Intro to African American; Studies Study Guide ONE
Intro to African American; Studies Study Guide ONE AFAM 2000
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bethany on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AFAM 2000 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Chana Kai Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to African-American Studies in African American Studies at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 39339 Prison Industrial Complex What is it gt quotA set of bureaucratic political and economic interests that I Encourages increased spending on imprisonment regardless of need I Results in large numbers of people poor black and brown imprisoned I Driven by profit of private industry I Created by liberal and conservative politicians and policy makers 9quot The Complex gt 22 million adults are incarcerated in the US 1 in every 100 adults is locked up I total US adult population 250 million I total US population 317 million L Correctional Control gt 7 million individuals are under some form of correctional control in the United States incarceration probation parole I Source Bureau of Justice Statistics amp Who is affected gt One in three US adults arrested by age 23 gt Disproportionately affected I Communities of color I Lesbian gay bisexual and transgender individuals I People with histories of abuse or mental illness are disproportionately affected gt Between 70 million and 100 million Americans 1 in 3 have some type of criminal record amp Race 8 Gender gt 41 million African Americans in US making 135 of US total population I 46 black men I 54 black women gt Black Males 18 or older 1 in 15 men are incarcerated I Blacllt Males 2034 1 in 9 are incarcerated I However all men 18 or older 1 in 54 are incarcerated gt Black Women 3539 1 in 100 women are incarcerated I However all women 3539 1 in 265 are incarcerated Black Men gt Black men are 6 times more likely to be incarcerated than white men I Black and white men use marijuana and crack at the same level yet black men are incarcerated more often I In 2000 there were 791600 black men in prison and 603032 enrolled in college gt Hispanic men are 25 times more likely than white men I Source The Sentencing Project US Bureau of Justice Statistics L Women gt Women represent the fastest growing prison population Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 gt The majority in prison are Black and Latina women I They account for upwards of 80 of the incarceration increase I Largely in response to the violence rape inflicted upon them in their lives gt 1970 5600 women incarcerated in the US gt 2001 161200 women incarcerated in the US gt 19702001 2800 increase in women behind bars 0 American South gt At the end of 2007 the South had the largest increase in incarceration rates 28 I 623563 to 641024 L Origins Why gt War on Drugs gt quotTough on Crime I AntiDrug Abuse Act of 1986 0 Mandatory minimum sentencing of five years for crack cocaine possession gt 3 Strikes Law I Increases the prison sentences of persons convicted of a felony who have been previously convicted of two or more violent crimes or serious felonies I By first use of cocaine punishment was a 3 5 years sentence I By third felony punishment is often times 25 year life imprisonment gt 1994 Crime Bill Clinton I Crack cocaine uses get more time than powder users I Crack users were often black yet powder users were often white I White person using powder cocaine received lesser sentencing gt Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 I Decreased the disparity between the amount of crack cocaine and powder cocaine required to receive certain penalties I Eliminated mandatory minimum sentencing gt Prisons stimulated state local and rural economic need L Private Industry The Profit Motive gt It is a multibillion dollar industry I Stimulates revenue for several corporations and small companies I A pay phone at a prison can generate as much as 15000a year about five times the revenue of a typical pay phone on the street gt Prisons are laborintensive institutions offering yearround employment I Recessionproof usually expanding in size during hard times gt Prisons bring stable steady income to regions long accustomed to highly seasonal uncertain economy I Supports employees and generates wages for local services gt The economic impact of the prisons extends beyond the wages they pay and the local services they buy I Have political power and leverage Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 I Traded for investments 393 What Else Accounts for Mass Incarceration gt Why are African American Men Incarcerated at a High Rate I Poverty I Racial Discrimination History Systemic Oppression I Personal responsibility poor choices I Poor education limited options I Insufficient family support I Harmful peer socialization I Substance abuse I Personal history of abuse sexual emotional and mental health problems gt Why are African American Women Incarcerated at a Disproportionate Rate I Poverty I Substance Abuse I Sexual and Emotional Abuse History I Mental health issues I Insufficient family support I Racial Discrimination History Systemic Oppression I Personal responsibility poor choices I Poor education limited options 393 Consequences of Mass Incarceration gt In 2007 more than half of Americans 54 in state and federal prisons were parents of minor children I Source The Sentencing Project US Bureau of Justice Statistics gtEconomic Impact I Increasing unemployment rate when people are in prison I Barriers to employment after completing sentence I Banned from public assistance after completing sentence gtEducation I Much more money spent on prisons than education gtPolitical Rights I Disenfranchisement I Hurts black community tears people down I Gives less hope and opportunity to make a change I Past offenders cannot serve in juries poor people will not have a jury of their peers I Some past offenders may not be informed that they still hold the right to vote gtPoliticalSocioeconomic Impact The Cycle I Unemployment gt decrease in tax revenues gt less funding for schools and other social services gt Crime and Unmet Social Needs gt Criminal Justice System gt middleclass businesses leave urban areas shrinking revenues Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 further gt Jobs move 1970s decline of manufacturing gt More Unemployment gtSocial and Cultural Impact I Broken individual lives I Broken families I Broken communities I Structural Inequality and Abuse I Cycles of Generational Hardship I Bankrupt state economies 0 Poverty Work and the New Economy L Causes of Poverty gt Can t get jobs due to lack of education INewer more stable occupations doctoral law accounting white collar jobs require higher levels of schooling Lack of resources to further one s education IMust either choose a low paying job or often times a path of crime gt ncreasing current demands INeed to pay rent buy food etc ICan t save for college or other future opportunities Environment may have been poor neighborhood schools without good teachers Structural Reasons motions to keep certain people from certain areas access in 7 gt gt order to restrict them from working in those areas I 1970s Georgia Marta Bus System 0 Limited access to suburban areas 0 Many only used public transport so they couldn t reach jobs outside of the city 0 Also a political reason I 1970s Deindustrialization 0 High paying jobs were replaced with low paid workers outside of the country China etc 0 Many black people were now reduced to low wage service jobs secretary fast food gt Economic downturns such as the 2008 Recession Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 39339 Unemployment By Race December 2015 gt National rate 51 I African Americans 83 I Hispanics 63 I Asians 60 I Whites 45 393 Median Income 2012 gt All households 53657 half above half below I Asians 74297 I Whites 60256 I Latinos 42491 I African Americans 35398 gFeminization of PovertyGender Inequality gt The process of women becoming a larger share of the poor than men gt Poverty has a gender component that affects black families disproportionately I Women are hit harder economically 0 Men with low education can still find jobs in construction trade work mechanics etc I Women earn less than men 0 Men are valued more socially they are seen as the head of the family I Women don t ask for raises 0 Tend to ask for less and receive less gt Women may want have children so companies may not hire them because it would restrict economic productivity for the company gt The overall proportion of children living with single mothers has risen steadily from 8 in 1960 to 24 in 2010 I Since black women don t have as many skilled job opportunities as white women black children are affected more gt 75 million children live in singlemother households I 16 white children live in singlemother families I 27 Latino children I 52 African American children I Source Population Reference Bureau gt Breaking the Cycle I Children born in the bottom 20 only have 1 chance or reaching the top 5 of income earners mostly entertainers L Government Policy The Narratives gtWho Needs Help I Baby Mama Myth always on welfare makes too many bad choices irresponsible too many babies Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 I Culture of Poverty Black people have values different than whites others not morally equivalent gtWho Deserves Help I Myth of Meritocracy Black people are not seen as worthy 0 You get what you deserve mentality What did you do to get to your current situation I Myth of the quotJob Creators worth is determined by how many jobs you provide create for others ability to share wealth with others L What keeps people poor gt Barriers to Mobility I Discrimination ways people get locked into a circumstance Profiling people based solely on their names on their resumes I Race gender generational cycle of poverty 393 Government Policy and Income Inequality gt Policies that Indirectly Limit Economic Progress for Poor People I Social Safety Net I TANF I SNAP I Medicaid I Head Start I Unemployment Insurance I Social Security I Earned Income Tax Credit gt Policies that Support Economic GrowthPreservation for the Wealthy I Subsidies 0 Farm 0 Oil 0 Research science and medicine I Mortgage Deduction I Capital Gains Tax I Payroll tax threshold 39339 Environmental Racism L Definition gt Refers to any policy practice or directive that differentially affects or disadvantages whether intended or unintended individuals groups or communities based on race or color I provides benefits for whites while shifting costs to people of color I reinforced by government legal economic political and military institutions I Ex Flint Michigan lead poisoning from water resources affecting thousands of children in the large economically poor area Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 Why We Should Care gt Abuse of environment affects black children disproportionately I Lead poisoning that triggers 0 Behavior problems 0 Hearing problems 0 Learning problems 0 Slowed growth I Asthma 0 Due to contaminated air in their environment 0 Also many communities are located near dumping grounds gt It affects the health of all African Americans disproportionately esp the poor I Cancer Diabetes Immune disorders High blood pressure I Depression gt Abuse of the environment affects food and food access for African Americans I Food deserts 0 People do not have access to food or food markets are miles away 0 Major grocery chains refuse to come into black communities Obesity due to diets high in carbs 0 Malnutrition due to diets that lack healthy variety gt Affects recreational life I Few parks for black communities to enjoy I Few swimming pools I Few safe and clean areas for child s play gt Negative economic impact I Little to no business activity creating economic disinvestment I Few decent jobs gt Additional Facts I Often times environmental affairs are considered or quotimaginedquot a white initiative to advocate nature regulation I Also environmental discrimination is a class issue of the poor not just a race issue L Natural Disasters gt Failure to protect and respond to preventable disasters I Poorly constructed infrastructure I Climate and ecological change disappearing wetlands gt When natural disasters are not just quotnaturalquot I Katrina Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 0 Failed levees an artificial embankment alongside a river built to prevent ooding of the surrounding land which broke 0 Environmental neglect eroded wetlands which could have be useful in reducing water flooding into the residential lands gt Poor local state and federal response 392 Hurricane Katrina Impact and Significance O 69 gt Costliest in history I Loss of life over 1830 died most in New Orleans I Property damage 81 billion does not include loss related to loss of economic activity I In the parishes most affected 7080 of homes lost damaged beyond repair gt Severe flooding 80 of the city left under water gt Depopulation and relocation 64 loss in population eg Orleans parish over 400000 people in population reduced to 150000 people after the hurricane Hurricane Katrina Why gt Evacuation Order I To leave or to stay 0 State government failure 0 City government failure Most had no cars and little money to arrange alternative transportation 0 Underestimation of severity and reliance on prior history Hurricane Betsy 1965 Hurricane Katrina Positive Consequences gt Better and quicker response systems since August 29 2005 I US Coast Guard I National Weather Service I National Hurricane Center Increasing technological advances fort these areas Ordinary citizens local state region nation I More people had a heightened awareness caution for their safety International response and awareness Increased Media coverage VV Gender and Sexuality Hypermasculinity gt Men think that acting quothardquot makes them real men I Reinforcing young men to hold in their emotions Intro to African American Studies AFAM 2000 Study Guide ONE Spring 2016 39 Often times black men jokingly put into question other men s masculinity and or sexuality in an attempt to preserve the notion of a tough exterior gt This is highly represented in music content and culture even cinema Black Animosity in the Black Community gt Black young men are becoming more and more desensitized to violence gt As of 2006 black men are 14 times more likely to be a victim of homicide than any other race Black young men focus much on 1 street credibility exism and Misogyny in the Black Community High desensitization to sexism and misogyny in black community 39 As of 2006 one in four black women are victims of rape after the age of 18 gt Music videos 39 Women are primarily viewed as sexual objects and trophies LCommercialism gt The notion of l llteeping it real and other negative content such as violence and the lV O 09 quotquot oversexualization of women is being constantly promoted in hiphop and rap music 39This leads to l Thug life and l Gangsta music
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