___= dates ___= key words ___= people ___= quote ___= subtopic in chapter Chapter 14fixed version
A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 18611865
1. The First Modern War
1. The Two Combatants
1. The Union had many advantages (e.g., manufacturing, railroad mileage, and financial resources), but it would need to conquer an area larger than Western Europe to win.
2. Confederate soldiers were highly motivated fighters.
3. On both sides, the outbreak of war stirred powerful feelings of patriotism. 4. Both sides had a draft
2. The Technology of War
1. Railroads were vital to the war effort.
2. The introduction of the rifle changed the nature of combat.
3. Modern warfare included POW camps and disease.
4. Introduction of: submarines, hand grenades
5. Famous Sea Battle of Union vessel Monitor and Confedersate If you want to learn more check out Why is population density sometimes increased or decreased at a specific time?
Merrimac in 1862
Ironclad ships replaces wooden ships
3. The Public and the War
1. Both sides were assisted by a vast propaganda effort to mobilize public opinion.
Lithographs, pamphlets, sheet music
2. The war was brought to the people via newspapers and photographs.
4. Mobilizing Resources
1. The outbreak of the war found both sides unprepared. Don't forget about the age old question of How is a vector quantity represented?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the six foundations of economics?
If you want to learn more check out What do phytochemicals come from?
2. Feeding and supplying armies was a challenge for both sides. 3. No : national banking system, tax system, accurate maps
4. Anaconda plan: Lincoln’s planed a naval blockade to the south Not effective till the late war
5. Military Strategies
1. The Confederacy adopted a defensive strategy.
2. Lincoln realized that his armies had to defeat the Confederacy's armies and dismantle slavery.
3. General Robert E. Lee southern commander
6. The War Begins
1. In the East, most of the war's fighting took place in a narrow corridor between Washington and Richmond.
2. The first Battle of Bull Run, a Confederate victory, shattered any illusions that war was romantic.
Took place in northern Virginia July 21,1861
Retreat of union soldiers
3. After the (wake of Bull Run) First Bull Run, George McClellan assumed command of the Union army of the Potomac.
7. The War in the East, 1862.
1. Robert E. Lee Seven Days’ Campaign If you want to learn more check out What does curve sketching mean?
In June 1862 Lee blunted McClellan's attacks in Virginia and forced him to withdraw to the vicinity of Washington
2. Lee invasion of the North
Battle of Antietam
1. In Maryland, 4000 men killed, 18000 wounded(2000 died
later due to injuries)
3. McClellan's Army of the Potomac stopped Lee at the Battle of Antietam, the single bloodiest day in U.S. history (September 17, 1862).
8. The War in the West
1. Ulysses S. Grant was the architect of early success in the West.
2. In February 1862, Grant won the Union's first significant victory when he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in Tennessee.
3. Grant withstood a surprise Confederate attack at the Battle of Shiloh (Tennessee).
2. The Coming of Emancipation
1. Slavery and the War
1. Sometimes known as the midwife revolution
2. In numbers, scale, and the economic power of the institution of slavery, American emancipation dwarfed that of any other country. If you want to learn more check out What is the vapor pressure?
3. Lincoln :
Invoked timehonored northern values to mobilize public support. Initially insisted that slavery was irrelevant to the conflict.
4. Congress adopted a resolution proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky,
Affirmed that the Union had no intention of interfering with
5. Military began treating escaped blacks as contraband of war
Were housed in contraband camps and schools
6. Calling the “freedom of war”
2. Steps toward Emancipation
1. Radical Republicans
organized around an uncompromising opposition to slavery before and during the Civil War and a vigorous campaign to secure rights for freed slaves during Reconstruction
2. Slavery stood at the foundation of the southern economy,
Antislavery northerners insisted that emancipation was necessary to weaken the South's ability to sustain the war.
Congress prohibited returning fugitive slaves
3. Throughout 1861 and 1862, Lincoln struggled to retain control of the emancipation issue.
Union General John C. Frémont issued a proclamation freeing slaves in Missouri (August 1861).
Fearing the negative impact on loyal Border States, Lincoln
rescinded Frémont's order.
Lincoln proposed gradual emancipation and colonization for borderstate slaves.
3. Lincoln's Decision
1. 1862, Lincoln concluded that emancipation had become a political and military necessity.
2. Upon Secretary of State William Seward's advice, he delayed announcing emancipation until a Union victory.
3. On September 22, 1862, five days after Antietam, Lincoln issued the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
Warned that unless the South laid down its arms the at the end of 1862, he would decree abolition
4. The Emancipation Proclamation
1. Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863 which declared slaves in Confederateheld territory to be free. 2. Limitations:
the proclamation set off scenes of jubilation among free blacks and abolitionists in the North and "contrabands" and slaves in the South.
3. The Emancipation Proclamation not only altered the nature of the Civil War and the course of American history, but represented a turning point in Lincoln's own thinking.
5. Enlisting Black Troops
1. Enrollment of blacks into military service, mainly navy
2. Navy Gideon Wells
Secretary of Navy
Followed African Americans to serve on union warships
3. The FiftyFourth Massachusetts Volunteers
Free blacks from north
July1863 attack on Fort Wagner
1. Half the unit deceased
4. Most black soldiers were emancipated slaves who joined the army in the South.
5. Lorenzo Thomas
Raised 50 regiment black soldiers
6. The Black Soldier
1. For black soldiers, military service proved to be a liberating experience. 130 former soldiers served in political office after the Civil War.
2. Within the army, black soldiers did not receive equal treatment to white soldiers.
3. Black soldiers played a crucial role not only in winning the Civil War but also in defining the war's consequences.
3. TheSecond American Revolution
1. Status of black Americans
2. Liberty, Union, and Nation
1. To Lincoln, the American nation embodied a set of universal ideas, centered on political democracy and human liberty.
2. The Gettysburg Address (November 1863) identified the nation's mission with the principle that "all men are created equal."
3. The war forged a new national selfconsciousness, reflected in the increasing use of the word "nation"a unified political entityin place of the older "Union" of separate states.
3. The War and American Religion
1. Northern Protestantism combined Christianity and patriotism in a civic religion that saw the war as transforming the United States into a true land of freedom.
2. Lincoln used religious symbolism to generate public support. 3. Religion helped Americans to cope with unprecedented mass death. 4. New government action to deal with death
Systems for recording deaths and other casualties
National military cemeteries
4. Liberty in Wartime
1. Lincoln consolidated executive power and twice suspended the writ of habeas corpus throughout the entire Union for those accused of "disloyal activities."
2. After the war, the Court made it clear that the Constitution was not suspended in wartime (Ex parte Milligan, 1866).
Milligan, Supreme Court Case
1. Declare it unconstitutional to bring accused persons before
military tribunals where civil courts were operating
5. The North's Transformation
1. The North experienced the war as a time of prosperity.
2. Growth in shoe and meatpacking
6. Government and the Economy
1. Congress adopted policies that promoted economic growth and permanently altered the nation's financial system.
The Homestead Act
1. Offered 160 acres of free public land to settlers in the west
2. Took effect January 1, 186
The LandGrant College Act
1. To establish “agricultural and mechanic colleges”
2. Congress passed land grants for railroads.
3. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869.
Ran from Omaha, Nebraska to San Francisco
Expanded national market
7. The War and Native Americans
1. The withdrawal of troops from the West increased conflict between Indians and white settlers.
The Sioux attack in Minnesota.
2. The Union campaign against Navajo led to the tribe's Long Walk, or removal to a reservation.
3. Some slaveowning tribes, such as the Cherokee, sided with the Confederacy.
8. A New Financial System
1. The need to pay for the war produced dramatic changes in U.S. financial policy:
New taxes on goods
First income tax
2. Wartime economic policies greatly benefited northern manufacturers, railroad men, and financiers.
3. Taken together, the Union's economic policies vastly increased the power and size of the federal government.
4. “captions of industry”
John D. Rockefeller oil magnate
Jay Gold & J.P Morgan finances
Phillip D. Armour – supplied beef to the union army
9. Women and the War
1. Women stepped into the workforce as nurses, factory workers, and government clerks.
2. Sanitary Fairs
Displayed military banners and relics of the war
3. Northern women were brought into the public sphere and the war work offered them a taste of independence.
Clara Barton, president of the American National Red Cross,
became an advocate of woman suffrage and a strong proponent of
the humane treatment of battlefield casualties.
10. The Divided North
1. Republicans labeled those opposed to the war "Copperheads."
2. The war heightened existing social tensions and created new ones.
4. The Confederate Nation
1. Leadership and Government
1. Jefferson Davis proved unable to communicate the war's meaning
effectively to ordinary men and women.
2. Under Davis, the Confederate nation became far more centralized than the Old South had been.
Confederate government controlled railroads
Confederate government built factories
3. King Cotton diplomacy sought to pressure Europeans to side with the Confederacy, but this failed.
2. The Inner Civil War
1. Social change and internal turmoil engulfed much of the Confederacy. The draft encouraged class divisions among whites.
3. Economic Problems
1. The South's economy, unlike the North's, was in crisis during the war. 2. By the war's end, over 100,000 southern men had deserted.
4. Women and the Confederacy
1. Even more than in the North, the war placed unprecedented burdens on southern white women.
2. The growing disaffection of southern white women contributed to the decline in homefront morale and encouraged desertion from the army.
5. Black Soldiers for the Confederacy
1. A shortage of manpower led the Confederate Congress in March 1865 to authorize the arming of slaves, but the war ended before black soldiers were actually recruited.
5. Turning Points
1. Gettysburg and Vicksburg
1. April 1863 “Fighting Joe “ hooker
2. Lee advanced onto northern soil in Pennsylvania, but was held back by Union forces under the command of General George Meade at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863).
3. General Grant secured a Union victory at Vicksburg, Mississippi (July 1863)
1. In 1864, Grant began a war of attrition against Lee's army in Virginia.
2. At the end of six weeks of fighting, Grant's casualties stood at 60,000 almost the size of Lee's entire armywhile Lee had lost 30,000 men.
3. General William T. Sherman entered Atlanta, seizing Georgia's main railroad center.
4. Some Radical Republicans nominated John C. Frémont on a platform calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery, federal
protection of the freedpeople's rights, and confiscation of the land of leading Confederates.
5. The Democratic candidate for president was General George B. McClellan.
6. Lincoln won, aided by Frémont's withdrawal and Sherman's capture of Atlanta.
6. Rehearsals for Reconstruction and the End of the War
1. The Sea Island Experiment
1. The Union occupied the Sea Islands (on the coast of South Carolina) in November 1861.
2. Gideon’s Band
Northern army officials, treasury agents, investors in cotton
3. Women took the lead as teachers in educating the freed slaves of the islands.
Charlotte Forten and Laura Towne
4. By 1865, black families were working for wages, acquiring education, and enjoying more humane conditions than under slavery.
5. Sea Island Expirement
2. Wartime Reconstruction in the West
1. After the capture of Vicksburg, the Union army established regulations for plantation labor.
Freedpeople signed labor contracts and were paid wages.
2. Neither side was satisfied with the new labor system.
3. At Davis Bend, the emancipated slaves saw the land divided among themselves.
3. The Politics of Wartime Reconstruction
1. In 1863, Lincoln announced his TenPercent Plan of Reconstruction. Amnesty and full restoration of rights
2. Free blacks in New Orleans complained about the TenPercent Plan and found sympathy from Radical Republicans.
3. The WadeDavis Bill was offered as an alternative plan.
Required a majority of a state's voters to pledge loyalty
Lincoln pocketvetoed the plan.
4. Victory at Last
1. Sherman marched from Atlanta to the sea in NovemberDecember 1864. 2. The Thirteenth Amendment was approved on January 31, 1865. 3. On April 3, 1865, Grant took Richmond.
4. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9.
5. Lincoln was fatally shot on April 14 and died the next morning.
5. The War and the World
1. Grant's postpresidential world tour illustrates how nonAmericans saw the war.
England's Duke of Wellington hailed Grant as a military genius.
English workers saw war as having saved the leading experiment in democracy and vindicated free labor principles.
German Chancellor Bismarck saw nationbuilding as war's central achievement.
6. The War in American History
1. The Civil War laid the foundation for modern America.
2. Both sides lost something they had gone to war to defend.
The Confederacy lost slavery.
The war hastened the transformation of Lincoln's America of free labor, small shops, and independent farmers into an industrial
"What Is Freedom?": Reconstruction, 1865–1877
1. The Meaning of Freedom
1. Blacks and the Meaning of Freedom
1. AfricanAmericans’ understanding of freedom was shaped by their
experience as slaves and observation of the free society around them.
2. Blacks relished the opportunity to demonstrate their liberation from the regulations (significant and trivial) associated with slavery.
2. Families in Freedom
1. The family was central to the post emancipation black community.
2. Freedom subtly altered relationships within the family.
1. Emancipation increased the power of black men within the family.
2. Black women withdrew from work as field laborers and house
servants to the domestic sphere.
3. Church and School
1. Blacks abandoned whitecontrolled religious institutions to create
churches of their own.
2. Blacks of all ages flocked to the schools established by northern
missionary societies, the Freedmen’s Bureau, and groups of exslaves.
4. Political Freedom
1. The right to vote inevitably became central to the former slaves’ desire for empowerment and equality.
2. To demonstrate their patriotism, blacks throughout the South organized Fourth of July celebrations.
5. Land, Labor, and Freedom
1. Former slaves’ ideas of freedom were directly related to land ownership.
1. Many former slaves insisted that through their unpaid labor, they had acquired a right to the land.
6. Masters without Slaves
1. The South’s defeat was complete and demoralizing.
1. Planter families faced profound changes.
2. Most planters defined black freedom in the narrowest manner.
7. The Free Labor Vision
1. The victorious Republican North tried to implement its own vision of freedom.
1. Free labor
2. The Freedmen’s Bureau was to establish a working free labor system. 8. The Freedmen’s Bureau
1. The task of the Bureau—establishing schools, providing aid to the poor and aged, settling disputes, etc.—was daunting, especially since it had fewer than 1,000 agents.
2. The Bureau’s achievements in some areas, notably education and health care, were striking.
9. The Failure of Land Reform
1. President Andrew Johnson ordered nearly all land in federal hands returned to its former owners.
2. Because no land distribution took place, the vast majority of rural freed people remained poor and without property during Reconstruction.
3. Sharecropping came to dominate the cotton South and much of the tobacco belt.
4. Sharecropping initially arose as a compromise between blacks’ desire for land and planters’ desire for labor discipline.
10. The White Farmer
1. The aftermath of the war hurt small white farmers.
1. Croplien system (use of crop as collateral for loans from
merchants for supplies)
2. White farmers increased cotton cultivation, cotton prices
plummeted, and they found themselves unable to pay back loans.
2. Both black and white farmers found themselves caught in the sharecropping and croplien systems.
3. Southern cities experienced remarkable growth after the Civil War. 1. Rise of a new middle class
11. Aftermaths of Slavery
1. The Reconstructionera debates over transitioning from slavery to freedom had parallels in other Western Hemisphere countries where emancipation occurred in the nineteenth century.
2. Only in the United States did former slaves gain political rights quickly.
2. The Making of Radical Reconstruction
1. Andrew Johnson
1. Johnson identified himself as the champion of the “honest yeomen” and a foe of large planters.
2. Johnson lacked Lincoln’s political skills and keen sense of public opinion.
3. Johnson believed that AfricanAmericans had no role to play in
2. The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction
1. Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction offered pardons to the white southern elite.
2. Johnson’s plan allowed the new state governments a free hand in
managing local affairs.
3. The Black Codes
1. Southern governments began passing new laws that restricted the freedom of blacks.
2. These new laws violated free labor principles and called forth a vigorous response from the Republican North.
4. The Radical Republicans
1. Radical Republicans called for the dissolution of Johnson’s state governments, the establishment of new governments that did not have “rebels” in power, and the guarantee of the right to vote for black men.
2. The Radicals fully embraced the expanded powers of the federal government born of the Civil War.
1. Charles Summer
2. Thaddeus Stevens
3. Thaddeus Stevens’s most cherished aim was to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and divide it among former slaves and northern migrants to the South.
1. His plan was too radical for most others in Congress.
5. The Origins of Civil Rights
1. Most Republicans were moderates, not radicals.
2. Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois proposed two bills to modify Johnson’s policy:
1. Extend the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau
2. Civil Rights Bill (equality before the law was central; it sought to overturn the Black Codes)
3. Johnson vetoed both bills.
4. Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill over his veto and later extended the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau.
6. The Fourteenth Amendment
1. It placed in the Constitution the principle of citizenship for all persons born in the United States and empowered the federal government to protect the rights of all Americans.
1. It did not grant blacks the right to vote.
7. The Reconstruction Act
1. Johnson campaigned against the Fourteenth Amendment in the 1866 midterm elections.
2. In March 1867, over Johnson’s veto, Congress adopted the
Reconstruction Act, which:
1. Divided the South into five military districts
2. Called for creation of new southern state governments, with black men given the vote
3. The Reconstruction Act thus began Radical Reconstruction, which lasted until 1877.
8. Impeachment and the Election of Grant
1. To demonstrate his dislike for the Tenure of Office Act, Johnson removed the secretary of war from office in 1868.
2. Johnson was impeached and the Senate fell one vote short from removing him from office.
9. The Fifteenth Amendment
1. Ulysses S. Grant won the 1868 presidential election.
2. The Fifteenth Amendment was ratified in 1870.
3. It prohibited federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race.
1. Did not extend suffrage to women
10. The “Great Constitutional Revolution”
1. The laws and amendments of Reconstruction reflected the intersection of two products of the Civil War era—a newly empowered national state and the idea of a national citizenry enjoying equality before the law.
2. Before the Civil War, American citizenship had been closely linked to race.
3. The new amendments also transformed the relationship between the federal government and the states.
11. The Rights of Women
1. The destruction of slavery led feminists to search for ways to make the promise of free labor real for women.
2. Some feminists (Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony) opposed the Fifteenth Amendment because it did not enfranchise women.
3. The divisions among feminists led to the creation of two hostile women’s rights organizations that would not reunite until the 1890s.
4. Despite their limitations, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and the Reconstruction Act of 1867 marked a radical departure in American and world history.
3. Radical Reconstruction in the South
1. “The Tocsin of Freedom”
1. Among the former slaves, the passage of the Reconstruction Act inspired an outburst of political organization.
2. Blacks used direct action to remedy longstanding grievances.
3. The Union League aided blacks in the public sphere.
4. By 1870, the Union had been restored and southern states had Republican majorities.
2. The Black Officeholder
1. Two thousand AfricanAmericans occupied public offices during
1. Fourteen elected to U.S. House of Representatives
2. Two elected to U.S. Senate
3. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
1. Carpetbaggers were northernborn white Republicans who made their homes in the South after the war, with many holding political office.
2. Scalawags were southernborn white Republicans.
1. Some were wealthy (e.g., James Alcorn, a Mississippi planter)
2. Most had been upcountry nonslaveholders before the Civil War
and some had been Unionists during the war.
4. Southern Republicans in Power
1. Southern Republican governments established the South’s first state supported public schools.
2. The new governments also pioneered civil rights legislation.
3. Republican governments took steps to strengthen the position of rural laborers and to promote the South’s economic recovery.
5. The Quest for Prosperity
1. During Reconstruction, every state helped to finance railroad construction.
2. Investment opportunities in the West lured more northern investors than southern investors, and economic development remained weak in the
4. The Overthrow of Reconstruction
1. Reconstruction’s Opponents
1. Corruption did exist during Reconstruction, but it was not confined to a race, region, or party.
2. Opponents could not accept the idea of former slaves voting, holding office, and enjoying equality before the law.
2. “A Reign of Terror”
1. Secret societies sprang up in the South with the aim of preventing blacks from voting and destroying the organization of the Republican Party.
2. The Ku Klux Klan was organized in 1866.
1. It launched what one victim called a “reign of terror” against Republican leaders, black and white.
2. Example: Colfax, Louisiana, massacre (1873)
3. Congress and President Grant, with the passage of three Enforcement Acts in 1870 and 1871, put an end to the Ku Klux Klan by 1872.
3. The Liberal Republicans
1. The North’s commitment to Reconstruction waned during the 1870s.
2. Some Republicans, alienated from Grant by corruption in his administration, formed the Liberal Republican Party.
1. Horace Greeley
4. The North’s Retreat
1. The Liberal attack on Reconstruction contributed to a resurgence of racism in the North.
2. The 1873 depression also distracted the North from Reconstruction.
3. The Supreme Court whittled away at Congress’s guarantees of black rights.
1. Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
2. United States v. Cruikshank (1876)
5. The Triumph of the Redeemers
1. Redeemers claimed to have “redeemed” the white South from corruption, misgovernment, and northern and black control.
6. The Disputed Election and Bargain of 1877
1. The election between Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) and Samuel Tilden (Democrat) was very close, with disputed electoral votes from Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina.
2. Congress set up a special Electoral Commission to determine the winner of the disputed votes.
3. Behind the scenes, Hayes made a bargain to allow southern white Democrats to control the South if his election was accepted.
4. The compromise led to Hayes’s election and the Democrats’ having a free hand in the South.
7. The End of Reconstruction
1. Reconstruction ended in 1877.
2. It would be nearly a century before the nation again tried to bring equal rights to the descendants of slaves.