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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Warren on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3221 at East Carolina University taught by Kendell Thornton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/20/16
STUDY GUIDE FOR SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY TEST TWO Information from Book Information from Notes Extra previously implied information paraphrased from notes and book Chapter 4: SelfPresentation: People try to control how others see them. Trying to control how others see you, hear you, and interact with you so that you can come off in a positive way to them. This is because most people want to be liked by others and keep improving in their every day life. Public Selfconsciousness: The idea of always being seen in a public place. When you are acting a certain way so that others don’t think of you as unusual and then you are being normal when you are actually having selfdoubt. Selfmonitoring: The idea that someone is constantly thinking about how they look to the public and making their actions fit the situation they are in. Example: This is important when you are trying to show someone that you have skills or are good at something without telling them flat out, because then they will not have as much respect for you. Ingratiation: When people try to get other people to like them. This is when you are trying to get others to like you with a long term goal of getting them to do things for you. MultiAudience Dilemma: When a speaker needs to reach many different opinions in one speech or at one time. Selfhandicapping: When someone makes it harder for themselves in the future. This often happens in college students, mostly men as was researched in the 1980’s. This is a way to make excuses for yourself so that you can still feel like you are smart and that you could perform in a better way. Shyness: When someone commonly feels tense, worried, uncomfortable in a normal social experience with people they do not know. Basking in Reflected Glory: When we claim someone or something that has a high status’s success as our own or that we contributed to it when we did not. This is a way that people make themselves feel better. They will attach themselves to successful athletic teams and then when the team wins the person will feel good about them self too. High Status Nonverbal Behavior: Body Language, or things humans do to get across to someone how powerful they are or the image they are trying to portray. An Example: Elijah Manning did not show a good reaction to his brother’s team winning the super bowl. Chapter 5: Attitude: A positive or negative assessment of a situation. Persuasion: When someone changes there mind or thought because of what they saw or heard. Persuasion can be a form of manipulation. When there is fear in someone it is easier to persuade them, and they also believe more easily and have less drive to disagree. When persuading an audience it important to focus on how you are appearing to them, you need to be firm, straight forward and know what you are talking about. It is very difficult to riel in an audience that has become hostile. You have to change their mind completely which would mean you have to use multiple audience dilemma technique and possibly more techniques where you try to reach the people who are lost while still keeping the people who are interested. Inoculation Procedure: When someone has an increased resistance to a strong argument because they heard a weak one before it that helped them make good defensive arguments against the subject. Dual Process Model Persuasion: A model that shows two ways that attitudes change how a person processes. The first way is if they are focusing on the argument and the message that is being said, and the other one way is if the person if focusing on something other than the message such as the speakers appearance. Consistency Principle: When someone says they have a certain view and then they don’t think it, believe it, or have the will to do it so they change what they are doing or thinking to fit what they had said they had believed. When someone is trying not to be a hypocrite. This principle most commonly happens when someone knows that they can commit to something and then they follow through. Balance Theory: Fritz Heider proposed this theory and it discusses how people enjoy harmony and a balance in what we believe to be true and good. We as people enjoy when others have the same views as us so that there is not unbalance or tension in our lives. Cognitive Dissonance: When someone is in a state of inconsistency with their beliefs and feelings and views then they want to get rid of that difference in their life. The mind tries to keep two different ideas at the same time and this causes it to get confused and can hinder our rational thinking or our behaviors with doing things that are obviously wrong. We will still do things that are bad for us or not good choices because we somehow rationalized in our heads that it was what we should do. This can also cause rage because the person is not right, they might not even be able to see that they are wrong. Scarcity: People want more of things that they can no longer easily get. Example: when an airway gets rid of a certain flight people instantly want to book that flight since it is less common and is now a scarce good. Systematic Processing: (Central Route) When someone is carefully considering the subject and points of an argument and thinking about the arguments strong points. Heuristic Processing: (Peripheral Route) Looking at information in a nonclose manner and making a fast decision on what is pretty and a easy without thinking deeply into the subject or the facts that were shared. Chapter 6: Conformity (with Ash’s research): When the right amount of people are believing and supporting something this causes the person who is questioning it to believe their thoughts are wrong and agree with the other people even if they were wrong. Doing something in character without being asked to even if there is sometimes pressure to do so. Could be caused by: Stress, Orientation (or view on conforming), Compliance, or obedience. Compliance: When someone changes the way they act because someone asked them to. When someone’s behavior changes in response to a direct request from someone or something. Footinthedoor Technique: When a person is asked and then acts on a small thing they will then do a related larger request since they were already supporting or acting on the first small request. Example: Someone asked a person to hand a small flyer on their house and then came back a week later and asked them to put a sign in their yard. The person will be more likely to do the larger request because they had already slightly committed to the cause by complying with the small request. Doorintheface Technique: When someone asks another person to do a large request they person will shut the requester down, but then say yes to a smaller request (which is secretly what the requester wanted to begin with). Causes an increase in likelihood when the first unreasonable request was turned down for the second and more reasonable request to be accepted. Example: When someone is trying to buy a house they offer a lower amount than they are willing to pay in hopes that they can get the house for that amount and if it is refused then they go up to their max and most reasonable amount that they are still willing to pay and the sellers accept it. Lowball Technique: When people are committed to something and then there is a added cost to what they are already committed to, but they do it anyways because they had already said yes. Getting someone to agree with a request and then changing the request once they have agreed, this causes them to feel obliged to stick with the agreement. Example: Inviting someone to a party and then when they say yes you would ask them to bring chips and they still agree. Baitandswitch Technique: When someone gets interested and agrees to a commitment and then the person who got them agree makes the thing they agreed to sound bad and then tries to get them to commit to something more.
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