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Biology 101 Exam 2 Study guide part 1.

by: Jenna Zagrodniczek

Biology 101 Exam 2 Study guide part 1. Biology 101

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Biology > Biology 101 > Biology 101 Exam 2 Study guide part 1
Jenna Zagrodniczek

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This is the first part of the study guide for exam 2.
General Biology
Sydha Salihu (P)
Study Guide
Biology 101 Study guide exam 2
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Zagrodniczek on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 101 at West Virginia University taught by Sydha Salihu (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 2 This list is only a study guide, not a complete list of all the material on the test.   The best approach would be to study your notes, powerpoint slides on ecampus, read textbook and then try to answer these questions.   Any material discussed in class is potential test material.  Please bring questions to office hours or by  appointment. Don’t forget to look at the resources posted on ecampus Chapter 2:  1. Know the details of pH scale…What is an acidic solution?  Answer: pH scale runs from 0­14, 7 is neutral, 0 is low pH, 14 high pH, lower number means  higher acidity. pH refers to the number of hydrogen ions in a solution. Acids: more H+  ions. Bases: more OH­ ions. An acidic solution is fluid that has more H+ ions like battery acid, soda, beer, and coffee.    2.What is a basic (alkaline) solution .  Understand how the concentration of hydrogen  and hydroxyl ions change with acidic solution and basic solution.  Answer: Basic solution is fluid that has more OH­ ions like blood, baking soda,  Ammonia, and bleach.  The concentration of  hydrogen ions in a basic solution would be ____________  (higher or lower)  than in pure water. 3.  A pH 4 solution has  _______________    hydrogen ions than a  pH 8 solution does. (Remember that the pH scale is a log  scale) A.  4 times more B. 4 times less C. 40000 times less D. 10000 times less E. 10000 times more Macro molecules:  1. What are macro molecules?  Answer: organic molecules that come from the food we eat that builds us.  2.  What are the four major categories of macro molecules? Answer: Nucleic acids, proteins, carbs, and lipids. 3.  What simple molecules (monomers) are the building blocks of complex  carbohydrates?   Answer: sugar, amino acids, nucleotides  4.   What are 3 examples of complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)?   What “roles” do complex carbohydrates play within living things? Answer: starch, cellulose, and glycogen. Complex carbohydrates  are time­ released packets of energy.  5.  What are the examples of lipids found in living cells?   Answer: Fats, sterols, phospholipids, waxes, LDL, HDL Differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.  Answer: Saturated fat: if each carbon atom in the hydrocarbon  chain of  fatty acid is bonded to two hydrogen atoms, the fat molecule carries the  maximum  number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fat: Some of the carbon atoms are bound  to only a single hydrogen and are connected to each other by a double bond.  What “roles” do lipids play within living things? Answer: long­term energy  storage and insulation, regulate growth and development, form cellular membranes.  6.  What simple molecules are the building blocks of proteins?   What are the different  functions of proteins? Answer: amino acids. Functions of proteins­ structure: hair,  fingernails, feathers, horns, cartilage, tendons. Protection: help fight invading  microorganisms, coagulate blood. Regulation: control cell activity, constitute some  hormones. Contraction: allow muscles to contract, heart to pump, sperm to swim.  Transportation: carry molecules such as oxygen around your body.  7.  What is the basic structure of an amino acid?   Answer: Made up of a central carbon  atom attached to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain.  What is the name for the covalent bond that forms between amino acids? (ans:  peptide bonds) 8.  Proteins have different levels of structure.  Know the four different levels. Answer:  Primary structure­ the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. Secondary  structure­ the distribution of corkscrews and zigzags within a protein. Tertiary structure­  the protein folds into a unique and complex three­dimensional shape. Quaternary  structure­ two or more polypeptide chains are held together by hydrogen bonds and other  non­peptide bonds between amino acids in the different chains.  . 9. What happens to a protein when it gets denatured?  Answer: usually looses its ability  to function.  What can cause denaturation of proteins? Answer: heat causes the hydrogen  bonds to break that give the proteins their shape. (frying an egg) 10.  What simple molecules are the building blocks of nucleic acids?  Answer:  nucleotides     11. Name two important nucleic acids found in all cells. What is their role? Know the  differences between RNA and DNA Answer: DNA and RNA. DNA has two strands, of sugar phosphates. RNA has only one  strand of sugar­phosphate, and is the middleman between DNA and protein.  12.  Describe the basic structure of a nucleotide. Know the different types of bonds that  are present in the nucleotide structure. Answer: Nucleotides are linked in a series to form  a ribbon like strand that is the backbone of the nucleic acid molecule: a sugar molecule is  attached to a phosphate group, which is attached to another and so on. Attached to each  sugar, and protruding from the backbone, is one of the nitrogen containing molecules  DNA or RNA. Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).    Chapter 3: Cells 1. What  is a cell ?  Answer: The smallest unit of a living thing.  2. Know the two general types of cells.  Compare and contrast the prokaryotic and  eukaryotic cell structure. (Refer to your notes and textbook) Answer: Prokaryotic­ no nucleus, no organelles, smaller in size,  has DNA  but no nucleus (bacteria). Eukaryotic­ has nucleus, has organelles,  larger  in size, has DNA (plants, fungi, and animals) 3. What are features common to all cells? Answer: Cell membrane, DNA, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.  4. Describe endosymbiosis theory. Know evidence for this theory. Answer: best  explanation for the two organelles in eukaryotic cells: chloroplasts in plants and  algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals. Chloroplasts enable plants and  algae to convert sunlight into a more usable form of energy. Mitochondria help  plants and animals harness the energy stored in food molecules.  5. Describe the organelles in eukaryotic cells. Know their functions well. Answer:  Nucleus­ directs cell activities and contains genetic material called chromosomes  made up of DNA. Mitochondria­ makes energy out of food. Ribosomes­ makes  protein. Golgi apparatus­ makes, process and package proteins.  6. Differences between plant and animal cells. Answer: Animal cells have centrioles, which are not present in plant cells. Plant cells have cell wall and chloroplasts,  and vacuole.  7. Cilia and flagella are part of the _____.  Answer: Centrioles  8. The rough ER appears rough due to the presence of ____. Answer: Ribosomes on  the membrane surface.  9. Compare and contrast rough ER and smooth ER. Answer: Rough ER modifies  proteins that will be shipped elsewhere in the organism. Smooth ER synthesizes  lipids and detoxifies molecules.  10. What are the different molecules that make up a cell membrane.  Know how each  molecule helps in the function of cell membrane. Answer: glycerol­ three carbon  molecule that functions as the backbone. Fatty acids­ attach to the first and second carbons. Phosphate group­ attaches to the third carbon. Cholesterol­ helps regulate the stiffness of membranes. 11. What is the function of cell membrane? What happens if you have a faulty cell  membrane? Answer: control the movement of material into and out of the cell.  Can cause diseases if you have a faulty cell membrane.  12. Know the differences between diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. Answer: Diffusion­ passive transport in which a particle, called a solute, is  dissolved in a gas or liquid and moves from an area of high solute concentration  to an area of lower concentration. Facilitated diffusion­ when spontaneous  diffusion across a plasma membrane requires a transport protein. Active transport­ when the molecules need energy to transport. 


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