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Jackson Era Notes for Exam in Hist 207, Barnes

by: Jack Fisher

Jackson Era Notes for Exam in Hist 207, Barnes HIST 207

Marketplace > California State Polytechnic University > History > HIST 207 > Jackson Era Notes for Exam in Hist 207 Barnes
Jack Fisher
Cal Poly
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These notes cover specific aspects of Jackson's presidency
THE UNITED STATES, Freedom and equality in American History
Dr. Barnes, Timothy
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jack Fisher on Saturday February 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 207 at California State Polytechnic University taught by Dr. Barnes, Timothy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see THE UNITED STATES, Freedom and equality in American History in History at California State Polytechnic University.


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Date Created: 02/20/16
HIST 207 Midterm 2 Lecture Notes Note: complete up to 2/18/16 Article I. Andrew Jackson Symbolizes era 1. Taking the ideas of Thomas Jefferson and putting them into action, man of action, “Action Jackson” 2. Marks shift to the modern nation a. First American leader to not come from 1 of 2 states: Massachusetts or Virginia b. From Tennessee, marks westward shift of population c. First “popular president”, An ordinary man d. First American president to endure an assassination attempt A. Biography a. 5 Stages i. Youth 1. Jackson not born anywhere specific, appears in world around 1767, from a family of frontier drifters 2. Humble beginnings, illiterate, violent tempered, orphaned at 14 3. By 21, he’s a lawyer in Tennessee- learned by doing and was popular ii. Politician 1. Ran for house of reps from Tennessee a. Wins, Serves 1 term b. Runs for senate, wins and serves 1 term 2. Doesn’t like DC so he returns to Nashville 3. Elected a City Judge: was terrible iii. Plantation Owner 1. Man of wealth and position 2. Bought cotton lands in Tennessee a. Owned slaves 3. Bank Investor 4. Owned a hardware store 5. Decides to settle down a. Marries Rachel Donalson-Robarbs i. Widower 6. During this time, he holds no public office but is visible to the public iv. Military Hero 1. He is best known man west of Appalachian mountains for his war effort 2. During War of 1812, he declares himself a general, raises an army, and attacks British at New Orleans (after war had ended) 3. Then turns and attacks Spanish Florida v. The Presidency 1. He’s a Military Hero, Best known Man west of Appalachians, and seeks election during a year where there are 4 candidates 2. He receives the majority of votes cast, but does not receive a majority of the electoral college a. Due to know majority of electoral votes, the House of representatives chooses the president, picking John Quincy Adams b. Andrew Jackson supporters feel this was a corrupt bargain and feel cheated 3. 4 years later in 1828, he runs again and wins a. Will serve 2 terms b. HE was almost constantly sick during his entire presidency due to lead in this body from old wounds i. This made him more violent c. Died at 78 Years Old B. Jacksonian Ideas a. Democracy i. His ideas were basic because of his lack of intellectual education, possessed very few ideas and even less original ideas ii. Believed the people ought to have political power 1. People rule, no deference b. Equality i. Founding Fathers: Aristocracy of Intelligence ii. Jefferson: “All Men Are Created Equal” iii. Jackson: Took Jefferson’s equality ideas and put them into action 1. Attacks special privileges in politics 2. Under Jackson, we as a people become committed to equality for the first time a. Same equality we have today: equality of opportunity i. This equality is small, but important c. Nationalism i. Founding Fathers: found greatest threat to nation to be political parties ii. Thomas Jefferson: supported political parties as they were “loyal opposition” iii. Andrew Jackson: Established the modern democratic party C. Jacksonian Practice a. Political Democracy i. Vote 1. Jefferson: 16 states in union in 1800, only 5 had universal white male voting 2. Jackson: 1828, 24 states in union, 22 have universal white male voting a. *Jackson is the catalyst of change in voting right and the product ii. Mass political parties 1. Jefferson creates the Jeffersonian Republicans by writing letters to certain people a. This worked because of low population 2. Jackson developed his entire campaign while head of democratic party a. Would host gatherings at night including free food an alcohol b. Jackson would later arrive and speak to crowd usually standing on a stump: “Stump speech” i. Jackson spoke directly to voters iii. Spoil System 1. “To the victor goes the spoils” 2. Jackson invented the spoil system and defended it a. Reasoned that in a democracy, education and intelligence were not important for the leader i. Led to “shirt sleeve” Diplomats- Jackson’s diplomats who were inexperienced iv. Convention Systems 1. 1832-1 national political party convention 2. Caucus System- informed meeting 3. Convention system- gave greater involvement to ordinary people= more democratic 4. How do these 4 aspects expand democracy? b. Equality i. Bank War 1. Jackson is the catalyst for equality in the Bank War a. 1792-1812= First Bank of US b. 1816-1836= Second Bank of US i. Jackson hates the bank because Jefferson hated the bank ii. Wants to destroy it 1. Sees it as a social institution, not a financial one c. Financial system (Federal Reserve) that regulates the money i. Regulates inflation d. Nicolas Biddle: Biddle was in-charge of bank at the time i. He was vain, Aristocratic, and distant e. Jackson’s supporters/ Bank haters i. Old Jeffersonians ii. YUPPIEs “Young, Urban, Professional” iii. Jackson f. Biddle refused to give out cheap loans g. Supporters of Bank i. Congress: new bank was doing a good job 1. Will support bank by re-chartering it in 1832, during Jackson’s Presidency 2. Attempting to use it as an instrument to destroy Jackson ii. Jackson vetoes Bill 1. In Veto Message he makes 2 points a. The bank is unconstitutional b. The bank is a promoter of inequality h. As soon as Jackson is reelected, he withdraws all public money from the bank i. Biddle loses 20% of capital, had made loans to state banks, who made loans to businesses. ii. Biddle recalls those loans, so state recalls their loans i. Economy plunges into its First modern Depression ii. Bank Fight is Significant for 3 Reasons 1. Jackson Demonstrates the Veto a. Every president had vetoed a bill because they called it unconstitutional, Jackson was first to veto because he did not like it 2. Demonstrates Jackson’s commitment to equality 3. Created a split in country and created new opposition party: Whigs a. Jackson’s supporters take the idea of equality and run with it c. Medicine i. States either relaxed restrictions or tightened them on licensing physicians 1. Hydrotherapy- Russel trawl a. Said he could cure 50 ailments with application of water 2. Sylvester Graham- Grahamites a. Most popular medicine b. What you ate influenced your health i. He developed a healthy food supplement, the Graham Cracker ii. Inspired John Kellogg to develop a cereal 3. These practices were important because unlike others, they didn’t harm you d. Culture of Equality i. Literature 1. High Lit: Nathaniel Hawthorne: “The Scarlet Letter” a. Attacks double standard of women having sex out of wedlock vs. men 2. Low Lit: Phanny Fern: “Fern leaves from Phanny’s fern” a. Simplest form of writing b. Watched domestic events through short stories st c. 1 printing sold 70,000 copies ii. Theatre of Equality 1. Melodrama- 3 characters a. Hero, Love Interest, And villain b. Easy to follow, one could be illiterate and still enjoy the play c. 1839- Audience doesn’t like ending and riot, during which 134 are killed d. Showed importance of audience participation iii. Painting of equality 1. William Sydney Mount: “The Power of Music” a. Equality here is emphasized by its simple composition, simple story b. Message: the power of music overcomes all barriers 2. “Rustic dance after a Sleigh ride”- Middle class at Leisure a. Unsophisticated, unglamorized 3. Francis Edmunds: “Taking the census” 4. George Caleb Bingem a. “Verdict of the People” election day b. Political Equality i. Message is that new political equality is bad because the voters are drunken gamblers 5. Thomas Cole a. “Course of Empire” b. 5 Paintings, best stage is one with most agriculture c. Shows loss of virtue destroys a nation D. Reform a. 3 Factors i. Jackson’s consistent promotion of equality ii. 1830-last of the founding fathers die 1. Caused many Americans concern over the fate of the republic 2. Fear was that it would die along with its founders iii. Founding fathers had destroyed all traditional barriers to Human development 1. Kings destroyed 2. Blood Aristocracies a. Everyone thrown onto own resources/abilities to make/not make improvements in life 3. “Rugged individualism”/ “Ruthless, Anarchistic, individualism” a. Reformers-Many Americans reject this and want working together and harmony


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