Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide Bio385
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisa Loken on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio385 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Sepsonwol in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Exam One Study Guide February 20, 2016 True or False 1. There are 12 body systems. 2. The cell’s genetic material, RNA, is within the nucleus. 3. When equilibrium is not achieved and no net diffusion is occurring, the molecules are immobilized. 4. At resting membrane potential, passive and active forces balance each other, so there is no net movement of ions against the membrane. 5. A calcium pump is an example of a primary active transport carrier. 6. Two properties of compounds determine whether they can passively permeate the plasma membrane: the solubility of the compound in lipid and the polarity of the compound. 7. The larger the surface area available, the greater is the rate of diffusion. 8. The larger the concentration gradient is for an ion, the lesser the ion’s equilibrium potential. 9. Synapses permit two-way transmission of signals between two neurons. 10.The refractory period ensures the unidirectional propagation of action potentials along the axon. 11.The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and the spinal cord. 12.The cell bodies of efferent neurons originate in the gray matter and send axons out through the ventral root. 13.As the axon approaches a muscle, it divides into many terminal branches and loses its myelin sheath. 14.Ach released from the motor neuron diffuses across the cleft and binds with specific receptor sites 15.Sympathetic nerve fibers originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. 16.The stretch reflex serves as a local positive feedback mechanism that resists passive changes in muscle length. 17.Smooth muscle cells are spindle shaped and have multiple nuclei. 18.The splitting of ATP by actin ATPase provides the energy for the power stroke of the cross-bridge. 19.Thick filaments are assemblies of the protein myosin. 20.Tropomyosin molecules lie end to end alongside the groove of the myosin spiral. 21.The area between two Z lines is called a sarcomere. 22.The thickness of a muscle fiber influences the amount of tension that it can develop. 23.Motor unit summation causes stronger contractions when more and more motor units are stimulated. 24.At each junction of an A and I band, the surface membrane dips into the muscle fiber to form a transverse tubule. Fill in the Blank 1. There are two types of reflexes: _______ reflexes and _________ reflexes. 2. A _______ is a bundle of peripheral neuronal axons, some afferent and some efferent, that are enclosed by a connective tissue covering. 3. ________ matter consists predominantly of densely packaged cell bodies and their dendrites as well as glial cells. Bundles of tracts of myelinated nerve fibers constitute the ____. 4. The brain stem consists of the __________,_________, and ___________. 5. The nervous system is organized into the central nervous system, consisting of the _______ and ________, and the _____________. 6. There are three functional classes of neurons: (1)__________, (2)___________, (3)________. 7. A single muscle cell is called _____. 8. ____________ receptors respond to acetylcholine released from both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers. 9. A myosin cross-bridge has two special sites, a __________ site and a ______ site. 10.The necessity for ATP in the separation of myosin and actin is amply demonstrated by the phenomenon of _____________. 11.The time delay between stimulation and the onset of contraction is known as the _______. 12._________ enables smooth muscle to maintain tension with comparatively less ATP consumption, because each cross-bridge cycle uses up one molecule of ATP. 13.A ________ consists of a stacked set of thick filaments along with the portions of the thin filaments that overlap on both ends of the thick filaments. 14.The area between two Z-lines is called a __________. 15.A __________ molecule is a protein consisting of two identical subunits, each shaped somewhat like a golf club. _______ molecules are spherical in shape. Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following act as spot rivets a. Tight junctions b. Gap junctions c. Desmosomes d. Ribosomes e. Archaeosomes 2. Which type of movement is the net diffusion of water down its own concentration gradient? a. Carrier-mediated b. Osmosis c. Facilitated diffusion d. Secondary active transport e. Exocytosis 3. What is the ratio of sodium pumped out to potassium pumped in by the active transport mechanism? a. 9:1 b. 3:1 c. 5:2 d. 4:1 e. 3:2 4. Which ion has the greatest influence on resting membrane potential? a. Calcium b. Sodium c. Potassium d. Chloride e. Iron 5. Multiple Sclerosis is a pathophysiological condition in which a. The release of the neurotransmitter is blocked b. The demyelination of nerve fibers occurs c. There is a deficiency of nerve fibers occurs 6. Which sequence best describes the events in an action potential? a. Polarization – hyperpolarization – depolarization – repolarization b. Hyperpolarization – repolarization – depolarization – polarization c. Polarization – hyperpolarization – depolarization – repolarization d. Polarization – depolarization – hyperpolarization – repolarization 7. Which of the following are the myelin forming cells in the CNS? a. Presynaptic neurons b. Postsynaptic cells c. Oligodendrocytes d. Schwann Cells 8. Which part of the neuron directs the signal toward the cell body? a. Nodes of Ranvier b. Axon hillock c. Collaterals d. Dendrites e. Axon 9. A resting membrane potential along a neuron is maintained by a. Diffusion b. Ion channels c. The sodium-potassium pump d. Sodium and potassium ions e. All of these 10.A resting membrane potential along a neuron is maintained by a. Diffusion b. Ion channels c. The sodium-potassium pump d. Diffusion and ion channels e. Ion channels and the sodium-potassium pump 11.The depolarization of the neuronal membrane is produced by any factor that does which of the following? a. Increases the membrane’s permeability to sodium ions b. Inhibits the membrane’s permeability to sodium ions c. Stimulates the sodium-potassium pump d. Increases the membrane’s permeability to potassium ions 12.A progressive degeneration of myelin sheaths in neurons of the brain and spinal cord is called? a. Senility b. Huntington’s chorea c. Parkinson’s disease d. Multiple Sclerosis 13.The cells of excitable and nonexcitable tissue share which of the following properties? a. Threshold potential b. Resting membrane potential c. An ability to open gated hannels d. All of these e. None of these 14.Which of the following occurs at the peak of an action potential? a. The electrical gradient for potassium tends to move this ion outward b. The concentration gradient for potassium tends to move this ion outward c. The potassium permeability greatly increases d. The electrical gradient for potassium tends to move this ion outward, and the concentration gradient for potassium tends to move this ion outward e. All of these 15.When is an exitable membrane more permeable to potassium than sodium? a. At a resting potential b. During the rising phase at the action potential c. During the falling phase of the action potential d. At a resting potential and during the falling phase of the action potential 16.Which of the following statements concerning the propagation of an action potential is incorrect? a. Saltatory conduction occurs in myelinated nerve fibers b. During conduction by local current flow, there is a flow of current between the active and adjacent inactive areas of the cell membrane c. The action potential jumps from one Schwann cell to an adjacent Schwann cell in a myelinated fiber d. Saltatory conduction is faster than conduction by local current flow 17.Which of the following is not a graded potential? a. An action potential b. An excitatory postsynaptic potential c. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential d. A grand postsynaptic potential e. A summation potential 18.At an excitatory synapse a. There is increased permeability of the subsynaptic membrane to both sodium and potassium b. A small hyperpolarization occurs c. An action potential in the presynaptic neuron always causes an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron d. There is increases permeability of the subsynaptic membrane to both sodium and potassium and a small hyperpolarization occurs 19.The motor end plate a. Contains receptor sites that are capable of binding curare b. Contains acetylcholinesterase c. Experiences an increase in permeability to cations when combined with acetylcholine d. Contains acetylcholinesterase and experiences an increase in permeability to cations when combined with acetylcholine e. All of these 20.Which of the following consists of a stacked set of thick filaments along with the portions of the thin filaments tat overlap on both ends of the thick filaments? a. Z-line b. M-line c. A-band d. I-band e. H-zone 21.Which of the following are threadlike proteins that lie end to end alongside the groove of the actin spiral? a. Tropomyosin b. Troponin c. Myosin d. Tubulin e. Myoglobin 22.Which of the following represents the region where only the central portions of the thick filaments are found? a. Z-line b. M-line c. A-band d. I-band e. H-zone 23.Which of the following types of muscle has cross-bridges turned on by calcium? a. Multi-unit smooth b. Skeletal c. Single-unit smooth d. Cardiac e. All of these 24.Which of the following is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle? a. Golgi organ b. Thick filaments c. Sarcomere d. Sliding filaments 25.Which is composed of thin filaments only? a. A-band b. I-band c. H-zone 26.Which is composed of thick filaments only? a. A-band b. I-band c. H-zone 27.Which is composed of both thin and thick filaments? a. A-band b. I-band c. H-zone 28.Which shortens during muscular contraction? a. A-band b. I-band c. H-zone 29.Which remains the same size during muscular contraction? a. A-band b. I-band c. H-zone ANSWER KEY True or False 1. True 2. False 3. False 4. True 5. True 6. False 7. True 8. False 9. False 10. True 11. True 12. True 13. True 14. True 15. True 16. False 17. False 18. False 19. True 20. False 21. True 22. True 23. False 24. True FILL IN THE BLANK 1. Simple; Acquired 2. Nerve 3. Grey; White 4. Medulla; Pons; Midbrain 5. Brain; Spinal cord; PNS 6. Afferent neurons; Efferent neurons; Interneurons 7. Muscle fiber 8. Nicotinic 9. Actin binding; ATPase 10. Rigor mortis 11. Latent period 12. Latch-phenomenon 13. A band 14. Sarcomere 15. Myosin; Actin MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. C 2. B 3. E 4. C 5. B 6. D 7. C 8. D 9. D 10. E 11. A 12. D 13. E 14. E 15. D 16. C 17. A 18. A 19. E 20. C 21. A 22. E 23. E 24. C 25. B 26. C 27. A 28. B,C 29. A
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