Women's Studies, Study Guide for Midterm 1
Women's Studies, Study Guide for Midterm 1 WS 200
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AMS 446 / 546
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to WS 200 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Ana Schuber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Intro To Women Studies in Women and Gender studies at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Study Guide for Women’s Studies Midterm Themes What is a movement? Women’s place in various cultures History of feminist movement Definitions Person of interest Other marginal issue Women discrimination in history Paul Revere o Founding fathers, very famous o Sybil Ludington, 16 yrs. 40 mile ride, went longer than Revere, picked up more men o Revere only remembered more because he had a penis Catherin Littlefield Greene o Actually created the cotton gin because women couldn’t got a paten because she was a women Cecilia Payne –Gaposchkin o Discovered what the universe is made of o She is not recognized because when she made the discovery, no one believed her; didn’t get any support from the scientific community Ada Lovelace o Considered to write the first computer programming Hedy Lamarr o Only known as an actress, not as a scientist Is pregnancy important in America? Reproducing rates slowing decreasing How to we feel about women? o Not wanted in business How do we feel about the birth of a child? o It should be celebrated event but there isn’t any help o O weeks of maternity leave o Stay-at-home moms aren’t valued; not paid o Alabama has the highest mortality rate because we don’t value childbirth Pre-natal care not accessible for many regions in the state Why a women’s studies course? All other courses revolve around men Dominance in Culture o Men control society o 1% of the tilted land is owned by women o 70% of the population living in poverty are women and children o 21% of world’s managers are women o 67% of all illiterate adults are female Definitions Clinical o Sex: either male or female division of a species, reference to reproductive organs o Intersex: ambiguous outer genitalia o Hermaphrodite: contains both male and female reproductive organs Cultural o Gender: male/female, the behavioral, cultural or psychological traits typically associated with one sex, generally decided visually at birth o Feminine, masculine o Man, women Masculine and Feminine Traits Extremely stereotypical, created by the media and culture The True Believer Feminism A collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining Eric Hoffer: point of view First book published in 1951 Born in New York, 1905, working class Mass Movements We vs. them Religious mass movements o Judaism o Christianity o Islam Political o Nazism/Islamic o Feminist/Civil Rights/Anti-war o Anti-gay o Etc. Growth of a Mass Movements o Christianity Jesus was Jewish Many groups Rebellion Paul spread the word by traveling and building churches Constantine Roman emperor who converted Rome into Christianity Other movements o French Revolution Similar to our 1% issues today o American Civil War States’ rights Slavery “There is in us a tendency to locate the shaping forces of our existence outside ourselves” pg. 6 We base ourselves on what we are not Most people aren’t extremist For change to happen: Must: o Be discontented – but not destitute o Have a potent doctrine or leader Doctrine: set of ideals/beliefs o Assume that the future will be exciting o Ignore difficulties or failures that may happen o Be competitive o Are interchangeable Interchangeability of Mass Movements Each movement tends to think of themselves as unique; in reality,sthey are not o 1 wave of feminism moved to join the Abolitionist movement o Civil Rights/Women’s Rights/Anti-War of 1960s All came together and supported each other Stopping a Movement “…often a matter of substituting one movement for another.” Christianity for Paganism o Easter, Spring Equinox o Trading one tradition so that the new religion was easy to convert to Myths we tell ourselves about our movements American Family? o In our minds the Traditional American Family consists of 2.5 kids, both parents, and a dog; yet, that has never been a thing o The Puritan: Average marriage: 12 years One room house Men in charge; women usually died in childbirth No laws to protect women and children o Pioneer American Family Average number of marriage for men: 2 So many marriages for men because the women kept dying in childbirth No education, no healthcare, Sod home Danger Native American, wild animals o Immigrant American Family Lived in Tenement Houses Children worked: in 1900, 25,000 in coal mines Women worked for the upper middle class No education, no healthcare, no birth control o African American Family late 1800s No marriage allowed (against the law) No education or property Worked to death No free movement o Depression Family Marriages and birth rate great decreased Men out of work so the women had to work Ride of alcoholism 1.5 million women abandoned by husbands o World War II American Family Men at war, women went to work The one time in history that the government actually wanted women to work, even set up decent childcare Death rate of husband/father/brother Divorce rate rises because the husbands wanted to party in Europe 20 million on the verge of poverty Shortages in health care, education, and child care o American Family in 1950s Father went to work in town Mather stayed at home and became the transporter for the children Suburbs grew Television families were huge o Blended Families 7.8 billion children lived with at least one grandparent, a 64% increase since 1991 o Family in 2000s Single parent family: Gay Families “There is a tendency to judge a race, nation, or any distinct group by its least worthy member.” Civil Rights Movements o Black Panthers Gay Rights Movement o Rocky Horror Picture Show Disaffected People who are no longer happy List of Disaffected o Poor o Misfits/outsiders o Minorities o Tea party o Adolescent youth 60s and 70s with Vietnam o Ambitious Wouldn’t start a movement because they already have the money to change whatever they want o In the grip of vice o The Sinners Fred Phelps, Westborough Baptist Church o Nationalists Pros and cons to being a nationalist Our own naps are altered because we think America is the best so it should be the biggest Mass Movements harp of the future, not interested in the present Christianity and Islam: both religions talk about Heaven Nazism: “we will have glory” o Sounds very similar to Donald Trump Glorification of the Past “Traditional” o Used by those who hate what is happening History books are written by the winners o Most of our history is just myth o Example: American Genocide 500 tribes before the whites came to America Slaughter The Whites would give Native Americans blankets with small pox We are never the same Women’s movement o Even though there were countries with goddess, women did not have rights Childhood o We have a tendency to think of our childhood as the glory years Restoring Honor Returning the country to the values on which it was founded on Most of the time its b.s. Values of Founding Fathers Well-educated men Served in the continental army Had money, land and statues Believed in: o Centralized government with wide range of enforceable power Voting at the Beginning of the United States Only white men with money and land could vote By the Civil War, most men could vote A multitude of test were used to keep women and people of color from voting Nazi’s Imagined Past The Germans told themselves that they had descended from a race of Aryans that were blonde and blue-eyed, tall and fertile In reality, this was a myth Mass Movements throw up a screen No questions or death Either you truly believe or you are scared into believing; you have a want to belong with a group Religion ask you not to doubt or question Myths build up around right thought Washington and the cherry tree o Completely made up story FDR hid is polio Eisenhower had an affair while at war Kenned slept with anyone Hatred is a unifying agent Strongest feeling that unifies Country wide Isis Who do we hate? o Native Indians They are savages They don’t share our religion Scalping Petty-Coat governments Most of their governments were run by women o Islamist They hate our freedom Jihad actually means “struggle”, not worry They have the wrong religion Even though Islam and Christianity came from the same roots Their treatment of women is different from outs Bitch Manifesto/Consciousness: Raising and Women and Foods The 1960s Time for Change, a decade of movements Berkley campus: even California had issues Free speech zone Ride of Free Speech Movement Ride of Anti-War Rise of 2ndWave of Women’s Movement Rise of Disability Movement Continuation of Civil Rights Movement Beginnings of Gay Movement Beginnings of Conservative Movement o Fear of others What is the Patriarchy? Social system where men have the power Feminists are not interested in fighting men but fighting the system o This system affects men too Good percentage of the world where men own women and their bodies Bitch Manifesto Reclaiming language so it doesn’t become hurtful anymore o Loud, aggressive, not lady-like Takes the power away Consciousness Raising Groups, 1960s Talking with different people about different ideas No men allowed No leaders Topics ranged from personal to social issues o “personal to the political” came from these groups Topics: o Marriage Divorce, child support, abuse, etc. o Bodies Periods, rape, childbirth, abortion, etc. Birth control o Work Paid and unpaid work, pay rates, discrimination, etc. Childcare Food and Women Food as Culture Difficult to understand because it was rarely written down in history Only records of food from the past is from the wealthy o Left out a majority of the culture Women associated with home, food, production, healing with plants o Many of these were taken over by men Many cultures had goddesses related to food Men associated with herding/meat production Food and Women… ”Fed up”… Food is an expressive element in culture Women use food to nurture themselves and others Food is ritual within culture We always produce way more than we need Eating Disorders 8 million women and 1 million men suffer from eating disorders 1 in 200 American women suffer from anorexia 2 in 100 American women suffer from bulimia Probably know someone who has an eating disorder These illnesses stem from beauty standards 1 in 5 suffer from these mental illnesses Consumer Culture Women are associated with food Buy it, serve it, don’t eat it Consumer culture insists that you buy it; advertising is huge Now requires to buy gourmet foods, more expensive Women’s dissatisfaction with Food Standardize recipes Culture decided thin was in Breast feeding will make you fat o Formula companies were pushing the formula o Formula is hard Very expensive Hard to find the right one for the baby Fast food, microwaves, highly processed foods and constant advertising Breastfeeding and Formula By 1950s, considered to be uneducated choice and lower class; also considered disgusting Doctors pushed formula In September 29, 1999 no government fund may be used to enforce any prohibition on women breastfeeding o Only in government buildings Morality Rates Eating disorder highest mortality rate of any mental illness Long term o Does damage Anorexia is 12 x higher than all deaths of females 15-24 years old 95% of people with eating disorder are 12-25 years old 50% of girls between 11-13 years old see themselves as overweight 80% of 13-year olds have attempted to lose weight Beauty Standards in USA Thing White Tall Big Boobs Blonde Beauty around the World Different Thailand o Long necks, dangerous Ethiopia o Scares on stomach Maureen girls o Force-fed because fat is beautiful and desired Middle East o Beauty is hidden Japan/Korea o American round eyes The Greek Plato: everything is nature Aristotle: said it was nurture Think of how different your siblings are Why are we afraid of sex and sexuality? No understanding Makes us feel uncomfortable No control during sex French call an orgasm “mini-death” Women and Sexuality Women only had value if she was a virgin o Paternal certainty Had to check if she was a virgin Women should not have a sexual drive Victorian era, increase in prostitution o Masturbation was a moral disgrace Margaret Sanger Birth control advocate for just immigrant women Used eugenics Eugenics and WWII Social philosophy Genetic screening o Leads to discrimination Birth control o Too much control or not enough Promoting differential birth rates Marriage restrictions o Race, sexuality Segregation o Racial, and mentally ill Compulsory sterilization Forced abortions, and pregnancy Genocide o WWII Male Circumcision Why? o Tradition Has no useful advantages WHO, discovered that circumcised males don’t transfer HIV as often Very painful In past,… o Used for conquering and warfare Foot Binding Until the 1920s, lasted for 1,000 years Little feet were sexual attractive for men Extremely painful, couldn’t walk after Body Alteration Breast o Reduction or augmentation o Usually the woman loses feeling Face o Eyes, lips, check, chin Lipo-suction Tummy tucks Butt lifts o People have died Feet o For shoe accommodation Women in Advertising Early Ads Women are in the ad even when they shouldn’t be Obsession with being too skinny Today Comparison between the way men and women are portrayed Hidden meanings Tom Ford o One of the worst Fantasy Video Games Unrealistic boobs Flows into the real world, guys believe that these imaginings are real-life expectations
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