Biology 101 Exam 2 Study guide part 1.
Biology 101 Exam 2 Study guide part 1. Biology 101
Popular in General Biology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Zagrodniczek on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 101 at West Virginia University taught by Sydha Salihu (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at West Virginia University.
Reviews for Biology 101 Exam 2 Study guide part 1.
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/21/16
REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 2 This list is only a study guide, not a complete list of all the material on the test. The best approach would be to study your notes, powerpoint slides on ecampus, read textbook and then try to answer these questions. Any material discussed in class is potential test material. Please bring questions to office hours or by appointment. Don’t forget to look at the resources posted on ecampus Chapter 2: 1. Know the details of pH scale…What is an acidic solution? Answer: pH scale runs from 014, 7 is neutral, 0 is low pH, 14 high pH, lower number means higher acidity. pH refers to the number of hydrogen ions in a solution. Acids: more H+ ions. Bases: more OH ions. An acidic solution is fluid that has more H+ ions like battery acid, soda, beer, and coffee. 2.What is a basic (alkaline) solution . Understand how the concentration of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions change with acidic solution and basic solution. Answer: Basic solution is fluid that has more OH ions like blood, baking soda, Ammonia, and bleach. The concentration of hydrogen ions in a basic solution would be ____________ (higher or lower) than in pure water. 3. A pH 4 solution has _______________ hydrogen ions than a pH 8 solution does. (Remember that the pH scale is a log scale) A. 4 times more B. 4 times less C. 40000 times less D. 10000 times less E. 10000 times more Macro molecules: 1. What are macro molecules? Answer: organic molecules that come from the food we eat that builds us. 2. What are the four major categories of macro molecules? Answer: Nucleic acids, proteins, carbs, and lipids. 3. What simple molecules (monomers) are the building blocks of complex carbohydrates? Answer: sugar, amino acids, nucleotides 4. What are 3 examples of complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)? What “roles” do complex carbohydrates play within living things? Answer: starch, cellulose, and glycogen. Complex carbohydrates are time released packets of energy. 5. What are the examples of lipids found in living cells? Answer: Fats, sterols, phospholipids, waxes, LDL, HDL Differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Answer: Saturated fat: if each carbon atom in the hydrocarbon chain of fatty acid is bonded to two hydrogen atoms, the fat molecule carries the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fat: Some of the carbon atoms are bound to only a single hydrogen and are connected to each other by a double bond. What “roles” do lipids play within living things? Answer: longterm energy storage and insulation, regulate growth and development, form cellular membranes. 6. What simple molecules are the building blocks of proteins? What are the different functions of proteins? Answer: amino acids. Functions of proteins structure: hair, fingernails, feathers, horns, cartilage, tendons. Protection: help fight invading microorganisms, coagulate blood. Regulation: control cell activity, constitute some hormones. Contraction: allow muscles to contract, heart to pump, sperm to swim. Transportation: carry molecules such as oxygen around your body. 7. What is the basic structure of an amino acid? Answer: Made up of a central carbon atom attached to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a side chain. What is the name for the covalent bond that forms between amino acids? (ans: peptide bonds) 8. Proteins have different levels of structure. Know the four different levels. Answer: Primary structure the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. Secondary structure the distribution of corkscrews and zigzags within a protein. Tertiary structure the protein folds into a unique and complex threedimensional shape. Quaternary structure two or more polypeptide chains are held together by hydrogen bonds and other nonpeptide bonds between amino acids in the different chains. . 9. What happens to a protein when it gets denatured? Answer: usually looses its ability to function. What can cause denaturation of proteins? Answer: heat causes the hydrogen bonds to break that give the proteins their shape. (frying an egg) 10. What simple molecules are the building blocks of nucleic acids? Answer: nucleotides 11. Name two important nucleic acids found in all cells. What is their role? Know the differences between RNA and DNA Answer: DNA and RNA. DNA has two strands, of sugar phosphates. RNA has only one strand of sugarphosphate, and is the middleman between DNA and protein. 12. Describe the basic structure of a nucleotide. Know the different types of bonds that are present in the nucleotide structure. Answer: Nucleotides are linked in a series to form a ribbon like strand that is the backbone of the nucleic acid molecule: a sugar molecule is attached to a phosphate group, which is attached to another and so on. Attached to each sugar, and protruding from the backbone, is one of the nitrogen containing molecules DNA or RNA. Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). Chapter 3: Cells 1. What is a cell ? Answer: The smallest unit of a living thing. 2. Know the two general types of cells. Compare and contrast the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure. (Refer to your notes and textbook) Answer: Prokaryotic no nucleus, no organelles, smaller in size, has DNA but no nucleus (bacteria). Eukaryotic has nucleus, has organelles, larger in size, has DNA (plants, fungi, and animals) 3. What are features common to all cells? Answer: Cell membrane, DNA, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. 4. Describe endosymbiosis theory. Know evidence for this theory. Answer: best explanation for the two organelles in eukaryotic cells: chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals. Chloroplasts enable plants and algae to convert sunlight into a more usable form of energy. Mitochondria help plants and animals harness the energy stored in food molecules. 5. Describe the organelles in eukaryotic cells. Know their functions well. Answer: Nucleus directs cell activities and contains genetic material called chromosomes made up of DNA. Mitochondria makes energy out of food. Ribosomes makes protein. Golgi apparatus makes, process and package proteins. 6. Differences between plant and animal cells. Answer: Animal cells have centrioles, which are not present in plant cells. Plant cells have cell wall and chloroplasts, and vacuole. 7. Cilia and flagella are part of the _____. Answer: Centrioles 8. The rough ER appears rough due to the presence of ____. Answer: Ribosomes on the membrane surface. 9. Compare and contrast rough ER and smooth ER. Answer: Rough ER modifies proteins that will be shipped elsewhere in the organism. Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and detoxifies molecules. 10. What are the different molecules that make up a cell membrane. Know how each molecule helps in the function of cell membrane. Answer: glycerol three carbon molecule that functions as the backbone. Fatty acids attach to the first and second carbons. Phosphate group attaches to the third carbon. Cholesterol helps regulate the stiffness of membranes. 11. What is the function of cell membrane? What happens if you have a faulty cell membrane? Answer: control the movement of material into and out of the cell. Can cause diseases if you have a faulty cell membrane. 12. Know the differences between diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport. Answer: Diffusion passive transport in which a particle, called a solute, is dissolved in a gas or liquid and moves from an area of high solute concentration to an area of lower concentration. Facilitated diffusion when spontaneous diffusion across a plasma membrane requires a transport protein. Active transport when the molecules need energy to transport.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'