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Bio Notes II 2/23

by: Rocket

Bio Notes II 2/23 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Notes covering overlook on systems and more depth into types of cell structures
Thomas Holder
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
Exam 3  Ch. 40 Animal Form & Function  +Levels of Organization:  ­ Cellular: Phylum Porifera  ­ Tissue: Cnidaria + Ctenophora   ­ Organ: liver, lungs, heart, etc  ­ Organ Systems: endocrine, skeletal, etc    Organ Systems  1. Integumentary​ : external protection against injury/water loss  2. Digestive​: breakdown of molecules, absorption, waste elimination  3. Nervous​ : regulation and coordination of body activities  4. Muscular & Skeletal​ : locomotion, protection, movement of materials through body  5. Circulatory​ : transport of solutes through body  6. Respiratory​ : gas exchange  7. Excretory (urinary)​ : regulation of bodily fluids, elimination of wastes  8. Endocrine: ​ hormone control  9. Reproductive​ : production of gametes   10. Immune/Lymphatic​ : defense against pathogens    4 Basic tissue Types:  +Epithelial Tissue   +Connective Tissue  +Muscle Tissue    +Nervous Tissue    ❏ Epithelial Tissues  +Sheets of cells which line or cover a surface/cavities  ­ Tightly Packed  ­ Separated by underlying connective tissues by ​Basal lamina​  (basement membrane)    Classification  +Cell Layers  ­ Simple Epithelium (1 layer)  ­ Stratified Epithelium (+2 layer)    Morphology  +Cell Shape  ­ Squamous  ­ Cuboidal (centered nucleus)  ­ Columnar    ★ Simple Squamous Epithelium  ­ Single layer of flat cells   Function:  ­Exchange of materials  ­Secretion/Absorption    ★ Simple Cuboidal Epithelium  ­ Single layer of cubed cells  Function:  ­Absorption/Secretion     ★ Simple Columnar  ­ Single layer of rectangular cells    Function:  ­Absorption/Secretion  ­Protection    ❖ Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium   ­ All cells attached to basal lamina, but looks like multiple layers  ­ Cells vary in height  Function:  ­Absorption/Secretion  ­Protection    ➢ Stratified Squamous Epithelium  ­ Multiple layers of flat cells  ­ Outermost cells dead, replaced by keratin   ­ Hard outer portion  Function:  ­Protection    ● Stratified Cuboidal + Stratified Columnar  Epithelium  ­ 2­3 layers thick  Function:  ­Transport   ­Forming barrier         ❏ Transitional Epithelium  ­ Stretchable cells  ­ Lines urinary bladder  Funtion:   ­Expands bladder to hold more      ❖ Connective Tissues  ­Connect, bind, support, anchor structures     +Loose (areolar) Tissues  ­ Hold internal organs in place  ­ Lines body cavity     +Dense tissues  ­ Tightly packed fibers  ­ Strength, support body parts  ­ Tendons/ Ligaments    +Cartilage  ­ Support and cushion but flexibility for joints   ­ Tightly packed fibers    +Bone  ­ Support and Protection    +Adipose Tissue  ­ Fat storage tissue  ­ Support, protection, energy storage, insulation    +Blood  ­ Transports materials             ➢ Muscle Tissues    +Skeletal  ­ Attached to bone, movement of body  ­ Composed of compacted tubes  ­ “Voluntary” control    +Smooth  ­ Layers of tightly packed flattened oval cells  ­ Cavities in tubes, veins, organs   ­ “Involuntary” control, ex. digestion of food    +Cardiac  ­ Only found in heart  ­ Pumps blood through heart  ­ “Involuntary” control      Nervous Tissue  ­ Initiates and Conducts Signals through Body    ­ Central Nervous Systems= Brain + Spinal Cord    +Neurons= Nerve Cells  ­ Carry impulse signals  +Neuroglial Cells  ­ More numerous than neurons  ­ Maintenance, Ion balance, Metabolic support     Examples:  Organs: Stomach  Connective tissue: lining   Smooth: helps move materials  Nervous: cause contractions  Epithelial: outer protection    Organ Systems  +Structure  +Function     → Able to predict/determine structure     Integumentary System  Skin and all accessory structures  +Vertebrates: skin largest organ  Functions:   ­ Protection from damage/water loss   ­ Barrier to pathogens  ­ Protection from UV light, temp. regulation  ­ Sensory receptors, sense of touch  ­ Limited Ion Release    +Skin 2 Layers  Epidermis: outer tissue layer  ­ Stratified squamous   ­ Langerhans cells: defense cells, immunity  ­ Melanocytes: UV protection, pigment cells  ­ Merkel cell: textile, touch cells  ­ Keratinocytes: cells producing keratin, outermost cell layer dead  Dermis: inner thicker tissue layer  ­ Highly vascularized   ­ Vessels, sensory, glands, nerves  ­ Hair, feathers, scales origin     +Meissner’s Corpuscles  ­ Associated with light touch    +Pacinian Corpuscles  ­ Deep pressure vibrations  +Sweat glands  ­ Duct into outside  ­ Temp. regulation( evaporating, cooling)  ­ Humans have approx. 2.5 million  ­ Ion secretion(salt)/ Water secretion  +Sebaceous Glands  ­ Oil/ Secretes sebum  ­ Soften and lubricates hair and skin  ­ Found throughout body, except palms and soles, enhanced on face and neck   +Hypodermis *not part of skin* “below dermis”  ­ Support for actual skin  ­ Stores adipose tissue  ­ Insulation→ holds in heat     


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