & Skeletal : locomotion, protection, movement of materials through body 5. Circulatory : transport of solutes through body 6. Respiratory : gas exchange 7. Excretory (urinary) : regulation of bodily fluids, elimination of wastes 8. Endocrine: hormone control 9. Reproductive : production of gametes 10. Immune/Lymphatic : defense against pathogens 4 Basic tissue Types: +Epithelial Tissue +Connective Tissue +Muscle Tissue +Nervous Tissue ❏ Epithelial Tissues +Sheets of cells which line or cover a surface/cavities Tightly Packed Separated by underlying connective tissues by Basal lamina (basement membrane) Classification +Cell Layers Simple Epithelium (1 layer) Stratified Epithelium (+2 layer) Morphology +Cell Shape Squamous Cuboidal (centered nucleus) Columnar ★ Simple Squamous Epithelium Single layer of flat cells Function: Exchange of materials Secretion/Absorption ★ Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Single layer of cubed cells Function: Absorption/Secretion ★ Simple Columnar Single layer of rectangular cells Function: Absorption/Secretion Protection ❖ Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium All cells attached to basal lamina, but looks like multiple layers Cells vary in height Function: Absorption/Secretion Protection ➢ Stratified Squamous Epithelium Multiple layers of flat cells Outermost cells dead, replaced by keratin Hard outer portion Function: Protection ● Stratified Cuboidal + Stratified Columnar Epithelium 23 layers thick Function: Transport Forming barrier ❏ Transitional Epithelium Stretchable cells Lines urinary bladder Funtion: Expands bladder to hold more ❖ Connective Tissues Connect, bind, support, anchor structures +Loose (areolar) Tissues Hold internal organs in place Lines body cavity +Dense tissues Tightly packed fibers Strength, support body parts Tendons/ Ligaments +Cartilage Support and cushion but flexibility for joints Tightly packed fibers +Bone Support and Protection +Adipose Tissue Fat storage tissue Support, protection, energy storage, insulation +Blood Transports materials ➢ Muscle Tissues +Skeletal Attached to bone, movement of body Composed of compacted tubes “Voluntary” control +Smooth Layers of tightly packed flattened oval cells Cavities in tubes, veins, organs “Involuntary” control, ex. digestion of food +Cardiac Only found in heart Pumps blood through heart “Involuntary” control Nervous Tissue Initiates and Conducts Signals through Body Central Nervous Systems= Brain + Spinal Cord +Neurons= Nerve Cells Carry impulse signals +Neuroglial Cells More numerous than neurons Maintenance, Ion balance, Metabolic support Examples: Organs: Stomach Connective tissue: lining Smooth: helps move materials Nervous: cause contractions Epithelial: outer protection Organ Systems +Structure +Function → Able to predict/determine structure Integumentary System Skin and all accessory structures +Vertebrates: skin largest organ Functions: Protection from damage/water loss Barrier to pathogens Protection from UV light, temp. regulation Sensory receptors, sense of touch Limited Ion Release +Skin 2 Layers Epidermis: outer tissue layer Stratified squamous Langerhans cells: defense cells, immunity Melanocytes: UV protection, pigment cells Merkel cell: textile, touch cells Keratinocytes: cells producing keratin, outermost cell layer dead Dermis: inner thicker tissue layer Highly vascularized Vessels, sensory, glands, nerves Hair, feathers, scales origin +Meissner’s Corpuscles Associated with light touch +Pacinian Corpuscles Deep pressure vibrations +Sweat glands Duct into outside Temp. regulation( evaporating, cooling) Humans have approx. 2.5 million Ion secretion(salt)/ Water secretion +Sebaceous Glands Oil/ Secretes sebum Soften and lubricates hair and skin Found throughout body, except palms and soles, enhanced on face and neck +Hypodermis *not part of skin* “below dermis” Support for actual skin Stores adipose tissue Insulation→ holds in heat
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