American Revolutions Exam One Study Guide
American Revolutions Exam One Study Guide HIST 0848-002
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Exam 1 Study Guide Progressivism and the Great Depression • Industrialization—starts in the new England states in the first part of the 19 century o Factories o Transportation, railroads o Corporations—by and especially after the civil war, corporatization starts. Instead of family businesses, making a corporation allows you to invest more money and pursue riskier ventures because if the company fails you are not personally fiscally responsible. Good tax, (etc.) benefits in the US. o Urbanization. These new city populations need food. This leads to... o …commercial agriculture. Household farming becomes obsolete. o By 1900s there are many more wage laborers and urban dwellers o 1790- 5% urban, 95% rural o 1850 20% urban, 80% rural o 1900 40% urban, 60% rural • New Middle Class o 1870: o white collar workers 374,433 o managers 121,000 o teachers 128,000 • 1900 o white collar workers 3,200,000 o Managers 893,000 o Teachers 614,900 • Middle class values: o Moderation: this encouraged practicing moderation in leisure habits, food consumption (vegetarianism, healthier ways of eating and living), and more. o Family life—“cult of domesticity”. Mother is the center of the home; she is unemployed and raises the children with affection and love at the forefront. o Religion—especially protestant, many religious revivals in the United States at this time. o Reform movement—all of these things cause a middle class reform movement. There is also a focus on improving the lives of those who are less privileged—the middle class wants to pass on their own culture. • Immigration o 1870-1920 o Huge labor vacuum in U.S. o Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe came to work, and found horizontal job opportunities at the bottom of society (you cant necessarily move up the ladder, but if you’re unhappy at your job, you can go find another of the same status and level fairly easily) o Large horizontal job opportunities at bottom of society o African Americans were the victims of racism in both the north and south, but the north was less institutionalized (segregation, racist laws). o The US is not a haven of tolerism. There is anti-Semitism, however, it is not built into law like it was in eastern Europe. • Progressivism o Middle class movement o National, transnational organization o Urban movement pushing for social justice, education and legal reform, government streamlining, etc. • Wilsonian Internationalism o Concept: U.S. society is morally superior to all other societies ▯ By exporting it to the world, could create a “world safe for democracy” ▯ Idea: what is best for the US is best for everyone • The Great Depression o Supply rises above demand o Stock market investment ▯ Often on borrowed credit o October 29, 1929: stock market crashes, on “Black Tuesday”. • Stock Market Crashes o Runs on banks: people panic and demand their savings be given to them. The banks obviously don’t have everyone’s money immediately, so they crash as well. • Social Ramifications o 25% unemployment o Over one million men travel to find work o Marriages and family planning delayed o The poorest members of society are hit hardest. African Americans face unemployment up to 30-60% higher than whites, and women are discriminated against. • Government Failure o Attempts to boost economy by limited intervention ▯ Giving tax incentives for companies ▯ Regulating tariffs ▯ Seeking voluntary pledges from businesses and associations for help. o Traditional methods of U.S. government fail. The New Deal and World War II Franklin Delano Roosevelt (President 1933-1945) • Election of 1932, a “sea change” election (an election that majorly changes the way people think about politics) • FDR is elected over the incumbent, Herbert Hoover • Statements Post Election— focused on lowering unemployment, creating jobs, expanding the federal government, regulating capitalism (as unregulated capitalism caused the crash), and dealing with monopolies all through government regulation. He “declares war” on the crisis, justifying the government’s involvement (as they’ve not been shy of war in the past). The New Deal (These are a sort of “trial and error” series of events, policies, and laws. Some laws are even contradictory, but they need to see what works.) • Legislation: regulates various aspects of the US economy, stabilizing the banks and the stock market • Works Progress Administration o Largest and best known project funded. Provides jobs everywhere, by building infrastructure, and funds cultural programs. Infusion of money and confidence into U.S. society. • Marxist Communism o Ultimate goal: society structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absences of social classes money and the state. The state plans the economy, by planning the production of every farm, factory, etc. and how much everyone needs to consume. o Presumes constant fight between working and capitalist classes—they (communist theorists) say this should happen all the time until the ‘utopia’ is realized o Prioritizes collective rights—property of the state rather than of individuals o This works towards a utopia. The Russians change their name to the Soviet Union • 1938: Munich conference, in which Hitler promises not to expand anymore if GB and France will accept the territorial gains he has made so far. Appeasement Policy: appeasing Hitler by agreeing to his demands and hoping he wont move further. o This appeasement policy was a result of Hitler’s constant aggressive movements; the allied nations did not initially know how to deal with Hitler, and this was one of the moves that they tried. • Wartime Industry o Life during WWII ▯ Many consumer goods are rationed or unavailable ▯ New highs in personal income ▯ New opportunities lead to massive migration; people move to seek better jobs in the war industries. ▯ Families are broken up, men are fighting while women work ▯ Racial tensions in urban areas ▯ Double V campaign: African Americans compare racism of Fascism and Nazis to segregation at home ▯ Japanese-American internment—Roosevelt forces Japanese Americans to sell their homes (at low prices) and move into camps. Many are deeply ambivalent because those of German and Italian descent don’t face this discrimination. The Cold War • Potsdam Conference o July-august 1945 o Reparations: each allied victor to take reparations only from own occupation zone. Stalin wanted reparations from Germany o Borders of Poland shifted westward (oder-neisse-borders) o Capital city of berlin split into four segments. o Nobody really got what they wanted in Potsdam but they agree that it’s the best possible compromise o Winston Churchill is voted out during this time, so this is a completely new conglomeration of people • Soviet Expansion: how the Soviet Union protects its system o Soviet security policy: needs to be the dominant influence in eastern Europe to assure its own safety o Land annexation (Poland) o Formation of client states ▯ Ring of buffer states around the soviet union—anyone trying to invade the SU has to go through these first ▯ Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, etc. ▯ They are established in 1945-49 mostly o Question to consider: How does the United States interpret these actions? • George F. Kennan o (author of the first reading) American diplomat, political scientist, and historian. He advocated a policy of containment of the Soviet Union. Ideology of Containment o US needs to use counterforce to stop expansion of SU • Military: stop soviets from expanding military and corresponding political power. Cant just decommission its army, it has to keep a military presence around the world so that it is, if possible, able to stop the Soviet Union. • Also: political, economic, diplomatic confrontations—nowhere can the Soviet Union gain ground. Any time the SU tries to gain power, the us needs to step forward and stop it • U.S. as a leader of the free world—because its morally superior it should spread those values and protect the world. • Dominant ideology in the US foreign policy for the next forty years. • US policy: strengthening Germany o 1947 Bi-zone of us and British sectors ▯ Common marketplace ▯ Preparation for political and economic reunification of a divided Germany o 1948 tri-zone including French sector o Fosters German economic recovery as a basis for a new, peaceful Europe. The US is less concerned about Germany gaining strength democratically than communistically • Truman doctrine o March 12, 1947 o Greece and turkey mired in civil wars in which communists are heavily involved o Truman offers US financial aid to both nations o Implication: US will become guarantor of democracy capitalism, liberty in a postwar world. o “At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one”. o US expands into the world as a security monitor of democracy and freedom. o The US and SU protect themselves in opposite ways—the SU creates a buffer zone, while the us says that that is threatening to peace • The Marshall Plan o Announced by Secretary of State George Marshall on June 5 1947 o US aid to any European nation that wants it ▯ Western European states accept o Allows war torn economies to rebuild o 13 billion dollars in aid given to “any European nation who wants it”—mostly to GB, France, Germany, etc. o Dangerous to SU mindset because it spreads the idea of democracy The Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project • Established in august 1942 • Leadership: head physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer • The science that enable the bomb was conducted internationally • Project research centralized at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico • First successful test on July 16, 1945 • This was not just a part of world war two, the science behind the atomic bomb had been studied and developed for years before it was used, with the help of scientists all over the world. • This creates two bombs, “Little Boy”, dropped on Hiroshima, and “Fat Man”, dropped on Nagasaki. At first after they dropped these bombs, they had no more because these were the only two we had, but afterward resistance to the atomic bomb exploded, and other nations were developing their own o The Truman administration expects an “atomic monopoly” o Soviet Union accuses U.S. of “atomic diplomacy”—trying to bully the SU into doing what the Americans want based on the fact that the US has atomic weapons and the SU doesn’t Mutually assured destruction (MAD) • One side cannot destroy all of the other sides nuclear arms in first strike • Any strike will lead to retaliation that will destroy both sides • Result neither the US nor soviet union can successfully use their bombs o But both sides trying to keep up with the others research o They want to become powerful enough that an atomic bomb can never be used against them. o This is a psychological war of intimidation. Nobody can bomb the other in real life. • Concept of Brinkmanship o To carry dispute or conflicts to the brink of war, and not be afraid of escalation o Example: Mazu and Jinmen Islands, 1958 • The New Look Policy o President Eisenhower’s creation, 1953-60 o Symbolic of the importance US placed on military power in this age ▯ Shifts more and more emphasis on nuclear weapons ▯ Respond to aggression with ultimate force ▯ Strike where enemy is most vulnerable (not necessarily where the aggression occurred) • The New Look Policy Results o Concept of Massive Retaliation ▯ Reaction disproportionate to original attack (asymmetrical) • The Flexible Response Policy o Creation of President John F. Kennedy, 1961-1963 o Buildup of U.S. conventional Forces o Symmetrical reaction o President has wide array of options—not just limited to bluff, or blow up the planet like Eisenhower was. McCarthyism 1938: House of Representatives’ Un-American Activities committee (HUAC) o Investigative committee, created to uncover “un-American activities” (i.e. Nazism, communism, etc.) o Communists (Anti-communism) o Communist party of America o 550,000 members, affiliated with the Soviet Union o These are actual active members of the communist party o Associates of Communists o “Hidden communists” with clandestine activities, secrecy—made them inherently untrustworthy o “Security Risks” o Nonconformists to US society ▯ Susceptible to communist influence ▯ The ideal US society was: breadwinner father, homemaker mother, “nuclear family” ▯ At risk: those who don’t align with this societal expectation • Homosexuals, alcoholics, addicts, debtors, singles, party-goers. o 1947 Employee Loyalty Program o investigations into the loyalty of more than 3 million US government employees o any civil servant could lose his or her job by belonging to any “totalitarian, Fascist, Communist, or subversive group” o little regard for due process o only about 300 people were discharged ▯ helped create the impression of a serious communist problem in the federal government ▯ this mentality was a harmful result of the process o The “Hollywood Ten” o 1947 HUAC Hearings on supposed communist plots in Hollywood o Eight screenwriters, a producer, and a director cited their first amendment rights and declined to testify or to name suspected communists o The Hollywood ten convicted in court for contempt of congress o Studios in Hollywood then blacklisted hundreds of actors, screenwriters, directors and support personnel such as makeup artists. o Alger Hiss o Whitaker Chambers claimed to be a soviet agent in the 1930’s, and now works with the HUAC to get other communists. o He accuses Alger Hiss of being a communist. Hiss is a democrat, former secretary of aid, and refutes these charges. o 1948 Alger Hiss Case o Whittaker Chambers’ accusation o Alger Hiss, former aide to secretary of state o Richard Nixon, congressman, goes after Hiss for nuclear espionage o Chambers and Nixon alleged that Hiss had given chambers secret documents in the 1930’s, and produced copies of the documents o Triumph for Republicans, who have unearthed a “communist” high up in the Truman administration o Makes Richard Nixon known nationwide—Eisenhower choses him as his vice president and later becomes president. o Joseph McCarthy o Makes his political career by making a speech in Wheeling, WV o McCarthy crystallized the anxieties many felt, and he was instantly popular and powerful ▯ Many people wanted to believe in a senator bold enough to fight back against communists o McCarthy began leading congress’ efforts against communists ▯ Accused large numbers of people of being communist sympathizers ▯ 1950 McCarran Act o McCarthy Discredited ▯ 1954: Went after the US army—accused them of harboring communists ▯ secretary of the army, Robert Stevens, refused to cooperate, claimed that McCarthy was investigating because one of his aides had not received a draft deferment ▯ Televised hearings: McCarthy Abrasive, lack of evidence ▯ McCarthy dies three years later of alcoholism related causes Consumerism • “GI Bill of Rights” • Compensate the return of veterans into U.S. Society • Provided: unemployment benefits, low interest loans, stipends to cover the cost of college or technical school tuition and living expenses. Consumer Citizenship • Meaning of consumerism o Personal right, connected with personal identity o Part of a cold war rhetoric of U.S. superiority ▯ Capitalism and consumerism delivered not only economic prosperity, but also loftier social and political ambitions ▯ Consumerism demonstrates U.S. liberty • 1959 Kitchen Debate o In 59 the US and SU decided to hold exhibits in each other’s countries to display their upward mobility and capabilities. o The soviet was very industrial and technical, while o The US was full of things like kitchens, computers, color televisions, makeovers for women, and a fully equipped suburban house • Nixon and Khrushchev get into a debate about the usefulness of the things in the displays o Suburban Development ▯ Most Americans before the cold war had not owned their own homes ▯ Entrepreneurship, new construction methods, cheap land, and federal aid from the GI bill made much affordable housing available outside of cities. • Suburban influence on U.S. society o Levittown both more democratic, and less democratic than before o Visual reminder of equality, upward mobility o Brings together whites from many ethnic backgrounds o Homogenous communities created, where everyone had a very similar income o Restrictive clauses ban African Americans o Uniform behavioral codes in place ▯ Accusation of “communism, not conformity” o helped create a white middle class with very similar outlooks and behaviors. • Result of suburbanization o “Landscape of consumerism” ▯ Transformation in residential patterns ▯ New commercial marketplace structures • Shopping centers, credit cards, fast food • Levittown o William J. Levitt o Created low-priced affordable suburban homes o Homes created on assembly lines o First town on long island o Basic design, identical floor plans, no basement. • Television o By 1960, 90% of Americans had TV o Many white Americans new to the middle class, and unsure of what behaviors were proper and expected ▯ Instruction in the national mass media ▯ Gave Americans a shared set of experiences o Economics of television industry also fostered middle class ideals ▯ Major companies sponsored programs ▯ Mutually reinforcing circle of development • Television fosters new political trends o Orientation towards professional expertise in polling and advertising Targeted campaign to segments of the electorate Gender • Conformity: caused my McCarthyism, consumerism, and suburbanization. o Marriage: early marriage endorsed by experts and parents, ideal of a large family, low rates of divorce o Baby boom: after decades of decline, birthrates rose again, ▯ Cult of domesticity ▯ Childcare is central to family life ▯ Increasing professionalization of childcare advice o Gender roles: distinction between sexes ▯ “Based on nature” that should always be upheld o Consumerism and gender ▯ Consumer society underscored the difference between the genders ▯ Standards of beauty highlighted physiological differences between men and women o Youth culture o Consumer society began catering to children ▯ The number of Baby Boomer youths made them a force in American society and economic purchasing power ▯ Result was the development of a youth culture separate from the world of adults Americanization A “Market Empire” • In the 20 century, the United States was not only a political and military hegemon, but also owned a market empire. o Derived its impetus and instruments from the same revolution in mass consumerism that was reshaping the lives of its own citizens o Focused on Europe (Voice of America (radio show for people under German occupation in Europe), Marshall Plan) o Hard power (power with the use of military/force) vs. soft power (power that didn’t require military power) o Information dissemination: ▯ Fulbright Program, 1946 • Cultural exchange program created through the “recycling” of US war materials left across the world. Those countries that still have the war materials can keep it if they agree to engage in the Fulbright program with the US. ▯ United States Information Agency, 1953 • Cultural clearing-house, US propaganda tool. Creates radio programs, books, programs, etc. detailing the superiority of American life. ▯ CIA Covert Operations, 1947- • Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1950 Cultural Diplomacy o Goodwill tours: o The US government sent musicians around the world to perform, in order to build “friendships” and positive relationships between culture • US Jazz Musician Tours o Jazz musicians served to promote American culture while also presenting to the world a more appealing image of American race relations o Cultural diplomacy in areas of the world where officials felt the US needed to generate some additional good will (Middle East, Africa, Soviet Union, Southeast Asia). Mass Culture o People worldwide consumed and imitated US goods o The success of American mass culture had much to do with the economics of the domestic American industry and entertainment sector Localization o US mass culture worked because target countries integrated it into local customs and practices o Example: West Germany ▯ Need to establish a sense of collectivity that did not draw on a nationalist rhetoric ▯ West Germans embrace the ideology of consumerism: “basic democratic right of consumer freedom” Emancipation and Reconstruction • New world slavery o Pseudo-scientific racism o Lifelong condition o Slaves as commodities, producing commodities • Reconstruction o Effort to rebuild the US after the Civil War, and carved a place for African Americans in US society o Political developments ▯ Freedmen’s Bureau Act, 1865 ▯ Civil Rights Act, 1866 • Second KKK o Re-founded in 1915 o Targeted blacks, Jews, roman Catholics, immigrants, communists, unions, religious liberalism, big business, women’s rights, new consumerism, and change in general o 3-5 million members at its peak o Discredited in the late 1920’s • Plessey v. Ferguson (1896) formalizes segregation • The Great Migration o World war I industrial jobs lure 500,000 African Americans to north and west o Moved into jobs at the bottom of the pay scale: factory hands, janitors, domestic help o Northern Racism—not institutionalized, but very present ▯ Housing was scarce and overcrowded ▯ Whites were often discriminatory and hostile Cold War Civil Rights The Popular Front • In the 1930s and early 40s, AA activists very often worked together with white laborers o Concept that their problems of race and low class were intrinsically related • African American activists, progressive New Dealers, labor union representatives, and black and white radicals • Focus on biracial cooperation • Popular front goals • Enfranchise large sections of working class and AA voters • Challenge racial discrimination in courts, and in state and local legislature o Thurgood Marshall, NAACP’s legal defense and educational fund o Attack Plessey vs. Ferguson by insisting on its literal interpretation in education NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • NAACP Supreme Court Victories o Smith v. Allwright (1944): outlawed whites only primaries by the democratic party o Morgan v. Virginia (46) struck down segregation in interstate bus transportation o Shelley v. Kraemer (48): racially restrictive covenants could not legally be enforced through the US federal government International Opinion: International Attention Grows o Third world, European, Communist newspapers all report on US race problems (at times very heavy criticism) o US gov’t worries race will provide an “Achilles heel” for soviet union o Discrimination of nonwhite foreign nationals, esp. diplomats and government officials, while in the US o Result: civil rights activists have very effective pressure point ▯ UN commission on Human Rights, 1946: NAACP files petition against the US • 48 Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Services • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) o Truman Administration, especially the justice Department, heavily involved in court cases leading up to Brown vs. Board of Ed. o Case which incorporated school desegregation cases from several states (Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, District of Columbia) o Thurgood Marshall argued the case before the Supreme Court o Leading sociologists and psychologists argue that segregation by race was inherently unequal, and a denial of equal protection under the law as guarantee by the 14 amendment o Unanimous supreme court decision: segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even if the facilities are equal, deprived children of the minority of equal educational opportunities o Cited George Kennan and his containment policy as background for their case justifications African American Civil Rights Montgomery Bus Boycott: ▯ Organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. ▯ 1955 ▯ Boycotted the busses of Montgomery, and spread to others across the south ▯ 1956—end to bus segregation Little Rock ▯ Little Rock Nine: the first 9 African American students enrolled at Little Rock Central High school in 1957. Southern Christian Leadership Conference ▯ SCLC: African American civil rights organization ▯ Martin Luther King, Jr. was the first president. Massive Resistance ▯ The resistance to the movement of school desegregation in Virginia Greensboro Sit-Ins ▯ North Carolina, 1960: sit ins at lunch counters; non-violent protests against segregation March on Washington ▯ A civil and political rights rally in Washington, D.C. for the rights of African Americans. ▯ Martin Luther King delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech
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