Exam 1 Review
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by SunDevil_21 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 101 at Arizona State University taught by Weber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
PSCYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVIEW CHAPTERS 13 Chapter 1: 1. Behavior a. The outwardly observable acts of a person, alone, or in a group. 2. Behaviorism a. Focuses on how stimulus evokes a specific response b. Key idea: REINFORCEMENT 3. Case Study a. Focuses on a single participant, examining his or her psychological characteristics in detail 4. Clinical Psychologist a. Trained to provide psychotherapy and to administer and interpret psychological tests 5. Cognitive Neuroscience a. Blends cognitive psychology and neuroscience when attempting to specify how the brain gives rise to mental processes that store and process information b. Hopes to discover the nature, organization, and operation of mental events by studying the brain 6. Cognitive Psychology a. Attempts to characterize the mental events that allow information to be stored and operated on internally b. Focus on mental process c. Computer Metaphor d. Mind=software e. Brain=hardware 7. Debriefing a. An interview after a study to ensure that the participant has no negative reactions as a results if the participation and to explain why the study was conducted 8. Dependent Variable a. Measured as the values of an independent variable are changed; in an experiment, the value of the dependent variable is expected to depend on the value of the independent variable 9. DoubleBlind Design a. Participant and experimenter are both ‘blind’ to the experiment 10. Effect a. The difference in the value of the dependent variable that arises from changes in the independent variable 11. Experimental Group a. A group that receives the complete procedure that defines the experiment 12. Experimenter Expectancy Effects a. Effects that occur when an investigator’s expectations lead him or her to treat participants in a way that encourages them to produce the expected results 13. PSCYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVIEW CHAPTERS 13 14. Evolutionary Psychology a. Certain cognitive strategies and goals are so important that natural selection has built them into our brains 15. Functionalism a. Sought to understand how the mind helps individuals to adapt to the world around them, to function effectively in it b. Influenced by Darwin c. Wanted to know why humans think, feel, and behave a certain way 16. Hypothesis a. A tentative idea that might explain a set of observations 17. Independent Variable a. Deliberately and independently varied while another aspect is measure 18. Informed Consent a. Requirement that a potential participant in a study be told what he or she will be asked to do and be advised of possible risks and benefits of the study before formally agreeing to take part 19. Gestalt Psychology a. Understanding mental events that focuses on the idea that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts” b. Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization 20. Humanistic Psychology a. Assumes people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity, the combination of which allow them to choose life fulfilling paths to personal growth b. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow c. Clientcentered therapy d. Focus on psychological strengths 21. Introspection a. Looking within b. The technique of observing your mental events as, or immediately after, they occur 22. Mental Processes a. Knowledge, beliefs, desires, and feelings 23. MetaAnalysis a. Allows researchers to combine results from different studies on the same topic in order to discover where there is a relationship among variables 24. Psychiatrist a. A physician with special training in treating mental disorders b. Title: M.D. (doctor of medicine) 25. Psychodynamic Theory a. A theory of mental events that specifies the continual push and pull interaction among conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings and specifies how such interactions affect behavior b. Sigmund Freud i. Developed psychoanalysis c. Used psychoanalysis as the treatment 26. 27. Psychology: PSCYCHOLOGY UNIT 1 REVIEW CHAPTERS 13 a. The science of the mind (mental processes) and behavior 28. Random Assignment a. Technique of assigning participants randomly, by chance, to the experimental and the control groups, so that members of the 2 groups are comparable in all relevant ways 29. Reliability a. Consistency; data are reliable if the same values are obtained when the measurements are repeated 30. Scientific Method a. A way to gather facts that will lead to the formulation and validation of a theory 31. Structuralism a. Sought to identify the basic elements of consciousness and to describe the rules and circumstances under which these elements combine to form mental structures b. Wundt and Titchener c. Focuses on identifying the ‘building blocks’ of consciousness 32. Survey a. Set of questions that people are asked about their beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities 33. Validity a. A research method is valid if it does in fact measure what it is supposed to measure 34. Variable a. An aspect of a situation that can vary, or change; specifically, a characteristic of a substance, quantity, or entity that is measurable Levels of the Brain: Scientific Method o Level of the group o Systematically observe events o Level of the person o Formulate question o Level of the brain o Formulate hypothesis 4 GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY o Test hypothesis o Formulate theory o Describe o Explain o Test theory o Control Naturalistic Observation o Predict o Observed events are carefully Roots of Psychology documented o Philosophy Correlational Research o Physiology o Relation among different variables Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs are document o SelfActualization Quasi Experimental Design o Esteem o Participants are not assigned to o Social Needs groups randomly and conditions are o Safety and Security o Physiological Needs often selected, not created Chapter 2: 1. Action Potential a. Shifting change in charge that moves down the axon 2. Adoption Study a. Characteristics of children adopted at birth are compared to those of their adoptive parents or siblings versus their biological parents or siblings 3. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) a. Controls the smooth muscles in the body, some glandular function, and many of the body’s self regulating activities such as digestion and circulation b. Regulates involuntary bodily activities i. Heart rate ii. Breathing rate 4. Axon a. The sending end of the neuron; the long cablelike structure extending from the cell body 5. Central Nervous System (CNS) a. Spinal cord and the brain 6. ComputerAssisted Tomography (CT/CAT) a. A neuroimaging technique that produces a 3D image of brain structures using xrays 7. Corpus Callosum a. Large bundle of axons that connects the two halves of the brain 8. Dendrite a. Treelike part if a neuron that receives messages from the axons of other neurons 9. Dizygotic a. From different eggs and sharing only as many genes as any pair of siblings – on average, half 10. Electroencephalogram (EEG) a. A tracing of brain waves of electrical fluctuation over time 11. Electroencephalograph a. A machine that records electrical activity in the brain 12. Frontal Lobe a. Behind the forehead b. Involved in planning, memory search, motor control, speech control, reasoning, and emotions 13. Neurotransmitter a. A chemical that carries a signal from the terminal button of one neuron to the dendrite or cell body of another 14. Neuroimaging a. Brain scanning techniques that produce a picture of the structure or functioning regions of the brain 15. Occipital Lobe a. The brain lobes at the back of the head b. Concerned entirely with different aspects of vision 16. Parasympathetic Nervous System a. “slows things down” b. Counteracts the effects of the sympathetic nervous system; governs bodily activities during restful conditions 17. Parietal Lobe a. Top, rear of the brain b. Attention, arithmetic, touch, and registering spatial location 18. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) a. The autonomic nervous system and the sensorysomatic nervous system b. Has 2 parts i. Autonomic nervous system ii. Sensorysomatic nervous system 19. SensorySomatic Nervous System a. Carries information from skin, sensory organs, skeletal muscles, joints, and internal organs to CNS; directs voluntary movements 20. Plasticity a. The brain’s ability to change as a result of experience 21. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) a. A neuroimaging technique that uses small amounts of a radioactive substance to track blood flow or energy consumption in the brain 22. Pruning a. A process whereby certain connections among neurons are eliminated 23. Receptor a. A site on a dendrite or cell body where a neurotransmitter molecule attaches itself; like a lock that is opened by one key, a receptor receives only one type of neurotransmitter 24. Resting Potential a. The negative charge within a neuron when it is at rest 25. Reuptake a. Process by which surplus neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft is reabsorbed back into the sending neuron so that the neuron can effectively fire again 26. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) a. A type of magnetic resonance imaging that detects the amount of oxygen being brought to particular places in the brain, which indicates how active those neurons are. 27. Glial Cell a. A type of cell that helps neurons to form both synapses and connections when the brain is developing, influences the communication among neurons, and generally helps in the ‘care and feeding’ of neuron. 28. Heritability a. The degree to which the variability of a characteristic or ability in a population is due to genetics – given a specific environment 29. Ion a. An atom that has a positive or negative charge. 30. Lesion a. A region of impaired brain tissue 31. Lobes a. The four major parts of each cerebral hemisphere i. Occipital ii. Frontal iii. Parietal iv. Temporal 32. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) a. Technique that uses magnetic properties of atoms to take sharp pictures of the 3D structure of the brain 33. Monozygotic a. From the same egg and having virtually identical genes 34. Myelin a. A fatty substance that helps impulses efficiently travel down the axon. 35. Neuron a. A cell that receives signals from sense organs or other neurons, processes these signals, and sends the signals to muscles, organs, or other neurons; the basic unit of the nervous system 36. Selective SerotoninReuptake Inhibiter a. A chemical that blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin 37. Spinal Cord a. Part of the CNS 38. SplitBrain Patient a. A person whose corpus callosum has been severed for medical reasons, so that neural signals no longer pass from one cerebral hemisphere to the other 39. Stroke a. Cause of brain damage that occurs when blood fails to reach part of the brain, and thus neurons in that area die 40. Sympathetic Nervous System a. Part of the ANS that releases an animal to fight or to flee by speeding up the heart, increasing breathing rate to deliver more oxygen, dilating the pupils, producing sweat, decreasing salivation, inhibiting activity in the stomach, and relaxing the bladder b. ‘Speeds things up” c. Prepares the body for stressful or emergency situations 41. Synapse a. Place where an axon of one neuron sends signals to the membrane of another neuron; the synapse includes the sending portions of the receiving neuron, and the space between them 42. Synaptic Cleft a. gap in the synapse between the axon of one neuron and the membrane of another across which communication occurs 43. Temporal Lobe a. Under the temples, in front of the ears b. Processing sounds, entering new information in to memory, storing visual memories, and comprehending language 44. Terminal Button a. Structure at the end of the branch of an axon that can release chemicals into the space between neuron 45. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) a. A technique in which the brain is stimulated from outside by putting a coil on a person’s head and delivering a magnetic pulse; the magnetic fields are so strong that they make neurons under the coil fire 46. Twin Study a. A study that compares identical and fraternal twins to determine the relative contribution of genes to variability in a characteristic or ability Dopamine o Motivation, reward, movement, thought, learning Acetylcholine o Learning and memory Serotonin o Moon, pain, sleep Endorphins o Exercise Epigenetics o Chemical reaction activates and deactivates parts of the genome at Chapter 3: 1. Afterimage a. Image left behind by a previous perception 2. Amplitude a. The height of the peaks in a light wave or sound wave 3. Attention a. Act of focusing on particular information, which allows it to be processed more fully that want is not attended to 4. Attentional Blink a. A rebound period in which a person cannot pay attention to a second stimulus after having just paid attention to another one 5. Change Blindness a. Not seeing even large alterations of features as scenes change over time if those features are not of central interest 6. Chemical Senses a. Smell and taste, whih rely on sensing the presence of specific chemicals 7. Cocktail Party Phenomenon a. The effect of not being aware of other people’s conversations until your name is mentioned and then suddenly hearing it 8. Color Blindness a. An acquired or inherited inability to distinguish two or more hues from each other or to sense hues at all 9. Conduction Deafness a. A type of deafness caused by a physical impairment of the outer or middle ear 10. Cones a. Cone shaped retinal receptor cells that respond most strongly to one of three wavelengths of light; the combined signals from cones that are most sensitive to different wavelengths play a key role in producing color vision 11. Dark Adaptation a. Process that leads to increased sensitivity to light after being in the dark 12. Hair Cells a. Receptor cells with stiff hairs along the basilar membrane of the inner ear; when hairs are moved they produce neural signals that are sent to the brain and underlie auditory sensation 13. Kinesthetic Sense a. Sense that registers the movement and position of the limbs 14. Nerve Deafness a. Type of deafness that typically occurs when the hair cells are destroyed by loud sounds 15. Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision a. Theory that for some pairs of colors, if one of the colors is present, it causes cells to inhibit sensing the complementary color in that location 16. Perception a. Result of neural processes that organize and interpret information conveyed by sensory signals 17. Pitch a. How high or low a sound seems; higher frequencies of pressure waves produce the experience of higher pitches 18. PopOut a. Phenomenon that occurs when the perceptual characteristics of a stimulus are sufficiently different from the ones around it that it immediately comes to our attention 19. Prosopagnosia a. Can not recognize faces 20. Repetition Blindness a. The inability to see the second instance of a stimulus when it appears soon after the first instance 21. Retina a. Sheet of tissue at the back of the eye containing cells that convert light to neural signals 22. Rods a. rod shaped retinal receptor cells that are very sensitive to light but register only shades of gray 23. Selective Attention a. Process of picking out and maintaining focus on a particular quality, object, or event, and ignoring other stimuli or characteristics of the stimuli 24. Sensation a. Result of neural responses that occur after physical energy stimulates a receptor cell, but before the stimulus is organized and interpreted by the brain 25. Somasthetic Senses a. Senses that produce the perception of the body and its position in space – specifically kinesthetic sense (where the limbs are), vestibular sense (sense of balance), touch, temperature sensitivity, pain, and possibly magnetic sense 26. Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision a. Color vision arises from the combinations of signals from three different kinds of sensors, each of which responds maximally to a different range of wavelengths 27. Wavelength a. Distance between the arrival of peaks of a light wave or sound wave; shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies Temporal Lobes o What pathways Parietal Lobes o Where pathways Characteristics of light waves o Amplitude o Frequency o Wavelength Chemical Senses = smell and taste
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