University of Memphis
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1120 at University of Memphis taught by White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see World Civilization II in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Test 1 Study Guide: (picked the essay and IDs I am doing) Essay 1: Describe European civilization as it was in 1450, and then how European civilization suddenly began to change in the following areas: 1)Technology, 2) Commerce, 3) Religion, and 4) Political structure Europe in 1450 was emerging from the Middle Ages. - poor and illiterate - life expectancy was 35 - 90% of the people were servants or serfs living in hovels and never left there homes more than a few miles - Black Death in 1347-1350, killed a third of the population - massive population increase afterwards - hereditary rights came under assault - end of the 100 years’ war - Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks Technology: - gunpowder, artillery, engineering, shipbuilding, navigation all developed - Gutenberg printing press - literacy, crafts and experts in professional skills grow Economy: - trade and ﬁnances became international - towns and cities grow - feudalism and “birth right” decline Religion: - rules need new support - church and state become more linked Political Structure: - monarchs require religion, trade and technology to remain in power - can’t rely on feudalism or “birth right” - formation of the nation-states of peoples with shared interests and cultures governed by professional bureaucracy of specialists selected by merit ID #1- Volta Do Mar - return through the sea by the use of the “wind wheels” and ocean currents - used in the mid-1400s by the Portuguese in the canary islands - used as the fastest, safest, and most reliable means to voyage the oceans worldwide rather than the most direct route or closest to shore ID #2- Alfonso D’Alboquerque - commander of the Portuguese forces in the Indian Ocean - early 16th century - established the ﬁrst trading post empire of monopolies in manufacturing and transportation of goods by military means ID #3- Martin Luther - German monk who wrote in 1517 “the 95 Theses” in Germany - Important as the founder of the protestant reform against the Catholic authority and the empowerment of individuals and local authorities, leading to the formation of nation-states ID #4- Catholic counter- reformation - reaction to the protestant reformation - advocating reforms through the Council of Trent and the Society of Jesus - 16th century - important as Missionary work abroad and the guidance to Catholic rulers in Europe led to the global attempt to establish a Catholic Empire ID #7- Virgin of Guadeloupe - legend of thew visit f the Virgin Mary to Juan Diego - near Mexico City in 1531 - symbol of distinct Mexican faith and promise of salvation by blending native interest and traditions with the revered saints and beliefs of the Catholic church ID #5- Vereenigde oost-indische compagnie - Dutch trading company from Europe to Asia - founded in the early 1600s by selling joint-stocks to spread the risks and capital proﬁts - important as the ﬁrst international and global institution for funding, accounting, loans, newsletters, and pricing for private capital ventures under the sponsorship of a national government- mercantilism ID #10- The Enlightenment - In Europe in the 1700s - movement of public intellectuals advancing the cause of reason to discover natural laws that governed human society in the same way as Newton’s Laws of Gravity - motivation to “natural” political laws of John Locke in favor of constitutional government, Adam Smith in economic affairs in favor of supply and demand, and Voltaire supporting individual freedoms
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