Exam 4 Review
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by SunDevil_21 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 101 at Arizona State University taught by Weber in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Unit 4 – Review Chapter 10, 11, 12, 13 Chapter 10 – Stress Aggression o Behavior that is intended to harm another living being who does not wish to be harmed Alarm Phase o The first phase of the GAS, in which a stressor is perceived and the fight or flight response is activated Approachapproach conflict o The internal conflict that occurs when competing alternatives are equally positive Approachavoidance conflict o Internal conflict that occurs when a course of action has both positive and negative aspects Avoidanceavoidance conflict o Internal conflict that occurs when competing alternatives are equally unpleasant Coping o Taking action to a stressor or to counteract effects of a stressor Emotionfocused coping o Coping focused on changing the person’s emotional response to the stressor Exhaustion phase o The final stage of GAS, in which the continued stress response itself becomes damaging to the body General adaptation syndrome (GAS) o The overall stress response that has three phases: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion Health psychology o The area of psychology concerned with the promotion of health and the prevention and treatment of illness as it relates to psychological factors Internal Conflict o Emotional predicament that people experience when making difficult choices Nocebo Effect o A variation of placebo effect in which a negative expectation produces a negative outcome Problemfocused coping o Coping focused on changing the environment itself or the way the person interacts with the environment Resistance phase o The second phase of the GAS, in which the body mobilizes its resources to adapt to the continued presence of the stressor; aka the adaptation phase Stress o The general term that describes the psychological and physical response to a stimulus that alters the body’s equilibrium Stressor o A stimulus that that throws the body’s equilibrium o Stimulus that causes stress ex) event, exam o Physical stressor ex) injury, high B/P o Psychological ex) exam o On going ex) can’t keep up with schedule Unit 4 – Review Chapter 10, 11, 12, 13 o Social ex) embarrassment, living in an overcrowded situation Tolerance o The condition of requiring more of a substance to achieve the same effect, because the usual amount provides a diminished response Withdrawal o The onset of uncomfortable or lifethreatening effects when the use of a substance is stopped Stress Response o How you respond Positive respond Negative respond o Fightorflight response Sources of Stress o Cognitive Appraisal Primary appraisal Perceived appraisal o Perceived Control Perceive you have control, but you probably don’t Have some control o Internal Conflict Decision making o Life’s Hassles Little things that happen every day Traffic, being late o Work Related Factors Conflicted environment Difficult superior o Personality Characteristic Perfectionists/ism Conflict o Approachapproach (positive) o Approachavoidance (positive and negative) o Avoidanceavoidance (negative) Coping Strategies o Problemfocused Looking at changing things outside o Emotionfocused Looking at changing things inside us o Though Suppression “Me” time, don’t worry about it, think of something else Humor o Increases immune system o Helps with learning o o Chapter 11 – Psychological Disorders Agoraphobia o A condition in which people fear or avoid places that might be difficult to leave should panic symptoms occur Unit 4 – Review Chapter 10, 11, 12, 13 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) o A personality disorder characterized by a longstanding pattern of disregard for other people to the point of violating their rights Anxiety Disorder o A category of disorders characterized by intense or pervasive anxiety or fear, or extreme attempts to avoid the feelings Bipolar disorder o A set of mood disorders characterized either by one or more episodes of mania, or by alternating episodes of hypomania and depression Compulsion o A repetitive behavior or mental act that a person feels compelled to perform, usually in response to an obsession Delusions o Unshakeable but false beliefs that are often bizarre DiathesisStress model o An explanation for how psychological disorders develop, in which a predisposition to a given disorder(diathesis) and specific factors (stress) combine to trigger the onset of the disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) o Characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personality states that markedly disrupt the person’s usual sense of identity and may be observed by others or reported by the individual Generalized Anxiety Disorder o An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive anxiety and worry that is not consistently related to a specific object or situation Hallucinations o Mental images so vivid that they seem real Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) o A mood disorder characterized by at least 2 weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest in nearly all activities, along with sleep or eating disturbances, loss of energy, and feelings of hopelessness. Mood disorder o A category of disorders characterized by persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life Obsession o A recurrent and persistent thought, impulse, or image that feels intrusive and inappropriate and is difficult to suppress or ignore ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder (OCD) o An anxiety disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and sometimes compulsions Panic Disorder o An anxiety disorder characterized by frequent, unexpected panic attacks or fear and avoidance of such attacks Personality Disorder o A category of disorders in which relatively stable personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress or difficulty with daily functioning. Phobia Unit 4 – Review Chapter 10, 11, 12, 13 o An exaggerated, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads the person to go to extreme lengths to avoid the feared stimulus Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) o An anxiety disorder experienced by some people after a traumatic event, and characterized by persistent reexperiencing of the trauma, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, and heightened arousal Psychological Disorder o A mental condition characterized by cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that: create significant distress; impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk of harm o Psychosis o A severely impaired ability to perceive and comprehend events accurately, combined with grossly disorganized behavior Schizophrenia o A disorder that is characterized by symptoms of psychosis that profoundly alter the patients affect, behavior, and thoughts Defining Abnormality o Distress Constant worrying o Impairment/Disability Phobia o Risk of harm/danger Suicide o Social and Cultural Influences Look at context Era/time Categorizing Disorders DSM – V Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Insanity o Sanity vs. insanity Legal terms o Insanity Defense Not used often “didn’t know what they were doing” Interacting Factors o Biopsychosocial Factors What causes disorders Brain structure and function Unit 4 – Review Chapter 10, 11, 12, 13 Genes Neurochemical imbalances o Sociocultural factors Roles and expectations What is expected between males and females Cultural beliefs Modeled behaviors o Psychological Factors Patterns of thinking Coping strategies Personality Traits Diathesis (Vulnerabilities) o Genes o Abnormal brain structure or functioning o Neurotransmitter imbalances o Particular ways of thinking o Stress o Noxious physical stress o Trauma, abuse, neglect o Relationships o Culture related 10 Categories of DSM5 Major Mental Disorders 1. Schizophrenia/ Psychotic Disorders 6. Trauma and Stressor Related 2. Bipolar Disorder 7. Dissociative Disorders 3. Depressive 8. Feeding and Eating 4. Anxiety 9. Personality 5. Obsessive Compulsive 10. Neurodevelopmental Disorders Schizophrenia o In all cultures o Positive symptoms: “exaggerated”, increased delusions, talking fast o Negative symptoms: “less than”, no emotion, rocking back and forth o Hallucinations Visual is rare Auditory is more common o Disorganized thoughts Bipolar Disorder o Aka manic depressive o Have extreme emotions or moods Can be really happy, then depressed o Always has manic episode o Feelings of grandeur Depressive Disorders Unit 4 – Review Chapter 10, 11, 12, 13 o Must have symptoms for at least 2 weeks o Major depressive disorder o Some lose weight, some gain o Some sleep, some don’t sleep o Persistent depressive (Dysthymia) Age 2 yrs for adutls 1 yr for child longterm o Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Worried All the time Anxious Not particular Panic Disorder Physical s/s Fast heartbeat Can’t breathe Social anxiety Speaking to a group of people o Specific Phobia Buttons Snakes. Spiders, and air travel are the most common o Agoraphobia Can’t leave home “fear of the marketplace” o OCD Persistent thoughts = obsessive Compulsion = behaviors Hand washing Hoarding Disorders Disorganized Difficulty letting go Collect everything o Trauma and Stress Related Disorders PTSD Outside the individual Traumatizing event Victimized Keep relieving the event Natural disorders o Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Identity Disorders (DID) Multiple personality disorder Controversial, not everyone agrees with it Not common o Feeding and Eating Disorders Anorexia (decreased weight) Bulimia Nervosa Binge then purge Anorexia is deadly Genetic component Seen more in females Cultural component o Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder No empathy, conscience Charismatic Neurodevelopmental Disorders Generally in children Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) o o Chapter 12 – Psychological and Biological Treatments o Behavior Modification o Therapeutic techniques that use operant conditioning principles to change a behavior Behavior Therapy o A type of therapy, based on wellresearched learning principles, that focuses on modifying observable, measurable behaviors o Technique relies on classical conditioning and operant conditioning and social learning principles o Systematic desensitization o Benzodiazepine o A type of antianxiety medication that reduces symptoms of panic within 36 hours and does not need to be taken for more than a week to be effective o Used for people with anxiety disorders o Bibliotherapy o The use of selfhelp books and audio and video information for therapeutics purposes Personcentered therapy o Cognitive Therapy o A type of therapy that is designed to help clients think realistically and rationally in order to reinterpret events that otherwise would lead to distressing thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors o Focuses on thoughts rather than feelings or behavior Dream Analysis o A technique used in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic theory in which the therapist examines the content of dreams to gain access to the unconscious Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) o A treatment in which an electric current induces a controlled brain seizure Family therapy o A therapy modality in which a family (or certain members of a family) is treated Free Association o A technique used in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy in which the patient says whatever comes to mind, and the train of thought reveals to the therapist or psychoanalyst the patient’s issues and ways of handling them Group Therapy o A therapy modality in which a number of clients with compatible needs or goals meet together with a therapist Individual Therapy o A therapy modality in which an individual client is treated by a single therapist InsightOriented Therapy o A type of therapy in which the therapist aims to remove distressing symptoms by leading the person to understand the psychological causes of his or her symptoms through deeply felt personal insights o Humanistic o Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic o Hard to evaluate Psychoanalysis o An intensive form of therapy that is directly connected to Freud’s theory of personality and based on the idea that psychological difficulties are caused by unconscious conflicts Psychodynamic Therapy o A less intensive form of psychoanalysis Psychopharmacology o The use of medication to treat psychological disorders and problems Resistance o a reluctance or refusal to cooperate with the therapist, which can range from unconscious forgetting to outright refusal to comply with a therapist’s request Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) o A type of antidepressant medication that blocks reuptake of serotonin only at selective serotonin receptors o Used for people with major depressive disorders SelfHelp Group o A group in which members focus on a specific problem or disorder and that does not usually have a clinically trained leader; aka a support group Systematic Desensitization o A behavior therapy technique in which people are taught to be relaxed in the presence of a feared object or situation Token Economy o A behavior modification program that uses secondary reinforcers (tokens) to change behavior Transference o The process by which patients may relate to their therapists as they did to some important person in their lives Psychoanalytic Therapies o Nature: unconscious conflicts o Goal: find what is causing the conflict o Role of therapist investigator that uncovers conflict o Techniques: dream interpretation, free association Humanistic o Client centered, Carl Rogers, positive look o Nature: incongruence between ideal self and real self o Goal: provide client with safe environment to facilitate journey to self fulfillment o Role of therapist: be empathetic, real, genuine o Role of unconscious material: NOT APPLIED o Role of patient insight: emphasis on how and what o Techniques: talk about the present and future o Unconditional positive regard: Carl Rogers, full of empathy Behavioral o Nature: faulty learning, maladaptive o Goal: look at environment o Role of therapist: helper o Role of unconscious material: important o Role of patient insight: their behaviors o Techniques: changing behaviors, learning principles (classical, operant, social) Cognitive o Beck and Ellis o Nature: maladjusted because of faulty irrational thoughts o Goal: find out what the negative thought are o Role of therapist: coach/trainer o Role of unconscious material: NOT APPLIED o Role of patient insight: irrelevant o Techniques: client learns to think situations logically CognitiveBehavior Therapy o Type of therapy designed to help reduce problematic behaviors and irrational thoughts and to help develop new, more adaptive behaviors and beliefs o Uses techniques from behavior and cognitive therapy Biomedical Therapies o Psychopharmacology o ECT o Trancranial magnetic stimulation o Chapter 13 – Social Psychology o Attitude o An overall evaluation of some aspect of the world – people, issues, or objects Bystander Effect o The decrease in offers of assistance that occurs as the number of bystanders increases Cognitive Dissonance o The uncomfortable state that arises from a discrepancy between two attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors Discrimination o Negative behavior toward individuals from a specific group that arises from unjustified negative attitudes about that group Ingroup o A person’s own group Outgroup o A group other than a person’s own Prejudice o An attitude (generally negative) toward members of a group Role o The behaviors that am ember in a given position in a group is expected to perform Social Psychology o The area of psychology that focuses on how people think about other people and interact in relationships and groups Stereotype o A belief (or set of beliefs) about people from a particular category o o o
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