Exam 3 Review
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by SunDevil_21 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 101 at Arizona State University taught by Weber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 Chapter 6 (pages 215241) – Language, Thinking, and Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence o According to Cattell and Horn, the kind of intelligence that relies on knowing facts and having the ability to use and combine them Emotional Intelligence (EI) o The ability to understand and regulate emotions effectively Knowing your emotions Recognizing others’ emotions Managing feelings Handling relationships Selfmotivation o Women tend to have higher EI than men Down Syndrome o A type of mental retardation that results from the creation of an extra chromosome during conception; it is a genetic problem but not inherited Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o A condition that includes mental retardation and is caused by excessive drinking of alcohol by the mother during pregnancy Fluid Intelligence o According to Cattell and horn, the kind of intelligence that underlies the creation (creativeness) of novel solutions to problems. Gifted o People who have IQs at least three standard deviations above the mean (which is a score of 145 on the WAISIV) Intelligence o The ability to reason and solve problems well and to understand and learn complex material Intelligence Quotient (IQ) o A score on an intelligence test, originally based on comparing mental age to chronological age, but later based on norms and used as a measure of intelligence Mentally Retarded / Intellectually Disabled o The condition characterized by an IQ of 70 or less and significant limitations in at least two aspects of everyday life since childhood; aka intellectual disability Prodigies o Children who demonstrate immense talent in a particular area, such as music or mathematics, but who ma have only average abilities in other areas Theory of Multiple Intelligences o Gardner’s theory of (at least) eight distinct forms of intelligence, each of which can vary for a given individual 1. Linguistic 5. Bodily – kinesthetic 2. Spatial 6. Intrapersonal – self 3. Musical 7. Interpersonal – between people 4. Logical – mathematics 8. Naturalist Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) o The most widely used intelligence test in the US; it consists of four sets of subtests Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o Created first intelligence test Lewis Terman (Stanford) o Developed American version of the BinetSimon test and called it the StanfordBinet test for ages 2 – adult David Weschler o Weschler Adult Intel Scale (WAIS) o Weschler Intel Scale for Children (WISC) o Performance and verbal subtests William Stern o Formula for IQ: (MA/CA) x 100 MA: Mental Age CA: Chronological Age IQ and Achievement o IQ tends to be related to achievement o Motivation, education, and culture are important EQ Test (Emotional Intelligence) 1. Aware of feelings 5. State unspoken feelings 2. Delayed gratification 6. Soothe and contain distressing 3. Hopeful and optimistic feelings 4. Compassion Robert Sternberg’s theory of intelligence: o Analytic Fixing a car, problem solving, explicit memory, IQ o Practical Apply experience Handle new experiences Work/career o Creative How to monitor performance Chapter 7 (pages 246266) Emotion and Motivation: Feeling and Striving Basic Emotion o An innate emotion that is shared by all humans Collectivist Culture o A culture that emphasizes the rights and responsibilities of the group over those of the individual Drive o An internal imbalance caused by the lack of a needed substance or condition that motivates animals (including humans) to reach a particular goal that will reduce the imbalance Emotion o A psychological state with four components A positive or negative subjective experience Bodily arousal The activation of specific mental processes and stored information Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 Characteristic overt behavior Facial Feedback Hypothesis o The idea that emotions arise partly as a result of the positioning of facial muscles Individualist Culture o A culture that emphasizes the rights and responsibilities of the individual over those of the group Instinct o An inherited tendency to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli Learned Helplessness o The condition that occurs after an animal has an aversive experience in which nothing it does can affect what happens to it, and so it simply gives up and stops trying to change the situation or to escape Motivation o The set of requirements and desires that leads an animal (including human) to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place Need o A condition that arises from the lack of a necessary substance (Such as food) or condition (such as warmth); needs give rise to drives Polygraph o A machine that is used to detect lying by monitoring the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, particularly changes in how easily the skin conducts electricity, breathing, and heart rate Want o A state that arises when you have an unmet goal that does not arise from a lack of necessary substance or condition; wants turn goals into incentives 6 Universal Emotions o Joy o Surprise o Anger o Fear o Sadness o Disgust o Contempt objective James Lange Theory o EventPhysiological ArousalInterpret Physiological ChangesEmotion o You feel emotions after your body reacts Cannon Bard Theory o EventPhysiological Arousal and Emotion o Event causes both arousal and emotion Cognitive Theory o Eventphysiological arousalinterpret based on textemotion o Arousal and context combines to form emotion Emerging Synthesis o o Brain and body reaction o Event Emotion o o Memories and interpretation o Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o o o o o Chapter 8 – Personality o Archetype o Typical example of a person or thing Big Five o The five superfactors of personality – extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness – determined by factor analysis Defense Mechanism o The unconscious processes that prevent unacceptable thoughts or urges from reaching conscious awareness Denial Reaction formation Intellectualization Repression Projection Sublimation Rationalization Undoing Ego o A personality structure, proposed by Freud that develops in childhood and tries to balance the competing demands of the id, superego, and reality o Mediator, the reality Expectancies o Expectations that have a powerful influence on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and, in turn, on personalities Id o A personality structure, proposed by Freud, that exists at birth and houses sexual and aggressive drives, physical needs, and simple psychological needs o Immediate gratification Inferiority Complex o Alfred Adler, feelings of inferiority fuel the striving for superiority; if inferiority feelings become too severe, they can lead to an inferiority complex, which hampers such strivings Locus of Control o A person’s perception of the source of control over life’s events when the cause of events is ambiguous MMPI 2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory2) o A personality inventory used primarily to assess psychopathology Personality o A set of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tendencies that people display over time and across situations and that distinguish individuals from each other. Personality Inventory o A lengthy questionnaire for assessing personality that requires the test takers to read statements and to indicate whether each is true or false about themselves or to indicate how much they agree or disagree with each statement Personality Trait Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o A relatively consistent tendency to think, feel, or behave in a characteristic way across a range of situations Projective Test o A method used to assess personality and psychopathology that asks the test taker to make sense of ambiguous stimuli Psychosexual Stages o Freud’s developmental stages based on erogenous zones; the specific needs of each stage must be met for its successful solution 1. Oral Stage (birth1) 2. Anal Stage (13) 3. Phallic Stage (36) 4. Latency Period (6puberty) 5. Genital Stage (puberty onward) Rorschach Test o A projective test consisting of a set of inkblots that people are asked to interpret Repression o A defense mechanism that occurs when the ego directly blocks threatening unconscious thoughts, impulses, and memories from entering consciousness SelfActualization o An innate drive to attain the highest possible emotional and intellectual potential SelfEfficacy o The sense of being able to follow through and produce specific desired behaviors Social Desirability o A source of bias in responding to questions that occurs when people try to make themselves “look good” even if it means giving answers that are not accurate Superego o A personality structure proposed by Freud, that is formed during early childhood and houses the sense of right and wrong, based on the internalization of parental and cultural morality o Eventually developed and becomes your conscious Unconditional Positive Regard o Acceptance without any conditions TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) o A projective test consisting of a set of detailed black and white drawings; for each drawing, the test taker is asked to tell a story about what the drawing illustrates. Freud’s Levels of Consciousness o Conscious Level What’s going on right now o Preconscious Level Information and ability to retrieve them when needed o Unconscious Level Psychological Determinism o Had to do with your childhood that makes up who you are Freud’s Structural Model o Id o Superego Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o Ego Criticism of Freud o Not specific o Based on limited sample o Too broad o Freud’s followers o Carl Jung Known in literature Used conscious levels and added the COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUS (used in cultures) level underneath unconscious level o Karen Horney Emphasized maternity o Alfred Adler Talk therapy Positive therapy Personality Striving for superiority Inferiority complex Position in family affects you Birth Order on Personality st o 1 Born and Only Children More responsible, ambitious, organized, academically successful, energetic More temperamental o Middle Children Rebellious, less closely identified with family o Baby/Last Born Agreeable and warmer, selfconscious, sociable Humanistic Theories o Focuses on people’s positive aspects Their innate goodness, creativity, and free will o Theorists Abraham Maslow: hierarchy of needs Carl Rogers: clientcentered therapy o Criticisms Difficult to test Idealistic view Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Self Actualization Realizing your full potential o Aesthetic Needs Beauty – in art and nature – symmetry, balance, order, form o Cognitive Needs Knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and predictability o Esteem Needs Esteem and respect of others and selfesteem and selfrespect. A sense of competence. o Love and Belongingness Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 Receiving and giving love, affection, trust and acceptance. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work) o Safety Needs Protection from potentially dangerous objects or situations The threat is both physical and psychological o Physiological Needs Food, drink, oxygen, temperature regulation, elimination, rest, activity, Learning and Cognitive Elements of Personality o Learning Behavioral Deliver Reinforcement John Locke = “blank slate” Be consistent o Socio Cognitive Reciprocal determinism SelfEfficacy: Bandura Believe you can and you will Follow through and practice o o o o Personality: Traits or Situations o Trait View The Big Five (OCEAN) Openness Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Extraversion o Situationist View o Interactionist View Combination of traits and situation Temperament o An inclination to engage in a certain style of thinking, feeling, or behaving a temperament initially arises from the effects of genes and biology, and an individual’s environment moderates these effects Example: shyness and sensation seeking o o Chapter 9 – Psychology Over the Life Span o Growing Up, Growing Older, Growing Wiser o Attachment o An emotional bond that leads a person to want to be with someone else and to miss him or her when separated ChildDirected Speech (CDS) Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 o Speech by caregivers to babies that relies on short sentences with clear pauses, careful enunciation, exaggerated intonation, and a highpitched voice Conservation o The Piagetian principle that certain properties, such as amount or mass, remain the same even when the appearance of the material or object changes, provided that nothing is added or removed CrossSectional Study o A study in which different groups of people are tested, with each group composed of individuals of a particular age Egocentrism o In Piaget’s theory, the inability to take another person’s point of view Embryo o A developing baby from the point where the major axis of the body is present until all major structures are present, spanning from about 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception Fetus o A developing baby during the final phase of development in the womb, from about 8n weeks after conception until birth Formal operation o In Piaget’s theory, a reversible mental act that can be performed even with abstract concepts Gender Roles o The culturally determined appropriate behaviors for males versus females Language Acquisition Device (LAD) o An innate mechanism, hypothesized by Chomsky, that contains the grammatical rules common to all languages and allows language acquisition Longitudinal Study o A study in which the sane group of people is tested repeatedly, at different ages Moral Dilemma o A situation in which there are moral pros and cons for each of a set of possible actions Object Permanence o The understanding that objects continue to exist when they cannot be immediately perceived Overregularization Error o A mistake that occurs in speech when the child applies a newly learned rule even to cases where it does not apply Psychosocial Development o The result of maturation and learning on personality and relationships SelfConcept o The beliefs, desires, values, and attributes that define a person to himself or herself Telegraphic Speech o Speech that packs a lot of information into a few highly informative words, typically omitting words such as the, a, and of. Teratogen o Any external agent, such as chemical, virus, or type of radiation that can cause damage to the zygote embryo, or fetus Maternal Illness (measles) Alcohol and Drugs (birth defects) Unit 3 – Review Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 Caffeine and smoking (low Diet and pollution birth weight) (environmental) Zygote o A fertilized egg (ovum) Stages of Development in the Womb o Trimesters 9 months 3 trimesters o Zygote Fertilization o Embryo Major axis is present o Fetus Unborn infant nd 2 trimester Jean Piaget o 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor (02) a. Can recognize idea that if you hide something, it still exists (OBJECT PERMANENCE) 2. Preoperational (27) a. Conservation b. Shape doesn’t change c. Lifelike qualities to inanimate objects (ANIMISM) 3. Concrete Operations (711) a. Conservation b. Can’t understand abstract subjects 4. Formal Operations (adolescent) a. Abstract subjects are understood Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory o Cultural influences o Culture o Role of social interaction o MONKEY VIDEO Moral Development/Kohlberg o Moral dilemmas o 3 levels of moral development Preconventional Conform to society’s rules Conventional Conform to authority, approval Postconventional Personal ethics guide you Erikson’s 8 Psychosocial Stages 1. Trust vs. Mistrust a. Infancy (birth 18 months) 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt a. Younger Years (1 1/2 3 years) 3. Initiative vs. Guilt a. Early Childhood (36) 4. Industry vs. Inferiority a. Middle Childhood (712) 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion a. Adolescence (1218 years) b. Personal identity 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation a. Early adulthood (1934) b. Relationships 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation a. Middle adulthood (3560) 8. Ego Identity vs. Despair a. Later adulthood (60death) Adulthood and Aging o Intelligence and specific abilities Fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence o Research methods Longitudinal studies Crosssectional studies
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