New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

SPHU 1020- Cell, Individual, and Community. Cropley Midterm Review

by: Claire Jacob

SPHU 1020- Cell, Individual, and Community. Cropley Midterm Review SPHU 1020

Marketplace > Tulane University > Public Health > SPHU 1020 > SPHU 1020 Cell Individual and Community Cropley Midterm Review
Claire Jacob

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Here is a study guide for the midterm outlining the concepts listed on blackboard for the midterm review. Happy Studying!
Cell, Individual & The Community
Dickey-Cropley, Lorelei
Study Guide
Cell, individual, and Community, Public Health, midterm, immune response, T-cells B-cells, Microbes, disease, Antigens, concepts of disease transmission
50 ?




Popular in Cell, Individual & The Community

Popular in Public Health

This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPHU 1020 at Tulane University taught by Dickey-Cropley, Lorelei in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 193 views. For similar materials see Cell, Individual & The Community in Public Health at Tulane University.

Popular in Public Health


Reviews for SPHU 1020- Cell, Individual, and Community. Cropley Midterm Review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/20/16
Midterm Study Guide    Examples of microbes, characteristics of microbes  What makes a microbe?  ● Microbe is a term of convenience  ● microscopic size and unicellularity are not absolute characteristics of microbes like fungi  (some bacteria are macroscopic).  Examples of microbes  ● Bacteria AKA “germs”  ○ morphology:  ■ bacillus  ■ coccus  ■ spiralis  ○ features:  ■ Capsule not integral to cell  ■ Cell wa​gram positive vs. gram nega ive) ■ Outer membrane (in gram negatives only)  ■ Plasma membrane, selectively permeable  ■ Cytoplasm  ■ Appendages  ● flagella­ like tails  ● pili­ flagella that cover the surface of the bacteria  ○ binary fission for reproduction (asexual)  ○ the first life­forms on Earth  ○ cause illness, also useful to make vitamins, break down some types of garbage,  and maintain our atmosphere  ○ have a cell wall  ○ biochemically diverse  ○ found in every environmental niche  ○ only about 2% of all bacterial species have  been identified  ● Viruses  ○ infect all cell types  ○ viral envelopes used for attachment  ○ Unable to do much of anything on their  own, viruses go into host cells to  reproduce, often wreaking havoc and causing disease. Their ability to move  genetic information from one cell to another makes them useful for cloning DNA  and could provide a way to deliver gene therapy  ○ cause disease by destroying the host cell  ○ need electron microscope to see them because they are so small  ○ essentially, viruses can be harvested for good, not just harm  ● Fungi​ (yeast, mold)  ○ from a single­celled yeast to a 3.5­mile­wide mushroom, fungi do everything from  helping to bake bread to recycling to decomposing waste  ○ harmful to people with insufficient immune systems  (HIV/AIDS)  ● Algae/ Protozoa  ○ Plant­like algae produce much of the oxygen we  breathe; animal­like protozoa (including the famous  amoeba) help maintain the balance of microbial life  ○ includes: algae, slime molds  ○ some algae create toxins that hurt marine life… then  when these fish eat the algae, it’s a part of their bodies  and then humans consume it and you can become  sick from the neurotoxins  ● Helminths (worms)  ● Prions​… Mad Cow Disease is one  ○ infectious protein particles  ○ a­cellular  ○ lack RNA and DNA  ○ reproduce from a protein that’s found in the brain  *All of these can be pathogenic except algae (although they can produce toxins)                   Concepts of disease transmission including role of fomites, vectors,  reservoirs, sources, vertical transmission, Portals of entry and portals  of exit...    ● Fomites​: inanimate objects that serve as means of transmission of infectious material  (doorknobs, toilet seats, kitchen sponges, etc.)  ● Vectors: biologic vs. mechanical transmission  ○ biologic: the vector (in most cases, an insect) is infected with the microbe  ○ mechanical: the vector is not infected, but serves as transport for the microbe  ● Source​: immediate site from which pathogen transferred to host.  ● Reservoir: site in nature in which microbes survive (& possibly multiply) & from which  they may be transmitted   ○ Some organisms able to survive and multiply in nonliving environments, such as  soil and water  ● Vertical transmission: a method of transmission characterized by passage of  pathogens from parent to offspring across the placenta, in breast milk, or in the birth  canal  ● Portals of entry and ex:   ○ pathogens leave host through portals of exit  ○ many portals of exit are same as portals of entry  ○ pathogens often leave hosts in materials body secretes/ excretes            Concepts of immune system including Pathogen, Antigen, Herd  immunity, role of T cells, B cells  ● Pathogen: microbes capable of producing disease  ○ Pathogenicity: ability to cause disease; proportion of infected persons who  develop clinical disease  ○ Why do pathogens cause disease and some don’t?​Virulenc​  ● some infectious agents are easily transmitted (very contagious), but they  are not very likely to cause disease (not very virulent)  ○ ex: polio virus: probably infects most people who contact it, but  only about 5­10% of those infected actually develop disease  ● other infectious agents are very virulent, but not terribly contagious  ○ ex: ebola hemorrhagic fever virus virulence very high (50­90%  fatality rate among those infected); however, virus not transmitted  easily by casual contact  ● most worrisome infectious agents are those that are both very contagious  and very virulent  ● Antigen: component of microbes, usually protein structures, that are recognized as  foreign by the immune system and are targeted for destruction  ○ Antibodies​ or immunoglobulins, recognize & bind to specific ​ontigens  (this is considered an adaptive response)  ● Herd immunity​: immunity of enough members of a population to protect against an  epidemic… especially important for those who have suppressed immune systems and  are not able to receive immunization  ● T cells and B cel​ : ○ Humoral (antibody­mediated) immunity  ■ Triggers production of antibodies specific for an antigen  ■ Antibodies only produced by activated  B lymphocytes  ■ Helper T cells (TH) critical in activating B lymphocytes    Here are some crash course videos made by John Green’s brother (yes, the guy who writes all  of the sappy novels your girlfriends talk about)... he’s a little odd, but still really helpful!!!  Table of Contents  Physical Barriers Like Skin and Mucous Membranes2:01  Phagocytes: Neutrophils and Macrophages 3:17  Natural Killer Ce4:29  Inflammatory Response 5:29  Table of Contents  Adaptive Immune System's Humoral Response 1​:19  How B Cells Mature, Identify Antigens, and Make Antibodies​ 2:42  How Antibodies Warm Pathogens and Mark Them for Death ​5:22  Active and Passive Humoral Immunity6:03  How Vaccines Work 6​:27   Table of Contents  Helper, Cytotoxic and Regulatory T Cells Attack Compromised Body Cells ​ 4:08  Cytokines Activate B and T Cells ​:00  When Your Immune System Goes Rogue ​ 6:15  Autoimmune Trouble 7​:27            Vaccines recommended for routine use by U.S. CDC and the World  Health Organization              Specific characteristics , such as transmission cycle,  of  Schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Lymphatic filariasis, guinea worm    Schistosomiasis​ :  ● >200 million people infected; prevalence increasing  ● widely distributed throughout Africa, S america and some parts of Asia; distribution  increasing with migration  ● Epidemiology and risk factors  ○ source of infections: humans and mammals (esp. cattle)  ○ Route of transmission: transmission occurs in freshwater where larval stage of  schistoma come in contact with and penetrates human skin  ○ 3 factors:  ■ method of disposal of human excreta  ■ presence of snail intermediate host  ■ contact (via swimming, bathing, etc)  ● s/s:  ○ acute: early systemic circulation of schistosomules­ fever, enlargement and  tenderness of liver, dysentery  ■ itchiness develops at the penetration site  ■ fever, chills, cough, and muscle aches  ○ late stage: eggs trapped in tissues or embolizing to liver  ■ damage caused to the liver, intestine, or bladder  ■ more rarely, eggs may move to the brain or spinal cord, causing seizures,  paralysis, or inflammation of the spinal cord  ■ can also damage the spleen, liver, lungs, intestine, and bladder, causing  the abdomen to become distended  ● prevention: treat patients and domestic animal at the same time  ○ avoid infected water  ● Life cycl​  ○ live in snails which release immature, free­swimming, microscopic forms, called  cercariae  ○ exposure to water containing cercariae allows penetration into the skin  ○ migrate into blood vessels and  enter into the liver  ■ the adults coat themselves  with antigens of the host to  avoid detection by the host’s  immune system  ○ a male and female pair migrate into  small blood venules (veins) of the  intestinal tract or bladder  ○ the worms feed on blood  ○ eggs are discharged by defecation  or urination into the water  ○ the eggs hatch, penetrate the  snails, and develop into cercariae      Leishmaniasis:  ● caused by flagellated protozoan Leishmania  ○ endemic in most tropical and subtropical areas  ○ transmission: by bite of female sandflies  ○ they are phagocytosed and differentiate and multiply within host macrophages  ○ Life cycle:  ■ when an infected sand fly bites a human, the parasites enter the skin and  are engulfed by cells called macrophages (biological transmission)  ■ the parasites multiply and are released when a microphage bursts  ○ 3 human manifestations;  ■ determined by parasite species, geographic location, and host immune  response  ■ Visceral leishmaniasis(aka kala­azar)  ● the most severe form with close to a 100% mortality rate  ● parasites invade the liver and spleen and cause characteristic  symptoms, including irregular bouts of fever, weakness, weight  loss, anemia, and protrusion of the abdomen due to the swelling of  the spleen and liver  ■ Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis  (aka espundia)  ● parasites invade the skin and mucous membranes, causing  destruction of the nose, mouth, and throat  ■ Cutaneous leishmaniasis (aka Baghdad boil and tropical boil)  ● results in mild disfiguring skin lesions, primarily on exposed parts  of the body, particularly the face, arms, and legs  ○ prevention  ■ interruption of transmission by reducing vector Sandfly population  ■ prevent sandfly bites:  ● PPM: Personal Protective Measures: insecticide treated nets  (DEET)    Lymphatic Filariasis: “elephantiasis”  ● Primary causative agent Filarial nematode: Wucheraria bancrof  ● 250 million humans affected; widely spread in tropical and subtropical countries  ● route of transmission  ○ transmitted to humans by mosquitos  ○ transmission depends on 2 issues:  ■ availability of vectors  ■ presence of a population of people to infect the vector  ○ called Biological Transmission because part of its life cycle is completed whilst in  the mosquito  ● clinical disease  ○ early s/s: fever  ○ later: elephantiasis (common, but incorrect word: elephantitis)  ○ late complication of filariasis  ○ lymphangitis (enlargement of limbs, scrotum, breasts, or vulva with dermal  hypertrophy and verrucous changes  ○ lymphadenitis (femoral, inguinal, auxiliary nodes)  ● DX, TX, Prevention and Control  ○ DX: made on clinical grounds  ■ using blood films  ■ use of sentinel sites  ○ TX/ prevention:  ■ anti­inflammatory agents  ■ diethylcarbamazine (DEC), anti­helminthic drugs: ivermectine,  albendizole, doxycycline      ● Life cycle:  ○ initiated by the bite of mosquitos  carrying filarial larvae  ○ larvae migrate into the lymphatic  vessels where, within about a year,  they grow into adult worms with a  lifespan of up to several years  ○ the adult worms mate and the female  release into the blood millions of  microfilariae that may be ingested by  mosquitoes taking a blood meal          Guinea Worm  Dracunculiasis: guinea worm  ● found in African communities lacking clean drinking water  ● transmission: ingest water containing larvae­infected copepods  ○ ingested larvae penetrate stomach and intestinal wall and enter abdominal cavity  where they mature into adult worms  ○ migrate to foot or leg, blister forms, and then burrow out of the foot  ● Life cycle:  ○ Life cycle:  ■ drinking water contaminated with dracunculus larvae→ small copepods  (“water fleas”) feed on these larvae. Copepods are small crustaceans in  the phylum Arthropoda.  ■ when someone ingests water containing infected copepods, the copepods  are digested but not the worm larvae, which penetrate the stomach and  intestinal wall and enter the abdominal cavity  ■ after appx 1 year, females migrate toward the skin surface, most  commonly the foot or leg. A painful blister that eventually ruptures occurs  at the site.  ● people sometimes immerse the blistered area in water in an  attempt to relieve pain. the temp change causes the blister to  open, exposing the adult worm. these worms are very skinny  though, and in an induced event such as this, only part of the  worm will escape and the rest will remain in the leg, leading to  bacterial infection  ● after the natural rupture of the blister, the one­meter­long worm  begins to enzymatically bore its way out through the skin→ causes  excruciating and debilitating pain  Guinea worm eradication?  ● prevention based on teaching villagers to filter copepods from their drinking water  ● Guinea worm disease set to become 2nd human disease in history, after smallpox, to be  eradicated, 1st parasite disease to be eradicated and 1st disease to be eradicated  without use of a vaccine or medicine  ● 3.5 million cases in 1986 to 126 in 2014, this year, 22 incidences  ● Main initiative of Carter Center and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation working with  CDC, WHO, etc.        Exit tix questions​… I’m really sorry but I don’t have a clue how to access these        Guest speaker slides​ … and we haven’t had a guest speaker yet so woohoo!      Make sure that you also review your own notes and the  slides from class! While I’ve filled out the midterm review  found on blackboard to the best of my ability, I can’t  guarantee that everything on the test is going to be in this  document. Good luck and happy studying!   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.