MUSI 502: Exam 1 Study Guide
MUSI 502: Exam 1 Study Guide Musi 502
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by McKenzie Larson on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Musi 502 at University of New Hampshire taught by Daniel Beller-McKenna in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Music history in Music at University of New Hampshire.
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Music History Semester 2 Exam 1 Study Guide Cumulative Material Ordinary chants of the mass Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Agnus Dei Formes xes Rondeau Ballade Virelais Pope Gregory I Served as Pope 590604 9th century legend established that Pope Gregory was the composer of Gregorian Chant Notre Dame Cathedral churches that served as administrative centers for sur ng areas clergy formed community Notre Dame School of polyphonic composition expanded length range and number of voices altered styled of noteagainstnote discount and more orid organum 0 Paris Notre Dame or Parisian polyphony University of Paris was rst great northern european university Roman de Fauvel manuscript compiled just after 1316 satirical poem about political and social climate thought to be written by Phillipe de Virty Guillaume de Machaut Poet and musician chief extender of trovere traditon carried on tradition of french love song motet with ars nova and isorhythm Cantus rmus Tenor mass take existing melody and put it in the tenor most important part Point of Imitation each voice comes in in imitation Madrigal Dominant musical style of 16th century Italian music become international craze Secular polyphonic unaccompanied throughcomposed polyphonic texturestext expression English craze for the Madrigal in 15751600 highlights text painting Guillaume Dufay 15h century northern composer French 6 mass cycles hundreds of smaller cantilena motets a few large scale isorhythmic motets hundreds of forms xes chansons chant paraphrase the technique of embellishing chants extremely decorative his work often closely resembled that of medieval composer Philippe de Vitry Follower of Dunstable His early compositions may have a characteristic Renaissance sound but are clearly derived from a Medieval idea Du Fay s prominent use of isorhythm is very representative of medieval music while the motets harmonic texture was more characteristic of Renaissance music Additionally the motet was based on the Pythagorean proportions of 643 3 describing the harmonic ratios of consonant intervals a prominent Renaissance idea Josquin des Prez Born in France worked in Italy 14501521 he consistently strived to surpass his predecessors in his manipulation of the cantus rmus Throughout the sixteenth century he rose to a supreme status among his contemporaries and consequently was more studied than any contemporary or predecessor His music re ected the concept of humanistic thought and individualistic movements of the time Ottaviano de Petrucci rst printer of songs collections of massesmotets by individual composers 11 books of Frottola a lot of appeal towards middle class less complexity Josquin had a reputation of getting published and Petrucci was his publisher Pierluigi da Palestrina 1 Missa Pape Marcelli Mass for Pope Marcellus Bridging the gap between human and divine His masses were written for the one holy catholic and apolstolic church at the very moment when the church under pressure from the Protestant Reformation to the north was renewing its ageold mission as the Church Militant This became known as the Counter Reformation Kept the ars perfecta alive Focus on the words Composed over 400 motets Traits smoothly curved stepwise comparative regularity of rhythm consonance homophonic texture division of ensemble into semichoirs pure harmony clarity of text 2 Counter Reformation Traits of postJosquin polyphony through imitation continuous overlapping 3rd amp 6ths tonally oriented expansion to 56 voices 3 Stile antico Italian for old style composing in the style of Palestrina that is acceptable to the the Roman Catholic Church at the Council of Trent the model for subsequent papal chapel composers John Dowland Lute song ayre Music untouched by madrigalian in uence Virtuoso lute player wrote his songs in contrapuntal motion which allows for easy arrangement as vocal ensemble pieces once madrigals catch on Claudio Monteverdi Italian composer singer and madrigalist OPERA L Orfeo introduced opera rst major opera Dance Suite pairing two contrasting dances especially common in the 16th century and usually consisted of a slower gliding dance in duple meter followed by a faster leaping dance in triple meter Binary dance form A IV repeat Continuously developing thematic material Modulation to V may occur fairly late in the section Often a brief tonicization of a separate key Mm B V Irepeat Beginning on V Quickly moves back towards I Harmonic wandering before nal resolution to I Frequently the initial motive of the B section on V is the initial motive of A turned upside down Da capo aria an aria that employs the use of da capo where the end of the second section tells the singer to return to the beginning and nish at the ne Became the virtuoso display piece Chorale strophic unison Lutheran hymn based on Gregorian chant or origianl melody also the harmonization of such a hymn Cantata Lutheran cantatas Bach composed both secular and sacred cantatas Cantatas were re ective not dramatic works Lutheran cantata could be viewed as a sort of musical sermon and its placement in the service con rms this anthology Chamber version of Opera onetwo singers little instrumentation continuo division into sections according to text Barbara Strozzi 16191677 Fugue a texture in which a subject theme in one voice is followed by two or more voices entering successively and imitating the subject thus giving chase to the preceding voice in instrumental music often a genre with nonthematic episodes in vocal music a compositional procedure rather than a xed structure Johann Sebastian Bach Weimar Cothen Leipzig Three places of work 1708 Weimar Organist 1717 Cothen Kapellmeister secular appointment 1723 Leipzig Kantor civic music director Never wrote an opera and wrote a lot of music simply for his family He was not nearly as big of a deal as Handel in his life During his time he was primarily known as an organist and most of his works were intended for Church and not public consumption like Handel Founded his style on the north German Lutheran music culture The WellTempered Clavier a collection of preludes and fugues in 2 volumes The rst was published in Cothen the second in Leipzig It consists of pieces in every key to demonstrate the tuning system of the keyboard 335 Wrote French Suites when he spent 6 years in Cothen otherwise he was writing just to ful ll job requirements Brandenburg Concertos re ect his familiarity with Italian music These concertos fused French Italian and German elements He made the harpsichord the soloist in the Sth concerto which was strange for that time as it usually just played continuo Review for InClass Short Answer Alberti bass a common pattern of the Classical style in which threenote chords are broken low highmiddlehigh the periodic phrases tend to be evenly balanced those ending gone the dominant requiring continuation are antecedents their balancing consequents often begin like repetitions creating parallel periods Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach 17141788 Berlin Hamburg known for emfmdsamer stil Well known as a composer keyboard voice etc many mediums Wrote book on keyboard playing and technique lots of writing on what good taste in music was essentially how to play with grace Court of Fredrick the Great BerlinPotsdam Father s champion performed a lot of his father s music Versuch uber die wahre Art der Clavier zu spielen 1753 Essay on keyboard playing Johann Christian Bach 17351782 Milan London known for galant style Youngest child of 20 of JS Bach only son to work outside of Germany Milan Bach Italian opera London Bach After Handel Made his name by writing Italian opera Wilhelm Friedemann Bach 17101784 Dresden Halle more dif cult life than his celebrated brothers had a hard time holding musical positions and losing selling Bach s manuscripts Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach 17321795 Buckenburg Double Return the return of both tonic and the exposition thematic material after the development in a sonata form movement following a harmonically and thematically freer development section the double return creates one of the dramatic events of the sonata form Drama giocoso Italian for humorous drama genre of opera common in the eighteenth century Emp ndsamkeit emfindsamer Stil sensitive style direct expression of players feeling through a variety of musical Instrumental music of this time expresses something that can t be put into words Taruskin p 387 Musical expression without recourse to words Enlightenment ideas in uenced politics amp culture primary in France the enlightenment was rooted in France and US brought surge in public concerts made music available to all Emphasized gender equality and social equality Faith in rational thinking humanism liberty equality naturalness Galant style emphasis on pleasant easily absorbed melody with light accompaniment a homophobic reaction to Baroque equalvoiced contrapuntal texture found in the music of France Italy Germany and England Harmonic Rhythm the underlying rhythm articulated by changes of harmony within a given phrase or structure often applied to the rate of change in chords Periodic phrasing harmonic and melodic symmetry at at all levels Rococo a description of preClassical eighteencentury aestetics originally pejorative the emphasis on the elegance wit and delicacy applies most closely to French solo and chamber music of the period more or less equivalent to galant style Raniero de Calzabigi an Italian born poet then resident in Vienna Librettist for Gluck s Orfeo and gave project its primary momentum to aim in the opposite direction of Piccinni s previous reform Christoph Willibald Gluck Reforms 1 No showing off by singers suitcase arias singers had become accustomed to bringing their own arias and Gluck was adamantly against them doing that and using excessive ornamentation 2 Overture related to opera an idea but doesn t become important until end of 19th century 3 More expressive recitative no secco minimal accompaniment harpsichord accompaniment up until now but Gluck found it to be arti cial and he wanted the thread of sound to continue throughout getting away from the formulaic form of drama 4 Loosening of forms Gluck borrowed heavily from French opera tragedy lyrique brought newly into the Italian opera tradition Italian opera was the dominant form until the end of the 19th century De capo aria recitaria format chorus and dance integrated 5 Less repetition of text in arias 6 Simpler melodies 7 Less distinction between aria and recitative Orfeo ed Euridice 1762 Alceste 1767 Gluck s rst reform opera Premiered in Vienna in 1762 Another retelling of the legend that had aided the birth of opera more than a century and a half earlier Despite the loftiness of the theme for the most part Gluck s version avoids the arti cial characteristic of the enlightenment reform operas Carlo Goldoni main librettist for Baldassare Galuppi 170685 developed new operatic genre called drama giocoso humorous drama preamble to what became the popular opera buffa Intermezzo a short comic opera often in two acts presented between individual acts of a typical opera seria to give comic relief a reform of the 18th century Mozart opera buffa comic opera light and easily understood taking a step away from serious Italian opera a reform of the 18th century Mozart op ra comique French operas with spoken dialogue and happy endings opera seria the noble serious style of Italian opera that dominated European music throughout the eighteenth century with its standard alternation of recitative and aria and focus on largerthanlife characters Giovanni Batista Pergolesi 171036 created the great masterwork of the intermezzo genre La serve padrona Niccolo Piccinni Quarelle des bouffons French for Quarrel of the Buffoons a philosophical battle between rival musical styles in Paris between 1752 and 1754 speci cally the relative merits of French and Italian opera Recitative accopmpagnato accompanied recitative or orchestrated recitative In Gluck s Orfeo Orpheus s recitative is accompanied by the orchestral strings with all parts written out not just gured bass Recitative secco simple recitative dry recitative common in the opera seria Reform operaza type of opera championed by Christoph Willibald Gluck which embodied sensibility and aimed to be natural and true to real life especially in accompanied recitative JeanJacques Rousseau 17121778 Enlightenment thinker dilettante composer philosopher eminent writer personal interest in seeing the grand machinery of the of cial French style replaced with the sketchy natural spontaneity of the Italians Enlightenment Intense interest in Querelle des Bouffons La serva padrona 1732 became a huge hit across Europe most popular opera of the mid18th century The acts of the intermezzo would be performed once in between the rst and second act of the opera seria and once between the second and third Franz Joseph Haydn 17321809 Look at slide for biography Haydn is the last composer that we re going to focus on that was brought up in an employee a celebrated employee but he thrived in that environment as an employee to a wealthy family Was not brought up in a royal family Studied JJ Fux independently before being hired as a composer Produced lots of high quality music for string ensembles string quartets approx 104 symphonies composed probably more like 110 Farewell symphony each player had a candle and as they dropped out they blew out their candle until there was only 2 violins left one of them was Haydn metaphor Hadyn is considered one of the strongest symphonic composers of his time His last symphony was London Symphony no 104 Changes in symphonic music London Symphony No 104 unusual characteristics in beginning of rst movement unison at the beginning dramatic effect slow opening adagio slow introduction give solemnity to the piece very dramatic very powerful BUT not the way an Italian opera composer would have written a symphony for their opera earlier in the 18th century introduction in minor even though piece is in D major open intervals Symphony from the Classical era forward a substantial composition for full orchestra typically but not necessarily in four movements related tonally and thematically The symphony became a tradition for the public outside of the opera house Depends on the rise of the public concert to become successful String dominated but will get complimented by wind instruments in the 18th century Italian Three Movement Form Adopted in Germany More Intricate themes Idea of Development Distinct and Contrasting Themes Mannheim Attention to Show and Display Orchestra known throughout Europe for its excellence and precision hired best instruments they could nd and composers wrote great people because of their high quality players Greater use of winds Emphasis on instruments Sinfonia avanti l opera in Alessandro Scarlatti s generation this was usually a short three movement work fast slow fast akin to what the string players of that generation might have called a concerto da camera but with more substantial instrumentation as be tted the larger space of a theater In the 18th century symphonies began to be freestanding 3 or 4 movements orchestral compositions Divertimento Italian for entertainment music which was usually scored for a combination of solo instruments and was light in approach Concert spiritual Paris the earliest signi cant European concert series organized in Paris by Anne Danican Philidor in 1725 and lasting until 1790 Akademie A Viennese concert a term that goes back to sixteenth century Italy where it was already designated aristocratic house concerts Giovanni Battista Sammartini composed pieces for lent to be performed in public concerts in Milan Sammartini Lenten Concerts Sonata Form Exposition Development Recapitulation Mannheim see symphony Attention to Show and Display Orchestra known throughout Europe for its excellence and precision hired best instruments they could nd and composers wrote great people because of their high quality players Greater use of winds Emphasis on instruments St Stephens Cathedral Vienna s main church where Haydn was a choir boy Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz 171757 Led the Mannheim orchestra to fame leading violinist in central Europe for whom Mozart admired String Quartet Developed primarily by Haydn and Mozart Types of chamber and orchestral genres a 4 at mid century String symphonies disappearance of basso continuo major characteristic that distinguishes it from previously known chamber groups working with small ideas small motifs that appeared in all four parts using material in small bits not strung out an intelligent conversation amongst four people four relatively equal parts Johann Michael Haydn younger brother of FJ Haydn Mozart s symphony No 37 is an example of one he didn t write but that Michael Haydn wrote Esterhazy Family Haydn worked for this family beginning on May 1 1761 as ViceKapellmeister in the service of his Serene Highness Paul Anton Prince of the Holy Roman Empire Esterhaza palace In Vienna where Haydn held residency Contained two theaters one for opera one for marionette plays and Singspiels two concert rooms a large orchestral hall Baryton Haydn composed two duets for baryton viola paradon an unusual stringed instrument that was something of a cross between a bass Viol and a guitar Haydn also learned how to play this instrument on the spot for his position with the Esterhazy Family Johann Peter Salomon 17451815 Germanborn violinist and minor composer moved to England and set himself up as a concert entrepreneur Comissioned 6 symphonies and various other pieces from Haydn to be directed by Haydn as well Led to London Trips see next London trips 1791 1792 1791 Salomon and Haydn cross the English Channel together for the rst of two extended acclaimed and highly lucrative stays in Britain Center was the New Grand Overture Symphony No 92 nicknamed Oxford Symphony after the University of Oxford 1792 Haydn composed several works in England these London trips expanded Haydn s experience in public concert Minuet and Trio the triplemeter form used in most third movements of the fourmovement Classical symphony Rondo A Classical form in which a lively opening thematic section alternates with episodes then concludes with the theme and often a coda common in the last movements of symphonies concertos and keyboard sonatas Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Know important biographical details including signi cant trips mentioned in the book Born in Salzburg and beginning at age 6 began touring around Europe playing for people and performing His iconic status is due to his singular skill in moving audiences His success at evoking emotional sympathy Wrote operas in Latin German Italian and other vocal works in French and English A master of all genres His rst dramatic work was an intermezzo called Apollo et Hyacinthus First opera masterpiece was Idomeneus King of Crete 1780 Set in Italian translation to a French libretto it was the style of Gluck according to the text at this point in time mastery was more prized than originality 1781 Fired from Salzburg position Emperor Joseph 11 was ruler in Austria at the time of Mozart and appointed Mozart as a chamber musician Mozart s sense of equality through music made him a gure of the Enlightenment Like Hadyn helped develop style of symphony string quartet responsible for bringing Classical style to a higher level Unlike Hadyn No steady position greater gift for lyrical voicelike writing in instrumental music Greater sense of dramatic eXpression in opera Excelled in his operas and concertos Leopold Mozart WA Mozart s father and teacher Took him amp his sister on tour as children Ludwig von Kochel origin of K numbers Salzburg birth place of Mozart and where his family lived Singspiel German for singing play operatic works in German with spoken dialogue of the Classical and early Romantic eras in substance more like a ballad opera than a comic opera Emperor Joseph 11 Holy Roman Empire Known for his liberal enlightenment reforms that brought a surge to public concerts Mozart Die Entfiihrung aus dem Serail a singspiel that premiered in the Vienna Burgtheater on July 161782 First comic opera to appear in Mozart s transformative career PierreAugustin Beaumarchais 173299 French Playwright Mozart s Marriage of Figaro was based on the second part of a trilogy written by Beaumarchais Lorenzo Da Ponte operas with Mozart Vienna 17811891 3 Opera Buffa LeNozze di Figaro features equality amongst characters key part of the enlightenment Don Giovanni was originally written to be performed in Prague having excerpts from Marriage of Figaro was a nod to Prague the action of the opera goes until the last second Casi fan tutte Mozart s last opera buffa Musical content found ways to imitate human emotion Mozart Die Zaubel bte T he Magic Flute Mozart s last opera September 1971 interweaves more serious themes emblematic of Enlightenment thought within a time of fairytale operas Reverted back to singspiel Cadenza an improvised or writtenout ornamental passage played or sung unaccompanied by a soloist or soloists often in a free rhythmic style and allowing fro virtuosic display prominent in the vocal aria and the instrumental concerto Romanticism a movement in the arts and literature originating in the late eighteenth century and carrying through to the early twentieth century emphasizing inspiration subjectivity and the primacy of the individual Aesthetics critical re ection on art culture and nature the term also refers to a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty are and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty E T A Hoffmann Beethoven s Instrumental Music Fairy Tales Opera Composer Music Critic Reviewed Beethoven s Fifth Symphony in 1810 Beethoven was then viewed as other composers hadn t been viewed before because he wrote what he wanted and was under much less restrictions rst composer to be considered by his contemporaries as an artist a creator Sublime the notion rst articulated in the eighteenth century and accepted by the Romanticists of the great and incomprehensible even the painful and terrifying being greater than the merely beautiful 18th century Theory of the Sublime Shock and awe More connected to music and especially the symphony later in the century as a way to shock Astonishment horror admiration respect Edmund Burke Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful 1757 Canon and museum culture a sense of heirship tradition obligation characteristic of the 19th century stronger force in the history of musical composition Growing sense of canon of an accumulating boyd of permanent masterworks that never go out of style and form the bed rock of an everlasting repertory Sacrilazation of music the Romantic elevation of the art form to a highly spiritual level encouraging the belief that music could improve people and society aesthetically ethnically and even politically Nationalism a political ideology favoring the strong identi cation of a group of individuals with an ethnic or political entity supported in part part by that group s culture Ludwig van Beethoven See timeline slide for speci c dates Youngest out of Haydn Mozart and himself in 1801 he nished his rst symphony Relatively uncomfortable writing opera Beethoven is known for and was primarily most comfortable with instrumental music After 1815 he didn t compose a lot and went into writing vocal music song cycles etc evoked vocal style in his instrumental music This breakpoint in his career also marked a major point in European history Napoleon French repressive political period congress of Vienna and the rami cations showed up in music Beethoven Three style periods Early Middle Late know rough dates and style traits associated with each 1st Period lasting through about 1802 Beethoven mastered the Classical style of his predecessors began to develop a distinctive voice and gained fame as a performer in Viennese musical circles 2nd Period lasting through about 1814 marked by increasing deafness and the resulting social isolation painfully eXpressed in his Heiligenstadt Testament an unsent letter Beethoven wrote in 1802 to his brothers in which he revealed his hearing loss During these years Beethoven created his bestknown works in the heroic style including the Eroica Symphony amp the 5th symphony He also produced more lyrical and reserved works during this time such as the 6th symphony Works of this period show an uneXpected contrast and experimentation with traditional forms Boundaries between formal sections or even between the movements of a symphony may be blurred and codas are eXpanded often taking on the dimensions of a second development section 3rd Period beginning about 1815 Beethoven s works take on a more inward quality epitomizing the Romantic ideal of inwardness He developed a new interest in musical forms of the past such as fugal writing took an innovative approach to variation form and explored new sonorities and remote tonal areas Unlike earlier compositions Beethoven s late works were not written to please an audience or patrons Instead he looked inward for inspiration and to posterity for an audience In this way he helped shape a new conception of art music His string quartets especially were especially re ective of this period in its privateness inwardness See Deafness Heligenstadt Testament Pieces to be familiar with see paragraphs in book on each Symphony no 3 Eroica Symphony no 5 and organicism Symphony no 6 Pastoral and program music Symphony no 9 Choral F J Haydn Symphony 45 Farewell F J Haydn Paris Symphonies F J Haydn String Quartets op 20 and op 33
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