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Midterm 2 Study Guide

by: Katie Lamson
Katie Lamson
Cal Poly

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About this Document

Covers in detail what will be on exam
Public Relations
Danny H. Eller
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Public Relations

Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katie Lamson on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Jour 312 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Danny H. Eller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Public Relations in Journalism and Mass Communications at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Public Relations – Midterm 2 Study Guide Ethics in Public Relations:  Ethical considerations and their role in PR process: good for business, a sign of leadership and the right thing to do o Includes research, planning communication and education  PRSA Ethic Codes: members statement for professional values, fundamental beliefs that guide behaviors and decision-making process o Advocacy: serve the public interest by acting as advocacy and truth in advancing the interests of those we represent and communicate with public o Expertise: use research, strategic planning for campaigns. Know what you do as a company. Mutual understanding, credibility, and relationships among a wide array of institutions and audiences o Honesty: adhere to highest standards of accuracy and truth when advancing interest of those we represent o Independence: provide counsel to those we represent. Be accountable o Loyalty: loyal to public interests, serve the people o Fairness: with clients and internal publics, media, vendors, etc. respect all options and free expression  Ethics and values: o Sign of a good business, must follow for reputation  Ethical behavior and public relations:  Corporate Social Responsibility: Define:  The Golden Mean: Aristotle believed that ethical conduct existed at a point of balance and harmony between the two extremes of excess and deficiency  Utilitarianism: all of our actions should be directed at producing the greatest good for the greater number of people Persuasion vs. Manipulation: o Manipulation: an attempt to influence a person’s actions without regard to his or her self interests  Loss of Credibility o Persuasion: an attempt to influence a persons actions through an appeal to his or her self-interest  Goal directed, a process which involved people and can create attitudes  Within ethical bounds Mass Communications Theory  The Agenda Setting Hypothesis: Most significant and accepted o Belief that the mass media tells not what to think but what to think about o Provide issues and news to items for consumption  Diffusion Theory: belif that the power of mass media is no so much as to motivate people as it is to inform them o People tend to influence other within their own peer groups  Awareness: exposed to idea  Interest: idea has aroused individual  Evaluation: idea considered as potentially useful  Trial: tries the idea on others  Adoption: final acceptance of the idea at the end of the process  Two-Step Theory: first theory to recognize the role of intervening publics o Belief that mass media influence society’s key opinion leaders who in turn, influences the rest of society  Mass media  opinion leaders  public  Magic Bullet Theory: earliest model o Belief that mass media wield great power, that just the right message, influence people to almost anything  Mass media  Public  Uses and Gratification Theory: Challenges the concept of the passive receiver o With the explosion in communications technology, real power to pick and choose their sources of info rests with the receivers o Receiver serves a critical gate keeping role  Public Opinion Process: an already present mass sentiment PR Planning  Ad Hoc Plan: a plan crated for a single, short term purpose  Standing Plan: a plan that remains in effect over an extended period of time  Flexible/Contingency Plan: a plan created for use when a certain set of circumstances arises  Reasons why PR practitioners engage in planning o Goals: generalized statements of the desired outcome  “To improve or to increase” o Brainstorming o Objectives: are specific milestones that measure progress toward achievement of a goal  Specify a desired outcome  Specify one or more target audiences  Are measurable  Refer to ends, not means  Have a deadline or time frame o Tactics: specific relationship-building actions  Begin with adverbs  Can include descriptions of actions, deadlines, budgets, supervisors, and other related matters Expanding a Plan Into a Proposal  Plan: goals, objectives, strategies, tactics  Campaign theme and key messages  Line-item budget  Timetable (Gnatt Chart)  Evaluative measures  Supporting documents A Good Plan  Is tied to a specific goal of organization  Stays goal-oriented  Is realistic  Is flexible  Is a win-win proposition  Is values-driven The ten Types of Persuasive Appeals  Added Value: the desire to obtain the things we want for as little as possible (frugal)  Adventure/Challenge: excitement and overcoming obstacles  Argument/Comparison: compare one product to another  Companionship/Attraction: belonging to a bigger group or movement  Fear/Safety: motivate to take action to protect us from a potential threat  Guilt: appeals to someone’s sense of guilt can be a motivator  Loyalty: loyal to family, friends, social group, a nation, or brand  Empowerment/Independence: the want to take greater control of your life  Pride/Vanity: reputation, self-respect, prestige, and vanity. Driven by how we view ourselves and how we want to be seen by others  Reverence/Worship: testimonials form specific individuals such as actors or athletes


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