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Description

School: University of Mississippi
Department: History
Course: Introduction to American National Government
Professor: Heather ondercin
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: political science and Introduction to American National Government
Cost: 25
Name: Pol 101, Second Week of Notes
Description: The notes from the second week of class, starting with ideology and going through the Articles of the Constitution, complete with Check Your Knowledge questions and answers at the bottom of the last page for each week.
Uploaded: 02/21/2016
8 Pages 3 Views 8 Unlocks
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Check Your Knowledge 


Factors leading to revolution.



∙ What are the key features of a socialist economic system? ∙ What is political culture?

∙ What forms of equality do we consider a core value in the US?

Ideology 

∙ An ideology is a belief system about a set of objects

∙ Political ideology is a belief system about the proper role and function  of government

∙ The original dilemma for the founding fathers is social order vs  individual freedom 

∙ The modern dilemma has evolved into individual freedom vs equality ∙ There are 4 main sets of ideology: Conservatives, liberals,  Communitarians, and liberatarians

∙ Conservatives value order and freedom

o They are in favor of actions that promote social order but against actions that interfere with the free market.

∙ Liberals value equality and freedom

o They are in favor of actions that promote equality but oppose  actions that restrict individual freedoms


Communitarians value social order and equality.



∙ Liberals value freedom all across the board

o They oppose actions that interfere with the free market and  individual liberties

∙ Communitarians value social order and equality

o They are in favor of actions that promote social equality and  social order Don't forget about the age old question of biology 1406 exam 3

Issue: Government Collecting Phone Data 

Something to think about 

∙ Why does government want your phone records?

∙ What key principles (freedom, equality, order) are at the center of this  debate?

∙ Is this a modern dilemma or original dilemma?

∙ Ideologically, who is for monitoring phone data and who is against  monitoring phone data?

Revolution, Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution

∙ While we were subjects of Britain, we had a different view of ourselves o Coming to America, we were looked at as low class by people in  England


What are the four main set of ideology?



o People in England did not do manual labor, such as chopping  wood, growing food, sewing things, etc.

o Since we had to do those things to survive, we were looked at as  lower class individuals

Factors Leading To Revolution 

1. French and Indian War

a. The British wanted the colonists to pay for the way, since it had  been fought for the colonists.

b. England started taxing the colonies

i. The colonists said this was “taxation without  

representation”, as the colonists had no representation in  parliament and insisted that laws made without it were  Don't forget about the age old question of smupsy bu

illegal and did not apply to them.

ii. Stamp Act of 1765- Every printed document, including  stamps, was taxed

iii. Townshend Acts of 1767- Required the colonies to raise  money to pay the salary of those in parliament back in  

England.

c. The Colonists wanted representation and rights in British  Parliament

d. The discontent with the taxes and no representation led to  “violent upheaval” against the British

e. The Boston Massacre occurred in 1770

i. Chunks of ice and snow were thrown between British  soldiers and colonists

ii. This resulted in the death of a few colonists

iii. The colonies wanted the soldiers to take responsibility for  the deaths, and Britain said no they would not.

f. As a result of this, Britain started placing militia men in people’s  homes

i. This made the colonists even more angry.

2. Thus, revolution started.

Articles of Confederation 

∙ A confederation of States was created between the colonies o The states had complete sovereignty.

o This resulted in limited coordination between them

 Although there was equal treatment between the states, to limit discrimination

 And there was extradition, if crimes were committed. ∙ The powers of the central government were extremely limited o There was no executive If you want to learn more check out .mnmm

o Congress was unicameral (only one house).

o Could declare war, but could not draft soldiers

o Could not tax

o Could conduct relations with other countries

Answers to Check Your Knowledge

∙ The government owns everything in the free market and makes all  economic decisions Don't forget about the age old question of what is exon shuffling means?

∙ The ideas that are shared between people in a political environment ∙ Economic equality, social equality, political equality

Check Your Knowledge 

∙ What is a political ideology?

∙ What is the significance of the Boston Massacre

∙ What powers were given to Congress under the Articles of  Confederation?

Word(s) to Know 

∙ Judicial Review

o The power to declare government acts invalid because they  violate the constitution

Problems with the Articles 

∙ Debts and high inflations

o The colonists pushed their debts off on Congress instead of  paying them off themselves, but alternately gave Congress no  way to pay them off. We also discuss several other topics like cds mizzou

o Soldiers were not getting paid from the Revolutionary war  because Congress could not tax the states

o Federal currency had no worth or value

∙ Security

o The US was facing a lot of international threats, such as from  pirates

o Pirates and the French were looking to disrupt our trade routes,  as we were an unprotected and new country just coming down  from a war.

o England left a lot of troops in the country after the war and  skirmishes with them kept happening, going back and forth over  and over again.

∙ Unrest at Home

o Lenders started requiring gold or silver to pay off debts, as  currency had little to no value

o Poor farmers started to rise up to try and get people to listen to  them, as they were losing money and becoming poorer and  poorer.

 Ex: Shay’s Rebellion

 Armed farmers in Massachusetts stormed a federal armory  and had a violent clash with the state militia.

Purpose of Government and Articles of Confederation

∙ The purpose of government is to provide social order to protect liberty. o The uprisings and threats from other nations demonstrated that  the US government was failing at this

∙ Another purpose is to provide public goods

o The government lacked the ability to tax, therefore could not  provide public goods

Basic Principles of the Constitution 

 ∙    Article 1: Legislative Branch 

o Two houses to distribute power

 Senate and House of Representatives

 Every state has two votes in the House of Representatives  Representation in the Senate is determined by state  population If you want to learn more check out popullo

∙   Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person

o What does the legislative branch do?

 Enumerated power are what congress is allowed to do  directly

 The 8th power is referred to as the Necessary and Proper  Clause 

∙   Any law that can be made to carry out what is  

necessary and proper

 Implied powers came through the Necessary and Proper  clause

 ∙    Article 2: Executive Branch 

o The Founding Fathers questioned if there should even be an  executive branch

 They were afraid of an all-powerful ruler, like in England  There needed to be a central leadership power for  

decisions to be made more quickly and to communicate in  a more unified voice

 There also needed to be a figurehead to rally around

o How many individuals should compose the executive?  They considered more than one but there needed to be a  single unified voice and figurehead (see above)

∙   Picture a Republican and Democrat both being  

executive officers with each other

 One individual was ideal, and would be elected through an  electoral college

∙   The founding fathers did not trust the general public  to make decisions for themselves

o How long should they be able to serve?

 4 year terms

∙   In 1951, a two term limit was amended into the  

constitution after FDR

 ∙    Article 3: Judicial Branch 

o This had never been done before; a judicial branch of  government was completely new

o This was put in as a last minute thought, at the end of the  gathering

 The constitution said nothing about the judicial branch,  except that were would be one.  

 The rest was left up to congress

o Judicial Review was written into the constitution as the judicial  branch’s check and balance.

Check your Knowledge Answers

∙ A belief system about a set of objects

∙ England placed more soldiers and militia men in the colonies, and in  people’s homes, sparking the revolution

∙ Congress could go into treaties, declare war, and ask for taxes

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