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Exam 3 Review

by: SunDevil_21

Exam 3 Review Psy 101

GPA 3.82

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Exam 3 Review
Intro to Psychology
Study Guide
Psychology, Exam 3, review, Weber, ASU
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by SunDevil_21 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 101 at Arizona State University taught by Weber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 02/20/16
Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 Chapter 6 (pages 215­241) – Language, Thinking, and Intelligence  Crystallized Intelligence  o According to Cattell and Horn, the kind of intelligence that relies on knowing facts and having  the ability to use and combine them  Emotional Intelligence (EI) o The ability to understand and regulate emotions effectively  Knowing your emotions  Recognizing others’ emotions  Managing feelings  Handling relationships  Self­motivation o Women tend to have higher EI than men  Down Syndrome o A type of mental retardation that results from the creation of an extra chromosome during  conception; it is a genetic problem but not inherited  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o A condition that includes mental retardation and is caused by excessive drinking of alcohol by  the mother during pregnancy  Fluid Intelligence o According to Cattell and horn, the kind of intelligence that underlies the creation (creativeness)  of novel solutions to problems.   Gifted  o People who have IQs at least three standard deviations above the mean (which is a score of 145  on the WAIS­IV)  Intelligence o The ability to reason and solve problems well and to understand and learn complex material  Intelligence Quotient (IQ) o A score on an intelligence test, originally based on comparing mental age to chronological age,  but later based on norms and used as a measure of intelligence  Mentally Retarded / Intellectually Disabled o The condition characterized by an IQ of 70 or less and significant limitations in at least two  aspects of everyday life since childhood; aka intellectual disability  Prodigies o Children who demonstrate immense talent in a particular area, such as music or mathematics, but who ma have only average abilities in other areas  Theory of Multiple Intelligences o Gardner’s theory of (at least) eight distinct forms of intelligence, each of which can vary for a  given individual 1. Linguistic 5. Bodily – kinesthetic 2. Spatial 6. Intrapersonal – self 3. Musical 7. Interpersonal – between people 4. Logical – mathematics 8. Naturalist   Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) o The most widely used intelligence test in the US; it consists of four sets of subtests  Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o Created first intelligence test  Lewis Terman (Stanford) o Developed American version of the Binet­Simon test and called it the Stanford­Binet test for  ages 2 – adult  David Weschler  o Weschler Adult Intel Scale (WAIS) o Weschler Intel Scale for Children (WISC) o Performance and verbal subtests  William Stern o Formula for IQ:  (MA/CA) x 100   MA: Mental Age  CA: Chronological Age  IQ and Achievement o IQ tends to be related to achievement o Motivation, education, and culture are important  EQ Test (Emotional Intelligence) 1. Aware of feelings 5. State unspoken feelings 2. Delayed gratification 6. Soothe and contain distressing  3. Hopeful and optimistic feelings 4. Compassion  Robert Sternberg’s theory of intelligence: o Analytic  Fixing a car, problem solving, explicit memory, IQ o Practical  Apply experience  Handle new experiences  Work/career o Creative  How to monitor performance     Chapter 7 (pages 246­266) ­ Emotion and Motivation: Feeling and Striving   Basic Emotion o An innate emotion that is shared by all humans  Collectivist Culture o A culture that emphasizes the rights and responsibilities of the group over those of the individual  Drive o An internal imbalance caused by the lack of a needed substance or condition that motivates  animals (including humans) to reach a particular goal that will reduce the imbalance  Emotion o A psychological state with four components  A positive or negative subjective experience  Bodily arousal  The activation of specific mental processes and stored information Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9  Characteristic overt behavior  Facial Feedback Hypothesis o The idea that emotions arise partly as a result of the positioning of facial muscles  Individualist Culture o A culture that emphasizes the rights and responsibilities of the individual over those of the group  Instinct o An inherited tendency to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli   Learned Helplessness o The condition that occurs after an animal has an aversive experience in which nothing it does can affect what happens to it, and so it simply gives up and stops trying to change the situation or to  escape  Motivation o The set of requirements and desires that leads an animal (including human) to behave in a  particular way at a particular time and place  Need o A condition that arises from the lack of a necessary substance (Such as food) or condition (such  as warmth); needs give rise to drives  Polygraph o A machine that is used to detect lying by monitoring the activity of the sympathetic and  parasympathetic nervous systems, particularly changes in how easily the skin conducts  electricity, breathing, and heart rate  Want o A state that arises when you have an unmet goal that does not arise from a lack of necessary  substance or condition; wants turn goals into incentives   6 Universal Emotions o Joy o Surprise o Anger o Fear o Sadness  o Disgust o Contempt  objective  James Lange Theory o EventPhysiological ArousalInterpret Physiological ChangesEmotion o You feel emotions after your body reacts  Cannon Bard Theory o EventPhysiological Arousal and Emotion o Event causes both arousal and emotion  Cognitive Theory o Eventphysiological arousalinterpret based on textemotion o Arousal and context combines to form emotion  Emerging Synthesis o o       Brain and body reaction o Event   Emotion o  o Memories and interpretation  o Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o o o o o   Chapter 8 – Personality o  Archetype o Typical example of a person or thing  Big Five o The five superfactors of personality – extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness,  conscientiousness, and openness – determined by factor analysis  Defense Mechanism o The unconscious processes that prevent unacceptable thoughts or urges from reaching conscious  awareness  Denial  Reaction formation  Intellectualization  Repression  Projection  Sublimation  Rationalization  Undoing   Ego o A personality structure, proposed by Freud that develops in childhood and tries to balance the  competing demands of the id, superego, and reality o Mediator, the reality  Expectancies o Expectations that have a powerful influence on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and, in turn, on  personalities  Id o A personality structure, proposed by Freud, that exists at birth and houses sexual and aggressive  drives, physical needs, and simple psychological needs o Immediate gratification  Inferiority Complex o Alfred Adler, feelings of inferiority fuel the striving for superiority; if inferiority feelings become too severe, they can lead to an inferiority complex, which hampers such strivings  Locus of Control o A person’s perception of the source of control over life’s events when the cause of events is  ambiguous  MMPI­ 2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory­2) o A personality inventory used primarily to assess psychopathology  Personality o A set of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tendencies that people display over time and across situations and that distinguish individuals from each other.   Personality Inventory o A lengthy questionnaire for assessing personality that requires the test takers to read statements  and to indicate whether each is true or false about themselves or to indicate how much they agree or disagree with each statement  Personality Trait Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o A relatively consistent tendency to think, feel, or behave in a characteristic way across a range of situations  Projective Test o A method used to assess personality and psychopathology that asks the test taker to make sense  of ambiguous stimuli   Psychosexual Stages o Freud’s developmental stages based on erogenous zones; the specific needs of each stage must  be met for its successful solution 1. Oral Stage (birth­1) 2. Anal Stage (1­3) 3. Phallic Stage (3­6) 4. Latency Period (6­puberty) 5. Genital Stage (puberty onward)  Rorschach Test o A projective test consisting of a set of inkblots that people are asked to interpret  Repression o A defense mechanism that occurs when the ego directly blocks threatening unconscious  thoughts, impulses, and memories from entering consciousness  Self­Actualization o An innate drive to attain the highest possible emotional and intellectual potential  Self­Efficacy o The sense of being able to follow through and produce specific desired behaviors  Social Desirability o A source of bias in responding to questions that occurs when people try to make themselves  “look good” even if it means giving answers that are not accurate   Superego  o A personality structure proposed by Freud, that is formed during early childhood and houses the  sense of right and wrong, based on the internalization of parental and cultural morality o Eventually developed and becomes your conscious  Unconditional Positive Regard o Acceptance without any conditions  TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) o A projective test consisting of a set of detailed black and white drawings; for each drawing, the  test taker is asked to tell a story about what the drawing illustrates.  Freud’s Levels of Consciousness o Conscious Level  What’s going on right now o Preconscious Level  Information and ability to retrieve them when needed o Unconscious Level  Psychological Determinism o Had to do with your childhood that makes up who you are  Freud’s Structural Model o Id o Superego Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o Ego  Criticism of Freud o Not specific o Based on limited sample o Too broad o  Freud’s followers o Carl Jung  Known in literature  Used conscious levels and added the COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUS (used in cultures) level underneath unconscious level o Karen Horney  Emphasized maternity o Alfred Adler  Talk therapy  Positive therapy  Personality  Striving for superiority  Inferiority complex  Position in family affects you  Birth Order on Personality st o 1  Born and Only Children  More responsible, ambitious, organized, academically successful, energetic  More temperamental o Middle Children  Rebellious, less closely identified with family o Baby/Last Born  Agreeable and warmer, self­conscious, sociable  Humanistic Theories o Focuses on people’s positive aspects  Their innate goodness, creativity, and free will o Theorists  Abraham Maslow: hierarchy of needs  Carl Rogers: client­centered therapy o Criticisms  Difficult to test  Idealistic view  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Self Actualization  Realizing your full potential o Aesthetic Needs  Beauty – in art and nature – symmetry, balance, order, form o Cognitive Needs  Knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and  predictability o Esteem Needs  Esteem and respect of others and self­esteem and self­respect. A sense of competence. o Love and Belongingness Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9  Receiving and giving love, affection, trust and acceptance. Affiliating, being part of a  group (family, friends, work) o Safety Needs  Protection from potentially dangerous objects or situations  The threat is both physical and psychological o Physiological Needs  Food, drink, oxygen, temperature regulation, elimination, rest, activity,    Learning and Cognitive Elements of Personality o Learning  Behavioral  Deliver Reinforcement  John Locke = “blank slate”  Be consistent o Socio Cognitive  Reciprocal determinism  Self­Efficacy: Bandura  Believe you can and you will  Follow through and practice o o o o  Personality: Traits or Situations o Trait View  The Big Five (OCEAN)  Openness  Conscientiousness  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  Extraversion o Situationist View o Interactionist View  Combination of traits and situation  Temperament o An inclination to engage in a certain style of thinking, feeling, or behaving a temperament  initially arises from the effects of genes and biology, and an individual’s environment moderates  these effects  Example: shyness and sensation seeking o o   Chapter 9 – Psychology Over the Life Span o ­Growing Up, Growing Older, Growing Wiser o  Attachment o An emotional bond that leads a person to want to be with someone else and to miss him or her  when separated   Child­Directed Speech (CDS) Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o Speech by caregivers to babies that relies on short sentences with clear pauses, careful  enunciation, exaggerated intonation, and a high­pitched voice  Conservation o The Piagetian principle that certain properties, such as amount or mass, remain the same even  when the appearance of the material or object changes, provided that nothing is added or  removed  Cross­Sectional Study o A study in which different groups of people are tested, with each group composed of individuals  of a particular age  Egocentrism o In Piaget’s theory, the inability to take another person’s point of view  Embryo o A developing baby from the point where the major axis of the body is present until all major  structures are present, spanning from about 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception  Fetus o A developing baby during the final phase of development in the womb, from about 8n weeks  after conception until birth  Formal operation o In Piaget’s theory, a reversible mental act that can be performed even with abstract concepts  Gender Roles o The culturally determined appropriate behaviors for males versus females  Language Acquisition Device (LAD) o An innate mechanism, hypothesized by Chomsky, that contains the grammatical rules common  to all languages and allows language acquisition  Longitudinal Study o A study in which the sane group of people is tested repeatedly, at different ages  Moral Dilemma o A situation in which there are moral pros and cons for each of a set of possible actions  Object Permanence o The understanding that objects continue to exist when they cannot be immediately perceived  Over­regularization Error o A mistake that occurs in speech when the child applies a newly learned rule even to cases where  it does not apply  Psychosocial Development o The result of maturation and learning on personality and relationships  Self­Concept o The beliefs, desires, values, and attributes that define a person to himself or herself  Telegraphic Speech o Speech that packs a lot of information into a few highly informative words, typically omitting  words such as the, a, and of.  Teratogen o Any external agent, such as chemical, virus, or type of radiation that can cause damage to the  zygote embryo, or fetus  Maternal Illness (measles)  Alcohol and Drugs (birth  defects) Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9  Caffeine and smoking (low   Diet and pollution  birth weight) (environmental)  Zygote o A fertilized egg (ovum)  Stages of Development in the Womb o Trimesters  9 months  3 trimesters o Zygote  Fertilization o Embryo  Major axis is present o Fetus  Unborn infant nd  2  trimester   Jean Piaget o 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor (0­2) a. Can recognize idea that if you hide something, it still exists (OBJECT  PERMANENCE) 2. Preoperational (2­7) a. Conservation b. Shape doesn’t change c. Lifelike qualities to inanimate objects (ANIMISM) 3. Concrete Operations (7­11) a. Conservation b. Can’t understand abstract subjects 4. Formal Operations (adolescent)  a. Abstract subjects are understood  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory o Cultural influences o Culture o Role of social interaction o MONKEY VIDEO  Moral Development/Kohlberg o Moral dilemmas o 3 levels of moral development  Preconventional  Conform to society’s rules  Conventional  Conform to authority, approval  Postconventional  Personal ethics guide you   Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages 1. Trust vs. Mistrust a. Infancy (birth ­18 months) 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt a. Younger Years (1 1/2  ­ 3 years) 3. Initiative vs. Guilt a. Early Childhood (3­6) 4. Industry vs. Inferiority a. Middle Childhood (7­12) 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion a. Adolescence (12­18 years) b. Personal identity 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation a. Early adulthood (19­34) b. Relationships 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation a. Middle adulthood (35­60) 8. Ego Identity vs. Despair  a. Later adulthood (60­death)   Adulthood and Aging o Intelligence and specific abilities  Fluid intelligence  Crystallized intelligence o Research methods  Longitudinal studies  Cross­sectional studies 


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