New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PHYS 1105/1106 SPRING 2016

by: austinc1

PHYS 1105/1106 SPRING 2016 Phys 1055

Virginia Tech
GPA 3.78

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Midterm Study Guide for Intro to Astronomy
Introduction to Astronomy
Astronomy Staff
Study Guide
astronomy, PHYS 1105, PHYS 1106, intro to astronomy, Introduction to Astronomy, Spring 2016
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Astronomy

Popular in Physics 2

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by austinc1 on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phys 1055 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Astronomy Staff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Astronomy in Physics 2 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


Reviews for PHYS 1105/1106 SPRING 2016


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/20/16
Introduction to Astronomy (PHYS 1055) MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE SPRING 2016 Historical Figures Aristotle: An influential Greek philosopher who presented arguments in favor of earth having a sphere shape, lived until 325 BC. Claudius Ptolemy: 140 AD - Solved problem of explaining observed motions of planets, by coming up with epicycles. He contributed a geometrical representation of the solar system that predicted the positions of the planets for any desired date and time. Aristarchus: Believed ahead of his time that the earth was moving around the sun. Aristotle rejected his idea. 310 -230 bc Nicolaus Copernicus: concluded that the earth is a planet and all planets rotate and revolve around the sun. Wrote book de revolutionists which described his heliocentric ideas. 1473-1535 AD. Galileo: 1564-1642 AD, Studied acceleration. Constructed his own telescope. Used this telescope to prove heliocentric model. Used Venus phases as proof. Hipparchus: Greatest observational astronomer of ancient times, cataloged a precise star chart, and discovered the precession of the earth's axis. Johannes Kepler: Used Tycho Brahe's data after he died to make discoveries. Discovered that the orbit of the plant had shape of ellipse. Came up with 3 laws describing the motions of the planets Celestial Vocabulary Constellation: One of 88 sectors into which astronomers divide the celestial sphere. Zodiac: A belt around the sky about 18 degrees wide centered on the ecliptic. Perihelion: The point in the orbit the object is closest to the sun. Aphelion: The point in the orbit the object is farthest from the sun. Laws of Astronomy and The Physical World Law of Inertia: First presented by Galileo it states that every body tends to continue doing what it already doing -- being in a state of rest, or moving uniformly in a straight line -- unless it is compelled to change by an outside force. Galileo’s Principle of Equivalence: Galileo stated that there is no way to tell locally the difference between being in reference frame that is at rest or one that is moving at constant speed in a constant direction Keplers 1 Law: Each planet moves about a star in an orbit of the shape of an ellipse. Keplers 2 nd Law: The speed of the planet is faster when it is closer to the sun and slower when it is farther in its orbit. Keplers 3 Law: The size and period of a planetary orbit around the sun are 2 3 mathematically related by ???? = ???? Newton’s First Law: An object in motions tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. Newton’s Second Law: The greater the force, the greater the acceleration. The change in momentum is represented by the equation: F=(Mass)(Acceleration). Newton’s Third Law: Every action always has an equal and opposite reaction. Forces come in pairs. Newton’s Law Of Gravitation: The force of gravity must drop off with increasing distance between two objects in proportion to the inverse square of their separation. If you double the distance of a planet, the force is 1/4 as large. This is represented as the (???? ????1)(????2) equation: ???? = ????2 Newton’s Version of Kepler’s Third Law: newton added the masses of both objects. he is essentially just adding the sun's mass because the mass of a planet is nothing, therefore it is like multiplying by approximately 1 thus M1 is approx... Represented by the Equations: ???? ???? + ????1 2) = ???? ????ℎ???????? ???????????????? ???????????????????????? ???? = ???? 2 Important Test Vocabulary Geocentric: The theory that the earth is the center of the universe. Heliocentric: The theory that the center of the universe is the sun. Mass: The amount of matter in a body (Base unit is Kg). Speed: How fast a body moves (Base unit is Meters/second). Velocity: Both the speed and direction a body moves (Base unit is Meter/second +direction). Acceleration: A change in velocity (either speed or direction). Force: Something can or does produce acceleration. Weight: A measure of force due to the gravitational contraction at a very massive object such as a planet, star or black hole. Escape Velocity: The velocity a body needs to escape the gravity of another body and never return to it. Volume: The physical space occupied by an object/body. Density: Amount of mass per unit of volume D=M/V. Angular Momentum: The momentum associated with motion around an axis or fixed point this is also dealt together with moment of Inertia. Calendar of The Universe: Phases of Astronomy (REMEMBER THE DIFFERENCES) Astrology: The study of the possible influence that the locations of the sun plants, and moon in our sky have on human affairs and destiny. Cosmology: The study of the universe as a whole: its contents, structure, origin, evolution, and ultimate fate Astronomy: The scientific study of the Universe and how it acts within itself. The Celestial Sphere-


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.