Exam 2 Review
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by SunDevil_21 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 101 at Arizona State University taught by Weber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 Chapter 10 – Sleep Activation – Synthesis Hypothesis o Theory that dreams arise from random bursts of nerve cell activity that may affect brain cells involved in hearing and seeing; the brain attempts to make sense of this hodgepodge of stimuli, resulting in the experience of dreams Circadian Rhythms o The body’s daily fluctuations in response to the cycle of dark and light o People differ in circadian rhythms Hypnogogic Sleep o The initial stage of sleep, which lasts about 5 minutes and can include the sensation of gentle falling or floating or a sudden jerking of the body; also referred to as Stage 1 Sleep Insomnia o Repeated difficulty of falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, or waking up too early o Can be cause by stress o Medication: sleeping pills o Psychological Treatments: address sleep related thoughts and behaviors Latent Content o The symbolic content and meaning of a dream Manifest content o The obvious, memorable content of a dream Narcolepsy o Sleep attack o No cure REM rebound o The higher percentage of REM sleep that occurs following a night lacking the normal amount of REM REM sleep o Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, marked brain activity, and vivid dreaming Sleep o Natural recurring experience during which normal consciousness is suspended Sleep Apnea o A disorder characterized by a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep, usually preceded by a period of difficult breathing accompanies by loud snoring Sleep Paralysis o Wake up and can’t move Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) o A small part of the hypothalamus just above the optic chiasm that changes in light, leading to a production of hormones that regulate various bodily functions Stages of Sleep o Stage 1 Hypnogogic Breathing is deeper and more regular 5 minutes o Stage 2 UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 Sleep Spindles Brief bursts of brain activity More relaxed and less responsive to environment Lasts approx. 20 minutes o Stages 3 and 4 Delta Waves Slow wave sleep Night Terrors More likely in children Stage 3 Heart rate and body temp decreases Stage 4 Very deep sleep Heart rate, b/p, breathing, and body temp slow down o REM Sleep When dreams usually happen Muscles are relaxed and unresponsive Sleep Deprivation o When you are sleep deprived likely to have problems sustaining attention and performing visual motor tasks o Sleep Deprivation affects attention, physical performance, mood, stress response, and decreased learning o People who are sleep deprived perceive more stressors in their lives o Chronic sleep deprivation can change cortisol lever, which alters other biological functions like decreased immune system functioning and increased risk for diabetes Cortisol o Helps the body meet the increased demands imposed by stress Functions of Sleep o Conserve energy o Restore the body o Facilitates Learning Why We Dream o Temporarily relieves stress o Wish fulfillment Sigmund Freud Dream content originates in the unconscious o Francis Crick Dreams are used to edit out unnecessary or accidental brain connections formed during the day Dreams are used to strengthen useful connection o Mark Solms Dreaming occurs in response to any type of arousal that activates brain structures involved in motivation o Dreaming is a neurological process Why We Sleep o Evolutionary Theory UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 Energy and protection o Restorative Theory Repairing cells o Facilitate Learning Chapter 4 – Learning Acquisition o In classical conditioning, the initial learning of the conditioned response (CR) Biological Preparedness o Built in readiness for certain previously neutral stimuli to come to elicit particular conditioned responses, which means that less training is necessary to produce learning when these neutral stimuli are paired with the appropriate unconditioned responses. o Naturally afraid of things Classical Conditioning o A type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated (paired) with a stimulus that causes a reflexive behavior, and, in time, this neutral stimulus is sufficient to elicit – draw out from the animal that behavior o Pavlov’s experiment with the dog Tone is the CONDITIONED STIMULUS Salivating is the CONDITIONED RESPONSE Cognitive Learning o Acquisition of information that may not be acted on immediately but is stored for later use Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) o An emotionally charged conditioned response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus Conditioned Response (CR) o A response that depends on pairing the conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus; once learned, the response to the US now occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o An originally neutral stimulus that comes to produce a response evoked by a US after it has been paired enough times with that US (unconditioned stimulus) Continuous Reinforcement o Reinforcement given for each desired response Contrapreparedness o A builtin disinclination (or even inability) for certain stimuli to be conditioned to elicit particular conditioned responses o Easy to develop a snake phobia, difficult to develop a car door phobia Discrimination o The ability to respond only to a particular stimulus and not to a similar one Extinction o In classical conditioning Process by which a CR comes to be eliminated through repeated presentations of the CS without the presence of the US UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 o In operant conditioning The fading out of a response following an initial burst of that behavior after reinforcement ceases Fixed Interval Schedule o Reinforcement given for responses only when they are produced after a fixed interval of time Fixed Ratio Schedule o Reinforcement give for responses produced after a fixed number of prior responses Generalization o The ability to transfer a learned stimulusresponse association to a new stimulus that is similar to the original one, making the same response to it that led to reinforcement previously Habituation o Learning that occurs when repeated exposure to a stimulus decreases an organism’s responsiveness to that stimulus Insight Learning o Learning that occurs when a person or animal suddenly grasps how to solve a problem or interpret a pattern of information , and incorporates that new knowledge into old knowledge Interval Schedule o Partial reinforcement schedule based on time Latent Learning o Learning that occurs without behavioral indicators Learning o The acquisition of information or a behavioral tendency that persists over a relatively long period of time o Relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience Negative Reinforcement o Occurs when an unpleasant object or event is removed after a response, thereby increasing the likelihood of that response in the future Observational Learning o Learning that occurs through watching others, not through reinforcement Operant Conditioning o Process by which a stimulus and response become associated with the consequences of making the response o Ex) a stimulus leads to a particular response, and the association between stimulus and response is forged by the consequence of the response o Involves two sorts of associations Stimulus Response o Consequence Reinforcement Punishment Phobia o An irrational fear of a specific object or situation o Little Albert John Watson and Rosalie Rayner Positive Reinforcement UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 o Occurs when a desired reinforce is presented after a response, thereby increasing the likelihood of that response in the future Primary Reinforcer o An event or object, such as food, water, or relief from pain that is inherently reinforcing Punishment o The process by which an unpleasant object or event is presented after a response, which decreases the likelihood of that response in the future Punishment decreases the likelihood of a response Ratio Schedule o Partial reinforcement schedule based on a specified number of responses Reinforcement o The process by which the consequences of a response lead to an increase in the likelihood that the response will occur again when the stimulus is present o Ex) gold star Reinforcer o An object or event that, when it follows a response, increases the likelihood that the animal will make that response again when the stimulus is present Shaping o The gradual process of reinforcing an animal for responses that get closer to the desired response Spontaneous Recovery o In Classical Conditioning – the event that occurs when the CS again elicits the CR after extinction has occurred Stimulus Discrimination o Ability to distinguish among stimuli that are relatively similar to the CS and to respond only to actual CS Stimulus Generalization o A tendency for the CR to be elicited by neutral stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS Successive Approximations o Series of relatively simple responses involved in shaping a complex response Unconditioned Response (UR) o Reflexive or automatic response elicited by a particular stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus (US) o A stimulus that elicits an automatic response (UR), without prior learning Variable Interval Schedule o An aspect of a situation that can vary, or change; specifically, a characteristic of a substance, quantity, or entity that is measurable Variable Ratio Schedule o Reinforcement given for responses produced after a variable interval of time Psychologists are interested in both the content of learning and the process Types of Learning o Classical Conditioning o Operant Conditioning o Cognitive and Social Learning 2 Types of Reinforcement o Positive UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 o Negative o Both increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated 2 Types of Reinforcers o Primary Food, water o Secondary Money, good grades Reinforcement Schedules o Continuous Reinforcement given for each desired response o Partial Reinforcement given only intermittently after desired responses Interval Schedules Partial reinforcement schedule based on time Fixed Ratio Schedule Reinforcement given for responses produced after a fixed number of prior responses Dopamine o Crucial role in operant conditioning Chapter 5 – Memory Amnesia o A loss of memory over an entire time span Anterograde Amnesia o Amnesia that leaves consolidated memories intact but prevents the storing of new facts Breadth of Processing o Processing that organizes and integrates new information into previously stored information, often by making associations Central Executive o The set of processes in the WM that transforms and interprets information in one or another of two specialized STMs during planning, reasoning, and problem solving Chunk o An organized unit of information, such as a digit, letter, or word Code o A particular method for specifying information such as in words or images Consolidation o Process of converting information stored dynamically in LTM into a structural change in the brain Cues o Stimuli, thoughts, or feelings that trigger or enhance remembering; reminders of an object or event Decay UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 o The loss of memories over time because the relevant connections among the neurons are lost Depth of Processing o The number and complexity of the mental operations used when processing deeper processing occurs when moreor more complex operations are used during encoding Encoding o The process of organizing and transforming incoming information so that it can be entered in to memory, either to be stored or to be compared with previously stored information Episodic Memories o Memories or events that are associated with a particular time, place, and circumstance. Explicit (or declarative) memories o Memories that can be retrieved voluntarily and brought into STM. Also called declarative memories. Interference o Occurs when information disrupts encoding or retrieval of other information LongTerm Memory (LTM) o A memory store that that holds a huge amount of information for a long time (from hours to years) Memory Store o A set of neurons that serves to retain information over time Mnemonic Devices o Strategies that improve memory, typically by effectively organizing and integrating tobe learned information Proactive Interference o Interference that occurs when information already stored in memory makes it difficult to learn something new Regency Effect o Increased memory for the first few stimuli in a set, reflecting storage of information in LTM Rehearsal o The process of repeating information over and over to retain it in STM Repressed Memories o Memories of actual events that were pushed into the unconscious because they are emotionally threatening Retrieval o The process of accessing information stored in memory Retroactive Interference o Interference that occurs when new learning disrupts memory for something learned earlier Retrograde Amnesia o Amnesia that disrupts previous memories Semantic Memories o Memories of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the world Sensory Memory (SM) o A memory store that holds a large amount of perceptual information for a very brief time, typically less than 1 second UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 ShortTerm Memory o A memory store that hold relatively little information for only a few seconds(but perhaps as long as 30 seconds); also called immediate memory StateDependent Retrieval o Memory retrieval that is better if it occurs in the same psychological state that was present when the information was first encoded Storage o The process of retaining information in memory Working Memory (WM) o The memory system that includes two specialized STMs (auditory loop and visuospatial sketchpad) and a central executive that operates on information in the STMs to plan reason, or solve a problem Memory Processes o Encoding How it gets into memory o Storage How info is maintained o Retrieval How it gets back out Memory Stores o Sensory Memory Very short memory store arising from the temporary activation of perceptual areas of the brain Holds large amt of info for brief time o Short Term Memory Hold a relatively short amount of information for only a few seconds30 seconds Holds 59 items Can prolong information through rehearsal o Long Term Memory Huge amount of information for a long time (hrs to yrs) Making Memories o Coding o Consolidation Process of converting information stored dynamically in LTM into a structural change in the brain o Reconsolidation o Processing Explicit Memories o Semantic Facts o Episodic Events Implicit Memories UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 o Classically conditioned responses o Nonassociative learning o Habits o Skills o Priming Amnesia o Retrograde o Anterograde Chapter 6 – Language, Thinking, and Intelligence Algorithm o A set of steps that, if followed methodically, will guarantee the correct solution to a problem Availability Heuristic o The strategy in which we judge objects or events as more likely, common, or frequent if they are easier to retrieve from memory Concept o The idea that underlies the meaning of a word or image; depending on the language, some concepts can be expressed with a single word or may require a phrase or two to be fully expressed Confirmation bias o A bias to seek information that will confirm a rule and not to seek information that would refute the rule Functional Fixedness o When solving a problem, getting stuck on one interpretation of an object or one aspect of the situation Heuristic o A ruleofthumb strategy that does not guarantee the correct solution to a problem but offers a likely shortcut to it Language Comprehension o The ability to understand messages conveyed by words, phrases, and sentences Language Production o The ability to use words, phrases, and sentences to convey information Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis o The idea that language shapes our perceptions and thoughts, and thus people who speak different languages think differently Morpheme o The smallest unit of meaning in a language Phoneme o A small, basic sound from a fixed set that specifies the building blocks of speech sounds that humans are capable of producing Phonology o The structure of the sounds of the words in a language Pragmatics Problem UNIT 2 – REVIEW Chapters 10, 4, 5, 6 o The ways that words and sentences in a language convey meaning indirectly, by implying rather than asserting. o Understand the underlying meaning Prototype o The most typical example of a concept Representation Problem o The challenge of how best to formulate the nature of a problem Representativeness Heuristic o The strategy in which we assume that the more similar something is to a prototype stored in memory, the more likely it is to belong to the prototype’s category Semantics o The meaning of a word, phrase, or sentence 4 Aspects of Language o Phonology Sounds o Syntax Sentence structure Grammar o Semantics Meaning Definition o Pragmatics Understand the underlying meaning Read between the lines Language Development o Empiricist Theory Experiences o Nativist Theory LAD: Language Acquisition Device Innate o Interactionist Theory Experience and Innate
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