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A&P | Study Guide Exam 2

by: Munsha Shekhani

A&P | Study Guide Exam 2 biol 2110k

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Munsha Shekhani

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Study guide over chapter 5,6,7- tissues, integumentary system, and skeletal system. Includes an answer key at the end, and summaries of each chapter.
Human Anat & Physiology I
Study Guide
anatomy and physiology, Biology
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Munsha Shekhani on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to biol 2110k at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology I in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
Chapter 5: Tissues  Summary: The chapter focuses strictly on tissues, types of tissues, and tissue repair. Tissues can be pretty extensive, because each has several branches. The chapter starts with describing epithelium tissues, which can be broken down by number of layers and shape. They can be simple or psuedostratified, meaning there’s one layer or stratified, meaning there’s two or more layers. The shapes range from squamous, cuboidal, and columnar, and if there’s more than two layers, often you may see a mixture of shapes. To properly describe which shape it is, try looking at the apical, or top, surface. The chapter then goes onto describing connective tissues, which I think are the most confusing. There’s loose and dense connective tissues and they both contain three different types. Connective tissues are also made up of fibers, which has three types, and of cartilage which, (you guessed it) has three types as well. Blood and bone both also fall under the category of connective tissues. The chapter goes on with muscular tissues, which has three types: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac, which are separated by if they have striations (cardiac and skeletal do) and their locations. The last tissue type is nervous tissues, which are made up of neurons and glial cells and example of these tissues are nerves. The chapter ends with talking about how tissues repair themselves if they are damages. There’s three steps to repairing them: inflammation (which helps the blood clot and create a scab), organization (restores the blood supply), and regeneration (which detaches the scab and lets your skin grow back). 1. What are the four types of tissues? 2. What’s the proper way to name an epithelial tissue? Give an example. 3. Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of epithelial cells? And make sure you are able to define each answer sample. a. Avascular b. Polar c. Low rate of regeneration d. Closely packed cells e. Innervated 4. Name the description, function, and location of Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissues. 5. What kind of epithelial tissue is responsible for secretion and function? 6. T/F: Psuedostratified columnar epithelial tissues have 2 or more layers 7. Simple squamous epithelial tissues have two types of names specific to location: ________________ which is found in linings of blood vessels and the heart, and _________________ which is found in serous membranes of a ventral body cavity. 8. Compare and contrast keratinized vs non-keratinized tissues. What kind of epithelial tissue are they? 9. What kind of tissue is shown in the picture? 10. Which type(s) of epithelial tissue can be ciliated or non-ciliated? 11. Which of these are relatively rare compared to the other tissues? a. Stratified columnar epithelial tissue b. Simple columnar epithelial tissue c. Psuedostratified columnar epithelial tissue d. Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue e. Stratified squamous epithelial tissue 12. Which epithelial tissue can be found in the linings of the ureters, urinary bladder and urethra? 13. Which stratified epithelial tissue serves as a protective/strengthening source? 14. What kind of tissue will you find in sweat gland ducts? a. Stratified columnar epithelial tissue b. Simple cuboidal epithelial tissue c. Stratified squamous epithelial tissue d. Stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue e. None of the above 15. Which of the following is a characteristic of exocrine glands? a. Secrete hormones that travel through blood vessels b. Secrete products into ducts c. Secrete hormones onto skin or cavities d. A and B e. B and C 16. Which type of epithelial tissue can be found in kidney tubules or ovary surfaces? 17. Psuedostratified cells always touch the ___________________ membrane. 18. What kind of tissue is shown in the picture? 19. __________________ glands are ductless glands. 20. Which of the following epithelial tissues resembles stratified squamous and cuboidal epithelial tissues? 21. What are the three types of cell connections? Briefly define each and where each is found 22. T/F: Organs contain more than one tissue types – i.e. epithelial and connective tissues 23. The steps to tissue repair are (in order): ____________________, _________________, and ___________________. 24. Select all of the choices which are functions of connective tissues: a. Binding b. Transport c. Movement d. Support e. Diffusion f. Insulation g. Filtration h. Protection 25. The embryonic tissue is called: _____________________ 26. What kind of tissue is shown in the picture? 27. T/F: Epithelial and Connective tissues are both avascular and innervate. 28. Three characteristics that connective tissues are comprised of are: 29. Name three types of cartilage: 30. Name three types of fibers: 31. Name three types of loose connective tissues: 32. Name three types of dense connective tissues: 33. Extracellular matrix words: ____________ means to create, cytes means to ______________ and ____________ is to break. 34. Ground substance words: Chondro describes _________________, __________________ describes bones, and fibro describes _____________. 35. Muscular tissues can be found in all of the follow except: a. Walls of the heart b. Walls of the stomach c. Skin d. Hair e. Walls of bladder 36. T/F: Collagen are also called white fibers while Elastic are also called yellow fibers. 37. What kind of tissue is this? 38. Which connective tissue is found in the hypodermis? 39. Select all that apply: Areolar connective tissue is made up of what? a. White blood cells b. Red blood cells c. Fibroblasts d. Osteons e. Gel matrix f. All three fiber types g. Leukocyte 40. Which connective tissue is found in bone marrow? 41. Dense regular connective tissue is found in _____________ which connects bone to bone and tendons which connect _____________ to ______________. 42. What kind of tissue is in the picture below? 43. Identify the following picture: 44. T/F: Bone and blood are both types of connective tissue 45. The three types of muscular tissues are: 46. The stomach has _______ types of tissues. 47. What are the four types of body membranes? 48. Blood clotting occurs during which phase of tissue repair? 49. T/F: Epithelium tissue starts to regenerate in step three regeneration of tissue repair. 50. Name three effects aging can have on tissues: Chapter 6: Integumentary System  Summary: The integumentary system is comprised of hair, skin, nails, and sweat glands. It serves as a physical, chemical, and biological barrier and help with regulation of metabolism and body temperature. The skin has several branches, just as tissues did. It has three layers, which are the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis, respectively. The dermis contains five strata and the dermis contains two layers. There are a few ways the skin can damaged, two mentioned in this chapter are skin cancer and burning. There are three levels each, and they differ in intensity levels. 1. Select all that apply: What are the characteristics of the Integumentary System? a. Protection b. Excretion c. Diffusion d. Metabolic Function 2. Give two examples of physical/mechanical barriers 3. What type of burn is through all the layers of the skin? 4. The superficial region of the skin is the ____________________. Then comes the ______________, which is the middle region. And the _______________ is the deepest region and it can also be called superficial ____________, and its not technically a part of the skin and is made up of mostly __________________ tissue. 5. What are folds in the dermis that occur near joints? a. Skin markings b. Cleavage Lines c. Flexure Lines d. Melanin e. Carcinoma 6. What are the three types of pigments that contribute to your skin color? What color is each pigment? 7. Which of these best defines sudoriferous? a. Skin Colors b. Oil Glands c. Hair Follicles d. Skin glands e. Sweat Glands 8. Which layer of the epidermis is the most superficial layer? Which is the deepest? 9. Which layer(s) of the epidermis undergoes mitosis the most: a. Stratum Corneum b. Stratum Basale c. Stratum Spinosum d. Stratum Granulosum e. A and B 10. Give an example of a place on your body that has thick skin and tell how many strata it contains. 11. If a place on your body has thin skin, what stratum does it lack? 12. Name the four types of cells of the epidermis 13. This stratum is also known as stratum germinativum: 14. Why is melanoma the most dangerous skin cancer? 15. Which stratum is where keratinization begins? a. Stratum Corneum b. Stratum Basale c. Stratum Spinosum d. Stratum Granulosum e. A and B 16. Which stratum contains several rows of dead keratinized sacs? And name 3 functions of this stratum. 17. Which stratum contains only a few rows of dead keratinized cells? 18. Which stratum is abundant in melanin granules? 19. Name all 5 strata in order from deepest to most superficial. 20. The dermis is made up of what kind of tissue? a. Nervous b. Muscular c. Epithelial d. Connective e. All of the above 21. What are the two layers of the dermis called? 22. Which layer is made up of adipose tissue? And what does the superior surface of this layer contain? 23. Which dermis layer is made up of collagen fibers? 24. If a doctor is cutting into your skin for surgery, what should he use as a guide on which way to cut? a. Skin markings b. Cleavage Lines c. Flexure Lines d. Melanin e. Carcinoma 25. Which kind of glands often turn into hair follicles? a. Apopcrine Glands b. Eccrine Gland c. Thyroid glands d. All of the above e. None of the above 26. What is sebum 27. What kind of pigment does hair contain? What else is it made out of? 28. What are the three types of skins cancer? Rate them from least malignant to most? 29. Which skin cancer involves the stratum Spinosum? 30. Select all that apply: What are the immediate threats to burns? a. Bacterial infection b. Tissue damage c. Dehydration d. Cell death e. Electrolyte imbalance Chapter 7: Bone Structure & function Summary: This chapter is all about bones and how the grow. A good tip is to be able to label the big parts of the bone, like the red bone marrow, epiphyseal line, and (but not limited to) articular cartilage. Also, the chapter differentiates compact bone from spongey bone. The main difference is that compact has a central canal and spongey bone does not. The central canal contains nerves and blood vessels. A good thing to keep in mind, is that osteocytes are bone cells and they are make up osteons along with lamellae. Lacunae, small spaces, and canaliculi, canals, make up osteocytes. Osteoblasts build matrix, osteoclasts break done bone matrixes, and osteocytes maintain matrixes. A compact bone is made up of several osteons, each of which contains a central canal filled with blood vessels and nerves, canaliculi, and osteocytes in lacunae. 1. Functions of the skeletal system include: 2. What are the four types of bones? List a description and an example of each. 3. Select all that apply: Components of the Skeletal System a. Tendons b. Blood vessels c. Cartilage d. Bone e. Spongey Bone f. Ligaments Use the following picture for numbers 4-10 4. What is Number 1 in the picture? 5. What is number 3? Give some characteristics of this part. 6. What is number 7? 7. What is number 5? And where is it a remnant of? 8. Which number is compact bone? 9. What is number 2? Is it found in adults or children? 10. What is number 6 and what is made out of? 11. Compact bone is surrounded by: a. Medullary Cavity b. Protein c. Periosteum d. Endosteum e. None of the above 12. Which part of the bone is where it elongates? a. Diaphysis b. Periosteum c. Trabeculae d. Epiphysis e. Medullary cavity 13. T/F: Hemapoietic tissue is also called red bone marrow. 14. T/F: Red bone marrow is found in new borns 15. Bone cells are called ______________________. 16. What are the two chemicals associated with the process that osteoblasts do? 17. T/F: Elastic fibers are spread out randomly throughout the woven bone. 18. Woven bone gets remodeled into _______________ bone, which is a mature bone in sheets called _______________. 19. What is the defining character that separates a compact bone from spongey? 20. What are the small spaces in the compact bone that contain osteocytes? 21. T/F A compact bone has several osteons in it, and an osteon has several lamellae 22. What is the defining character that separates a spongey bone from compact? 23. What’s the percent ratio of organic to inorganic compound in bones? 24. Without organic compounds in the bone, what would happen? 25. What would happen without inorganic compounds? 26. What are the three stages of bone development? 27. Embryonic tissue is called ___________________ Answer Sheet: ** Study tip: if there is a true or false statement in the study guide or even on the test, and you answer false, try to make the statement true. Chapter 5: Tissues **Good notes you can refer to for further help with tissues if they’re tough to memorize, are under my page at StudySoup it’s called the A & P | Lab: Concept Map on Tissues. It’s pretty extensive and connects all the tissues together** Link: 2110k/one-week-of-notes/a&p-lab-|-week-5?id=154142 1. Connective, Epithelial, Nervous, and Muscular 2. Number of layers, Shape, + Epithelial Tissue. Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissues 3. C. a. Avascular: lack of blood vessels b. Polar: apical surface is the top membrane and the basal is the bottom c. They have a High rate of regeneration, not a low one. Regeneration is cells growing again and renewing d. Closely packed cells- they are held by junctions and desmosomes e. Innervated: have nerves 4. Disc-shaped nucleus that is in the center. It allows for diffusion and filtration. And examples of lining of heart, serous membranes, blood vessels. 5. Simple cuboidal epithelial tissues 6. False; it is classified as having one layer of cells 7. Endothelium and Mesothelium 8. Keratinized is found in drier areas and are dead cells in the surface and are found in the epidermis. Non-keratinized are moister and are found in places like the esophagus and mouth. They are Stratified squamous epithelial tissues 9. Psuedostratified columnar epithelial tissues 10. Simple columnar epithelial or Psuedostratified columnar epithelial tissue 11. A. 12. Transitional epithelial tissue 13. Stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue 14. D. 15. E. Option A was describing endocrine glands 16. Simple cuboidal epithelial tissues 17. Basement membrane. Meaning, they all come to the bottom but not necessarily all have to touch the top membrane 18. Stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue 19. Endocrine 20. Transitional epithelial tissue 21. Gap junctions: Found in cardiac or smooth muscles, allows ions or other smaller molecules to pass and it coordinates movement Tight junctions: Found in the bladder and the stomach, and they hold cells together or can form a barrier that’s permeable. Meaning it allows some materials through, but not all. Desmosomes: found in places that are put under a lot of stress, like your skin. Links two adjacent cells together to create a junction where things can pass. 22. True. 23. Inflammation, organization, regeneration 24. A, B, D, F, H. (C, E, and G are all functions of epithelial) 25. Mesenchyme 26. Transitional epithelial tissue 27. False. Epithelial is both, connective is vascular, meaning it has blood cells and it is innervate. 28. Cells, ground substance, extracellular matrix 29. Hyaline, Elastic, Fibrocartilage 30. Reticular, Collagen, Elastic 31. Reticular, areolar, adipose, 32. Irregular, regular, elastic ** I know 28-32 was tedious and annoying probably, but knowing what falls under what category is going to be very helpful for this test, because each tissue has so many branches under it. Know the location, function, and description of each also. ** 33. Blasts, maintain, clasts 34. Cartilage, Osteo, Fibers 35. D. 36. True 37. Areolar connective tissue. 38. Adipose connective tissue 39. A, C, E, F, G (Leukocytes are white blood cells. Make sure you know the words are used interchangeably) 40. Reticular connective tissue 41. Ligaments, bone to muscle 42. Dense irregular connective tissue 43. Hyaline cartilage 44. True 45. Skeletal, smooth, cardiac 46. All four 47. Serous, mucous, cutaneous, synovial 48. Inflammation, step one 49. False 50. Cell mitosis occurs at a slower rate, rate of injury and tissue repair is slowed down, changes in collage fibers occur which makes the skin loose and wrinkly Chapter 6: Integumentary System 1. A, B, D, 2. Keratin, Glycolipids, Skin 3. 3 degree burns 4. Epidermis, Dermis, Hypodermis, Fascia, Adipose 5. C 6. Melanin: yellow-red-brow-black. Hemoglobin- pink hues. Carotene- yellow-orange 7. E 8. Stratum Corneum is most superficial, Stratum Basale is the deepest 9. B 10. Fingertips, feet soles, or palms. It has 5 strata 11. Stratum Lucidum 12. Tactile/ Merkel cells, Epidermal dendritic/ Langerhans cells, Melanocytes, Keratinocytes 13. Stratum Basale 14. It’s resistant to chemo, and is metastatic, meaning it spreads very quickly through mitosis 15. D 16. Stratum Corneum. Functions: waterproof, serve as a barrier, and protection from penetration 17. Stratum Lucidum 18. Stratum Spinosum 19. Stratum Basale, stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Lucidum, Stratum Corneum 20. D 21. Papillary and reticular 22. Papillary, pain receptors, nerve receptors, blood supply 23. Reticular layer 24. B 25. E, its sebaceous or oil glands that ca turn into hair follicles 26. It’s sweat plus proteins plus fatty substances 27. Melanin. It’s also made out of keratinized cells that are dead 28. Basal cell carcinoma (least), Squamous cell carcinoma, Melanoma (most) 29. Squamous cell carcinoma 30. C, E. The others are still possible threats as a result of burns, but they’re not the immediate threats. Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance are the firs thing the paramedics will be concerned about, then they’ll handle the rest of the items. Chapter 7: Bone Structure & function 1. Storage, protection, movement, blood cell production, support 2. Long bones- longer than wider, femur. Flat bones- thin, curved a little, sternum. Irregular- abnormally shaped, vertebra. Short bones- small, cube-ish shaped, patella. 3. A, C, D, E, F 4. Red bone marrow 5. Periosteum, it has a fibrous layer on the outside and an osteogenic layer on the inside. It has nerve fibers and blood vessels. And its secured onto collagen which is also called Sharpey’s fibers. 6. Articular cartilage 7. Epiphyseal line, remains of the growth plate 8. Number 4 9. Yellow bone marrow, found in adults 10. Spongey bone, trabeculae 11. C 12. D 13. True 14. True 15. Osteocytes 16. Calcium, phosphate. Osteoblasts make up matrixes, and form the bone through osteogensis. 17. False, it’s collagen fibers not elastic fibers that comprise woven bones. It’s beneficial that it’s spread randomly because it creates a stronger sheet 18. Lamellar, lamellae ** Keep in mind, osteons are made up of osteocytes and lamellae** 19. It’s made up of a central canal. Which contains blood vessels and nerves. The spongey bone does not have this. It’s usually located in the middle, hence it being called the ‘central’ canal 20. Lacnuae 21. True 22. It has trabeculae and no central canal in the middle 23. 35:65 24. Bone would be too brittle and shatter 25. Bone would be bendy 26. Bone formation (osteogenesis), postnatal bone growth, bone repair/remodeling. 27. Mesenchyme


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