EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE BIOL 101
Cal State Fullerton
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Popular in Biology
This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Xyvil Dapal on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE SCIENTIFIC THINKING: • Biology relies on EVIDENCE! o Rational: logical explanations o Testable: can be tested in many ways o Repeatable: similar results when different tests are conducted o Evidence = facts, Inferences = opinions • PSEDOSCIENCE: intentionally vague language used; misleading LIFE ON EARTH: Biodiversity • Variations of life on Earth • All share common ancestor • BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE: o Ability to reproduce o Has a metabolism: molecules provide energy and control chemical processes • DEVELOPMENTS FOR LIFE: o RNA o Formation of cell membrane • CONCEPT OF SPECIES: o Can interbreed o Produce viable offspring o Fertile offspring § BARRIERS: physical/physocological (pre-zygotic) OR infertile offspring (post-zygotic) • THREE DOMAINS OF LIFE: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya o Each group is called taxa Animal Diversity • KEY TRAITS: all animals share these o Multicellular o Energy from other organisms o Capable going through one phase • DISTINCTIONS THAT DIVIDE ANIMAL TAXA: o Tissues (unless sponges) o Radial or bilateral symmetry o Protostomes (“mouth first”) or deuterostomes (“mouth second”) development o Molting or continuous addition to the body Fungal, Microbial and Plant Diversity • KEY TRAITS SHARED BY FUNGI: o NOT plants! o Decomposers o Symbiotic • KEY TRAITS SHAERED BY PLANTS: o Photosynthesis o Sessile o Multicellular • FEATURES ON MAJOR GROUPS OF PROTISTS: o Animal-like protist; move around in order to hunt o Fungi-like protist; break things down o Plant-like protist; photosynthetic but are NOT plants • LATERAL GENE TRANSFER in BACTERIA: o Conjugation: direct transfer o Transduction: transfer via virus o Transformation: takes up DNA fragments in surrounding environment • VIRUSES: o Non-living: not made of cells and has no metabolism o Living: uses cells to replicate and has DNA/RNA covering Evolution • A change in allele frequencies over time • FITNESS: who is capable of leaving more offspring in the next generation • CONDITIONS FOR EVOLUTION: o Variation (different alleles in population) o Heritability (offspring inherits genes) o Differential reproductive success • FOUR MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION: o Mutation: ultimate source of alleles o Migration: alleles move between populations (AKA gene flow) o Genetic drift: proportions of alleles increase/decrease o Natural selection: alleles provide increased fitness = increase frequency • SPECIATION: o Allopatric: one population is isolated and divided o Sympatic: two populations live in same place, merge • EVOLUTION vs. NATURAL SELECTION: o Evolution is the change in the genotype o Natural selection is the change in the phenotype (particular trait that varies in population) • EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION: o Fossils record o Species distribution (AKA biogeography) o Compare anatomy + embryology o Molecular biology (similar DNA, RNA, etc) o Experiments (lab tested, results showed that population evolved)
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