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Study Guide Chapters 1-5

by: Allison Notetaker

Study Guide Chapters 1-5 PLSC2003 007

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Botany > PLSC2003 007 > Study Guide Chapters 1 5
Allison Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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Exam 1 Materials with Test Question Answers
American National Government
Karen Sebold
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Notetaker on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PLSC2003 007 at University of Arkansas taught by Karen Sebold in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Botany at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
1 Unit One Study Guide 50 questions—2 points each 10 matching—definition 10 T/F 30 multiple choice with 4 choices for each question Chapter 1: American Political Culture • Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. • Types of Government Forms of Government Definitions Important • government—institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled • politics—conflict over the leadership, structure, and policies of government • political efficiency—the ability to influence government and politics • citizenship—informed and active membership in a political community • autocracy—a form of government in which a single individual (king, queen, or dictator) rules • oligarchy—a form of government in which a small group (landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants) controls most of the governing decisions • democracy—a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through election of key public officials • constitutional government—a system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the government authoritarian government—a system of rule in which the government • recognizes no formal limits but nevertheless be restrained by the power of other social institutions • totalitarian government—a system of rule in which the government recognizes no formal limits on its power and seeks to absorb or eliminate other social institutions that might challenge it • power—influence over a government’s leadership, organization, or policies representative democracy—a system of government in which the populace selects • representatives, who play a significant role in governmental decision making • direct democracy—a system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies • pluralism—the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for the influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation • political culture—broadly shared values, beliefs, and attitudes about how the government should function • American political culture emphasizes the values of liberty, equality, and democracy • liberty—freedom from governmental control • limited government—a principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution 2 • laissez-faire capitalism—an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference • equality of opportunity—a widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and walt they have to reach their fullest potential • political equality—the right to participate in politics equally, based on the principle of “one person, one vote” • popular sovereignty—a principle of democracy in which political authority rests ultimately in the hands of the people • majority rule, minority rights—the democratic principle that a government follows the preferences of the majority of the voters but protects the interests of the minority • What is a democracy? • democracy—a system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through election of key public officials • system that is ruled by law—such as the Constitution • major principles=equality and liberty • often at tension with one another • try to make everyone equal and some people argue that their liberties are at stake (and vice versa) • aims to prevent oligarchy and maintain government • What is a government? • government—institutions and procedures through which a territory and its people are ruled • federal government is made up of {President, Congress, and Courts} • federal, state, and local governments are in the US • state law derives from provisions on the federal government • Understand how a democracy works? • Pluralism: theory of how the system works • two or more groups coexist and create equilibrium (important for democracy) • allows us all to participate • can influence the government through interest groups: put pressure on elected officials to govern “for the people” • Marketplace of Ideas: the competition between the interest groups • free expression of public opinion • better if unregulated • provides competition especially on social media • Politics: activities associated with the governance of the country and the competition of ideas in the marketplace • writing a letter, commenting on social issues • Power: lose power as people if uninvolved in politics • Know why democracy is preferable? • citizen participation—have a say in the government • elected officials—listen to what you say • free and open elections—citizens opinions are reflected in elections because everyone votes • parliament or congress—essential for checks and balances 3 • individual rights and freedoms—Bill of Rights/Constitution • diverse interests represented by the states—can slow us down • state serves as impartial servant to society as a whole • free and open media • ruling majority with focus on minority rights • Understand how different systems of government work. • absent of democratic characteristics • countries have little developed industrialism, capitalism, or democratic traditions • US has big companies and small businesses • power=concentrated in central agency that directs affairs of the state • in US can climb up the social ladder • in other countries, people are born into a specific group and stay there • individual liberties do not exist and free elections are not held • opposition to government is not permitted • US can form groups that oppose government • ruling minority or oligarchy Chapter 2: The Constitution • Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. • Articles of Confederation—America’s first written constitution; served as the basis for America’s national government until 1789 • confederation—a system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government • Virginia Plan—a framework for the Constitution, introduced by Edmund Randolph, that called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state New Jersey Plan—a framework for the Constitution, introduced by William • Patterson, that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population • Great Compromise—the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked representation in the House of Representative to population Three-Fifths Compromise—the agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention • of 1787 that stipulated that for purposes of the apportionment(distributing members of Congress) of congressional seats, every slave would be counted as three-fifths of a person • checks and balances—mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches examples • • presidential veto power over congressional legislation • power of the Senate to approve presidential appointments • judicial review of congressional enactments • electoral college—the electors from each state who meet after the popular election to cast ballots for president and vice president Bill of Rights—the first 10 Amendments to the US Constitution, ratified in 1791 • • ensure certain rights and liberties to the people 4 • separation of powers—the division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making • federalism—a system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments • expressed powers—specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress and to the president • elastic clause (aka necessary and proper clause)—enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry them out • bicameral—having a legislative assembly composed of two chambers or houses • judicial review—the power of the courts to review and, if necessary, declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional • the Supreme Court asserted this power in Marbury v Madison • supremacy clause—states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or subdivision • Federalists—those who favored a strong national government and supported the Constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787 • Antifederalists—those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government , and who were opponents of the Constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Convention of 1787 • Federalist Papers—a series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay supporting ratification of the Constitution • tyranny—oppressive government that employs cruel and unjust use of power and authority • amendment—a change added to a bill, law, or constitution • Understand what a Constitution is. • created a “unified, internally coherent and highly original model of a new kind of government” • shared power between 3 branches and levels • 3 branches: President, Congress, and Judicial • 3 levels: federal, state, and local • fragmented government • constitution=created over the course of months in Philidelphia • product of inventiveness • completely new ideas • science of politics • created for the common man • clean break from the past • no longer a tyranny or oligarchy • ideas of “man’s natural rights” and the “social contract” • the “American Expense” • system of shared power with multiple levels of government • other countries use very executive centered democracy • state centered federalism=unique • Understand the “Road to the Constitution” • began when we fought for freedom from Great Britain 5 • imposition of taxes • starts out being a revolution of the marketplace • because Great Britain begins taxing us • East India Trade Deal • cut US out of trade on tea • leads to Economic Crisis of 1774 • Boston Tea Party • rebellious act because we didn't like the taxes or being cut out of tea trade • Intolerable Acts • government of Britain forms these to keep US in check • Colonial Pamphleteering • evaluation of colonial assemblies to “dominion status” • how states wanted to be treated before the revolution • wanted to be treated equally to Parliament • Understand the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. • US spent very little time on Articles • just knew they did not want a monarchy or tyranny • established state governments with elevated powers • sovereignty • autonomy (power over what they want) • did not create a presidency • Congress was created but did not have any power to force states to obey its laws • no power to tax or collect revenue • limits on • weakness in foreign, fiscal, and economic areas • cannot stop states from developing their own currency or negotiating treaties • Biggest Issues • cannot get states to cooperate with federal government • do not know how to reconcile the principles of indivisibility with autonomy • Shay’s Rebellion • Constitutional Convention of 1787 • Know the plans to apportion the Congress. • Randolph Plan (Virginia Plan) • National Government with 3 branches that are supreme but a federal system— room for state and local governments • Bicameral Congress with two chambers • direct election of lower house apportioned by population and upper house=elected by lower house • gave Congress power to legislate in all areas where states are “incompetent” • start discussing “one man, one vote” • disallow state enactments • call force of union • all power • Congress centered government • Small States agreed on 3 branches and Bicameral Congress but not the way the houses were elected or that it was by population • Sherman Plan 6 • lower chamber by population and upper chamber equally • Patterson Plan (New Jersey Plan) • called for a revamped Continental Congress with added powers • taxation and regulation • executive chosen by Congress • equality of states in both chambers of congress • Federal Judiciary: final arbiter of inter-level conflict • Accepted supremacy plan but rejected idea of “Congressional disallowance and coercion” • Great Compromise • Merged Sherman and Patterson Plans • added that all revenue raising measures must start in the lower chamber of Congress • gives people a say • still question of “one man, one vote” • Main principles of the Constitution • Separation of Powers • Legislative Branch (Congress) • writes the laws • confirms presidential appointments • approves treaties • grants $$ • declares war • Executive Branch (President) • proposes laws • administrates laws • commands armed forces • appoints Ambassadors and other officials • conducts foreign policy • makes treaties • Judicial Branch (Judges) • interprets constitution and other laws • reviews lower court decisions in the Supreme Court • Checks and Balances • Legislative Branch • Congress=House of Representatives + Senate • checks House and Senate by vetoing each others bills • House: all revenue matters • Senate: war, approves Presidential appointments • Power over Executive Branch • passes laws over President’s veto • impeaches a president and removes him from office • Power over Judicial Branch • confirms judicial nominations • can impeach judges and remove them from office • Executive Branch • Executive Branch=president+executive and cabinet departments+independent government agencies • Power over Legislative Branch 7 • can veto Congressional legislation • Power over Judicial Branch • nominates judges • Judicial Branch • Courts=Supreme Court+Courts of Appeal+District Courts • Power over Executive Branch • can declare Presidential acts as unconstitutional • Power over Legislative Branch • can declare laws as unconstitutional • Federalism • under dual federalism, there is a lot of tension • conflict arises between the two “separate” centralized government • National Government • Delegated Powers • maintain army and navy • declare war • coin money • regulate trade • make all laws necessary • State Government • Reserved Powers • conduct elections • establish schools • regulate businesses • establish local governments • regulate marriages • assume other powers not given to the national government • Both • Concurrent Powers • enforce laws • establish courts • borrow money • protect safety of people • build roads • collect taxes • Electoral College • Know the process for Amending the U.S. Constitution. • 27 Amendments • no amendment since 1987 • Step 1—Amendment is proposed • 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress • Step 2—Amendment is ratified • 3/4 of State legislatures • Understand the debate between the Federalists and Anti-federalists over the ratification of the US Constitution. • Anti-Federalists • believed constitution threatens “republican liberty” 8 national government has too much power at the expense of the states • • no protections for people • president will develop into monarchy • Thomas Jefferson=leader • for State Governments • Federalists • believed constitution protected “republican liberty” because it is menaced in small jurisdictions • need national governments • need large country to counteract the “destabilizing, anti-libertarian tendencies of factions and secure private rights…and dispense justice” issued Federalists papers to build support • Chapter 3: Federalism • Definitions Types of Federalism Court Cases • Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. • unitary system—a centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government • implied powers—powers derived from the necessary and proper clause; such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers • reserved powers—powers, derived from the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states • police power—power reserved to the state government to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens • concurrent powers—authority possessed by both state and national governments, such as the power to levy taxes • privileges and immunities clause—provision of the Constitution that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges • home rule—power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs • dual federalism—the system of government that prevailed in the US from 1789-1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments commerce clause—delegates to Congress the power to “regulate commerce with • foreign nations, and among the several States and with Indian tribe” • interpreted by the Supreme Court in favor of national power over the economy • states’ rights—the principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the national government • principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War • grants-in-aid—programs through which Congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government • categorical grants—congressional grants given given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law 9 • project grants—grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a competitive basis • formula grants—grants-in-aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive • cooperative federalism (intergovernmental cooperation)—a type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (w/out commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals • regulated federalism—a form of federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on states and localities, requiring them to meet national standards • preemption—the principle that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain policy areas • in foreign policy, the willingness to strike first in order to prevent an enemy attack • unfunded mandates—regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government • devolution—a policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government • from the national government to the state and local governments • block grants—federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how funds are spent • New Federalism—attempts by presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants • general revenue sharing—the process by which one unit of government yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established formula • revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to the state governments • redistributive programs—economic policies designed to control the economy through taxing and spending, with the goal of benefiting the poor • Know what Federalism. • federalism: system of government in which powers are divided and shared by a central government and its sub-divisional governments • Federalists=for the constitution • created federal papers that supported constitutions • constitution=ratified (Bill of Rights was created) • national government, state, country, municipal, townships, school districts, and other types of government • 89,527 governments in the US • Federal Government • interstate and international commerce • ratifying treaties with foreign countries • maintaining national armed forces • State Government • provision and maintenance of infrastructure • involved with interstate commerce so federal government can come in • public safety and police • vastly different from state to state 10 • still looks the same today • federal government comes in and says there are some things they have to do when processing a criminal • regulating intrastate business matters • Local Governments • zoning ordinances • city water and sewage • How has federalism changed over time? • 1789-1932: Dual Federalism • like a layer cake—state and federal governments are not intertwined • 1932-1968: Cooperative Federalism • like a marble cake—state and federal governments are very involved • 1968-present: New Federalism • regulation and money change throughout the 3 eras • Understand what led to these changes? • The Great Depression • collapse of Financial Markets and Banks • high unemployment • poverty especially in rural areas • Dust Bowl—leads to huge change in political party allegiance • state governments do not have capacity to deal • FDR’s New Deal • went from 5 state/federal departments to many more • Social Security Act=novel at the time • taxing the wealthy takes off after the Great Depression • first President that changes government from Congressionally centered to Presidentially centered government • Benefits of Federalism • allows states to act as policy laboratories • provides more points of access • allows for variety and flexibility • reduces conflict b/c different states can accommodate different citizens interests • Understand the court cases that establish the Supremacy Clause and Commerce Clause • McCulloch v Maryland (1819) • conflict over national bank • established the “Necessary and Proper Clause” aka the Supremacy Clause • says that federal government powers are elastic • expands commercial activity • teller was right to refuse being taxed • established implied powers • power of government grows and blooms • Gibbons v Ogden (1824) • conflict over waterways between NY and NJ • Supreme Court has the power to decide who gets the waterway • established the “Commerce Clause” • leads to major growth in Congress’ economic power • Know the major aspects discussed in class about “The Storm” 11 • According to the documentary, who is in charge of evacuation before and during the Storm? • the Mayor and FEMA • Why was FEMA established? • to coordinate the federal government’s response in disaster relief work after a series of disasters in the 60s-70s • Negative Aspects of Federalism • increases complexity and confusion • makes coordination difficult • communication=terrible Chapter 4: Civil Liberties • Court Cases Definitions Clauses/Tests • Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. • habeas corpus—a court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into a court and shown the cause for detention • bill of attainder—a law that declares a person guilt of a crime without a trial • ex post facto laws—laws that declare an action to be illegal after it has been committed • civil liberties—areas of personal freedom constitutionally protected from government interference selective incorporation—the process by which different protections in the Bill of • Rights were incorporated into the 14th Amendment, thus guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national governments • establishment clause—the 1st Amendment clause that says that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion” • this law means that a “wall of separation” exists between church and state Lemon test—a rule articulated in Lemon v Kurtzman that government action toward • religion is permissible if it is secular in purpose, neither promotes nor inhibits the practice of religion, and does not lead to “excessive entanglement” with religion • free exercise clause—the 1st Amendment clause that protects a citizen’s right to believe and practice whatever religion he or she chooses • “clear and present danger” test—test to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected, based on its capacity to present a “clear and present danger” to society • fighting words—speech that directly incites damaging conduct • “speech plus”—speech accompanied by conduct such as sit-ins, picketing, and demonstrations • protection of this form of speech under the 1st Amendment is conditional, and restrictions imposed by state or local authorities are acceptable if properly balanced if properly balanced by considerations of public order • prior restraint—an effort by a governmental agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way • censorship • in the US, the courts forbid prior restraint except the most extraordinary circumstances libel—a written statement made in “reckless disregard of the truth” that is considered • damaging to a victim because it is malicious, scandalous, and defamatory 12 • slander—an oral statement made in “reckless disregard of the truth” that is considered damaging to a victim because it is malicious, scandalous, and defamatory • due process of law—the right of every individual against arbitrary action by national or state governments • exclusionary rule—the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the 4th Amendment • grand jury—jury that determines whether sufficient evidence is available to justify a trial; does not rule on the accused’s guilt or innocence • double jeopardy—the 5th Amendment right providing that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime • Miranda rule—the requirement, articulated by the Supreme Court in Miranda v Arizona, that persons under arrest must be informed prior to police interrogation of their rights to remain silent and to have the benefit of legal counsel • eminent domain—the right of government to take private properties for public use • right to privacy—the right way to be left alone, which has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to entail individual access to birth control and abortions • Understand what civil liberties are and the different forms they take. • civil liberties—areas of personal freedom constitutionally protected from government interference • ensures due process of law guaranteed by the 14th Amendment • individuals cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property • speech • press • religious rights • criminal • Understand how the Bill of Rights were nationalized and the court cases involved with the process. • Barron v Baltimore (1833) • property owner sues city for destroying personal war • Bill of Rights only applied to the federal government • Decision: upheld by the Supreme Court • Schenck v US (1919) • socialist arrested for passing out pamphlets • speech/press can be restricted if its intended to result in crime • established the “clear and present danger” test to restrict speech • Decision: upheld by the supreme court • Gitlow v New York (1925) • socialist arrested for passing out pamphlets to restrict government • states must protect freedom of speech unless it presents danger • nationalization of rights begin • states have to recognize that we have freedom of speech • Decision: upheld by the Supreme Court • Know the major court cases involved with the First Amendment. • Brandenburg v Ohio (1969) • KKK leader tries to give speech to clan gathering • states can only restrict speech that incites imminent lawless action or is likely to • decision: overturned by the Supreme Court because you cannot punish abstract actions 13 • Near v Minnesota (1931) • Newspaper editor arrested to stop him from printing essays • “prior restraint” laws aww unconstitutional with the exception of cases that threaten national security • decision: overturned • NY Times v US (1971) • Nixon attempted to stop publication of newspaper articles on pentagon • must meet “heavy burden” • prior restraint only in cases that provide “immediate clear and present danger” • decision: overturned because they disagree with Nixon • When can speech be restricted? • speech that breeched the peace • obscenity and pornography • libel and slander • commercial speech • in school • Know the major court case involved with the Fourth Amendment. • Mapp v Ohio (1961) • convicted for pornography • prevents state from using/conducting “unreasonable search and seizures” • USSC will eventually exclude use of evidence obtained “illegally” in court • the “exclusionary” rule • When can warrantless search and seizures be conducted? • person consents to being searched • evidence is in plain view • suspect takes off in hot pursuit • incidental to arrest • extreme circumstances • cars are more suspect • Know the major court case involved with the Fifth Amendment. • Miranda v Arizona (1966) • child rapist signed a confession of guilt • BUT confessions are not admissible when coerced • citizens have the right to be Mirandized establishing the “Miranda rights/warnings” • Know the major court case involved with the Sixth Amendment. • Gideon v Wainwright (1963) • man convicted without defense and base on **one** eye witness • defense must be provided when requested • fundamental to upholding due process of law of the 14th Amendment • Know the major court cases involved with the Eighth Amendment. • Robinson v California (1962) • 8th Amendment does apply to states through 14th Amendment • Furman v Georgia (1972) • created standards for determining what was cruel and unusual • Wilkerson v Utah (1978) • drawing and quartering, dissecting, burning alive, and disembodiment is cruel but other forms may not be (related to the death sentence) 14 • Know the major court cases involved with the Ninth Amendment. • Griswold v Connecticut (1965) • right to privacy extends to women’s right to birth control • Roe v Wade (1973) • extends right to privacy to a woman’s right to abortion • gives states right to regulate protection rights of the unborn Chapter 5: Civil Rights • Definitions Amendments Court Cases Know all of the bold terms in the chapter and discussed in the lecture. • • discrimination—the use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion of exclusion • civil rights—obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies and of other private citizens • equal protection clause—provision of the 14th Amendment guaranteeing citizens “the equal protection of the laws” • basis for the civil rights of African Americans, women, and other groups • 13th Amendment—one of the three Civil War amendments that abolished slavery • 14th Amendment—one of the three Civil War amendments that guaranteed equal protection and due process • 15th Amendment—one of the three Civil War amendments that guaranteed voting rights for African American men • Jim Crow laws—enacted by southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against African Americans • “separate by equal” rule—doctrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still considered equal • Brown v Board of Education—the 1954 Supreme Court decision that struck down the “separate but equal” doctrine as fundamentally unequal • eliminated state power to use race as a criterion of discrimination in law and provided the national government with the power to intervene by exercising strict regulatory policies against discriminatory laws • strict scrutiny—a test used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights that places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional • de jure—literally by law; refers to legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the South before the 60s • de facto—literally by fact; refers to practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the US today gerrymandering—the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give • unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party • redlining—a practice in which banks refuse to make loans to people living in certain geographic locations • intermediate scrutiny—a test used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases that places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in question is unconstitutional 15 • affirmative action—government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices against specified groups by making special efforts to provide members of those groups with access to educational and employment opportunities • Understand what civil rights are and the different forms they take. • civil rights—obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies and of other private citizens • equal protection means that government should not make distinctions between groups of people when formulating policy • civil rights take the form of political, economic, and social • no one is immune from discrimination and it requires action/advocacy to ensure rights • may start out as one group fighting but eventually expands to all groups • political—voting • social—school • economic—work • Know the court cases and government actions involved in fight for civil rights for racial minorities. • Plessy v Ferguson (1896) • step in wrong direction, segregation legal • the courts protected segregation with the “separate but equal” doctrine • NAACP was formed to help fight for blacks rights at this point • what is the point of having political rights when they cant have social rights • institutionalizes /advocates racism for 50 years • Brown v Board of Education (1954) • segregation illegal • found school desegregation violates the equal protection clause of the Constitution • said segregation at the educational level was NOT acceptable • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • based on race or gender in employment • increased federal role by allowing president to withhold funding if schools fail to obey • Voting Rights Act of 1965 • on basis of race or class in electoral process • Fair Housing Act of 1968 • on basis of race in housing practices and public housing • Know what the Civil War Amendments are. • 13th Amendment—abolished slavery • 14th Amendment—guaranteed equal protection and due process • protects violation of rights and liberties by state governments • citizenship cause that protects “privileges and immunities” • due process clause that prohibits abuse of “life, liberty, and property” • equal protection clause that ensure equal protection under law • 15th Amendment—guaranteed voting rights for African American men • Understand the cases that challenged affirmative action policies in higher education. • Bakke v University of California Board of Regents (1978) • race can be used as one of the many factors when deciding college admissions 16 • Know the court cases and government actions involved in fight for civil rights for women • 19th Amendment—women’s right to vote • Shultz v Wheatin Glass Co (1970) • jobs held by men and women that are substantially equal must have equal title • Title IX of Education Act (1972) • forbids exclusion under any education program/activity receiving federal assistance • for example, sports and classes in school • Pregnancy Discrimination Law (1978) • in employment • Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009) • ensures 180 days to sue for unfair pay • resets with each unfair paycheck


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