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Study Guide

by: Sierra

Study Guide FNR 251


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Study guide for quiz 2
Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Rod N. Williams
Study Guide
Ecology, systematics, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
Study Guide FNR 251 Quiz 2 Lecture 9: Genetics, Regional Variation, and Biogeography  Species Definitions: o Classical Biological Concept Definition: genetically distinct populations that are reproductively isolated o Ecological Species: defined by ecological niche o Morphological Species: defined by structure o Genealogical Species: unique genetics, molecular patterns; results in the greatest number of species  Clinal Variation o Separated by Zones of Hybridization, over a range generally or a cline o A ring species is an example of Clinal variation on a small scale, very similar concepts  Three major factors influencing geographic distribution of amphibians and reptiles o Climate  Includes temperature, rainfall, and periodicity (seasons) o Availability and access to resources o Dispersal abilities  Know hotspots for amphibian and reptile diversity in U.S. Lecture 10: Movement, Home Range, Territory, and Habitat Selection  Snake motion o Undulatory: most widely used, waves of motion down alternating sides of the body, uses substrate to push of o Concertina: One portion of the body is still while the other moves, very slow, used in borrows o Rectinlinear: muscles on both sides of the body act together to move the body in a straight line; boas and vipers mainly use this  Daily Movement purposes o Feeding, thermoregulation and predator avoidance  Seasonal Movements o Breeding: generally annually o Hibernation: aggregating to hibernate. Ex: hibernacula in many snakes o Habitat utilization: changes associated with change in prey availability or habitat quality. Ex: drying up of pools  Dispersal: movement to unknown locations o Costs vs Benefits  Movements o Piloting: ability to recognize landmarks o Compass Orientation: sense of direction independent of local landmarks o True Navigation: requires both piloting and compass orientation, ability to orient and move to a location o Others; visual olfaction, celestial, magnetic fields o Know typical home range sizes for each taxa Lecture 11: Feeding and Food Habits  Know typical food items for taxa  Projectile Tongues o In anurans, has a catapult like motion  Intermaxillary glands o Caudates – tongue protrusion o Chameleons – attached to a hyoid bone  Review digestive roles of organs  Snake Fang types o Opisthoglyph: Rear-fanged, must move prey to back of mouth o Pteroglyph: Elapid snakes, some spitting cobras o Solenoglyph: Hinged-fanged, large quantities of venom, vipers  Sit-and-wait vs. Active! On slide 11.  Factors influencing foraging behavior o External; prey availability, predators, competition, habitat structure, etc o Internal; hunger, age, sex and repro state. o Phylogenetic; morphology, behavior, sensory systems  Prey Detection methods o Caecilians=chemical, Salamanders and Frogs = visual and chemical, Crocodylians = tactile and chemical, Turtles = visual, Squamates = all the cues! o Vomerolfaction; using the Jacobson’s Organ o Tactile; generally aquatic species, “feeling prey movement” o Thermal; pit organs sensing heat  Prey Capture methods o Biting and Grasping, Constriction, and Injected Venoms o Filter Feeding, Suction Feeding and Projectile Tongues  Prey Ingestion o Inertial Feeding, uses weight of prey and head and neck movements to move prey down throat. o Manipulation of tongue and hyoid; amphibians, tongue retracts prey inward in mouth Lecture 12: Social Systems, Communication and Behaviors  Definition of Communication  Four Basic types of Communication o Visual, Acoustic, Chemical and Tactile o Caecilians = Chemical cues; Salamanders = Chemical and Tactile, Frogs = Visual and Acoustic, Turtles = Visual and Chemical, Crocodylians = Visual and Acoustic, Lizards = Visual, Chemical, and Tactile, Snakes = Chemical and Tactile  Nose-tapping behavior in plethodontid salamanders using mental gland  Go through courtship dances  Four Frog Call Categories o Advertisement, reciprocation, release, distress o Produce sound by air over their vocal cords in the vocal sacs  Know which groups use pheromones; chemical communication  Competition o Interspecific = between species, Intraspecific = among a species


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