Exam 1 study guide
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CHEM 111 - 02
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lily Heller on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPHU 2220 at Tulane University taught by Maya Begalieva in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
• wellness is not a destination-‐‑ it is a journey knowledge and self-‐‑awareness • • requires health related skills • continues throughout lifetime • components of wellness • physical •eating well, exercising, avoiding harmful habits, safe sex, recognize symptoms of disease, regular checkups, avoiding injuries • emotional •optimism, ability to control stress and anger, self-‐‑esteem, self-‐‑acceptance, self-‐‑ conﬁdence, ability to understand and accept one’s feelings, ability to share feelings with others • intellectual openness to new ideas, thinking critically, motivation, humor, creativity, • curiosity, learning, health-‐‑behavior gap (discrepancy between knowledge and behavior, ex: smoking, not exercising), self-‐‑eﬃcacy (conﬁdence), locus of control (internal vs. external) • spiritual •compassion, sense of values ethics and morals, forgiveness, altruism, caring for others, meaning and purpose, sense of belonging to something greater than oneself • social •communication skills, capacity for intimacy, ability to establish and maintain satisfying relationships, ability to cultivate support system of friends and family environmental • •improving environmental conditions, have a place that you can go to relax and feel welcomed, keeping yourself safe (seatbelt), laws and policies, accessible grocery stores stocked with aﬀordable fruits and vegetables, income housing poverty and education • occupational •balance between work school and leisure time, a▯itudes about work school and career, professional ﬂexibility, maintaining successful career path • ﬁnancial * •all of these components interact and inﬂuence each other • leading causes of death in US (all ages) • #1-‐‑ heart disease #2-‐‑ cancer • • #3-‐‑ stroke #4-‐‑ chronic lower respiratory disease • • #5-‐‑ unintentional injuries • #6-‐‑ diabetes • #7-‐‑ inﬂuenza/pnemonia • #8-‐‑ kidney disease • #9-‐‑ suicide • #10-‐‑ liver disease • leading causes of death in US (ages 15-‐‑24) • #1-‐‑ accidents (vehicles, alcohol) • #2-‐‑ homicide • #3-‐‑ suicide • #4-‐‑ cancer #5-‐‑ heart disease • • underlying causes of death • tobacco • obesity • alcohol • microbial agents • toxic agents • infectious disease-‐‑ disease that is communicable from one person to another • chronic disease-‐‑ disease that develops and continues over a long period of time • many improvements in healthcare • recognition of tobacco use as a hazard • motor vehicle safety safer/healthier foods • • family planning • healthier mothers and babies • factors that inﬂuence wellness • environment (5%), access to health care (10%), social circumstances (15%), heredity/family history (30%), behavior (most inﬂuential 40%) Nutrition • essential nutrients (not provided by the body) • Macronutrients (energy nutrients) • 1. Carbs (glucose) •Supply energy for the body cells (45-‐‑65% of total calorie intake) • 2,000 calorie diet: 225-‐‑325 grams 15000 calorie diet: 169-‐‑244 grams • • Simple carbs 1 or 2 sugar units (sugar, fruit, honey, malt, milk) • • Complex carbs (multiple energy units) •Starches and ﬁber (grains, legumes, potatoes, yams) • Reﬁned vs. Whole Grains •All grains before processing •Inner layer, germ •Middle layer, endosperm •Outer layer, bran •During processing •Germ and bran are removed leaving just the starch of the endosperm • 2. Proteins (chains of amino acids) • Form muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, hormones, and cell membrane 20 common amino acids • •11 nonessential amino acids (produced in the body) •9 essential amino acids (must be supplied by food) •Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids (animal proteins) •Most plant proteins are incomplete (legumes and nuts) •Combine 2 vegetables to make up missing amino acids • 3. Fats (fa▯y acids) • Most concentrated source of energy • Triglycerides-‐‑ glycerol molecule with 3 fa▯y acids (animal fats primarily made of this) • Stores energy and provides insulation and support for body organs • Dietary Fat saturated fat (animal fa▯y meats, dairy, palm and coconut oils) • •raises cholesterol, heart disease, cancer •mono-‐‑unsaturated (olive, canola, saﬄower oils, avocados, olives, nuts) •poly-‐‑unsaturated •omega 3 (ﬁsh, nuts, soybeans, leafy greens) •omega 6 (corn, soybean, co▯onseed oils) •trans fa▯y acids (fried foods) • Micronutrients • vitamins, minerals, water • Vitamins: organic substances required in small amounts to promote speciﬁc chemic reactions (catalyst) within a living cell • 13 vitamins 4 fat soluble: A, D, E, K • •9 water soluble: C and 8 B-‐‑complex vitamins Minerals: inorganic compounds, regulate body functions, aid in growth, • maintenance of body tissues, and a catalyst for energy release •17 essential minerals • major minerals: 100 milligrams or more • calcium, magnesium, sodium, etc. •Trace minerals: minute amounts (iron, cobalt, ﬂuoride, zinc, etc.) •Water •humans composed 60% of water •water and other drinks make up 80-‐‑90% of your daily water intake •Men: 13 cups, women 9 cups • 1 Kcalorie-‐‑ amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius 1000 calories= 1 kcalorie • • Fat= 9 calories per gram • Protein= 4 calories per gram • Carbs= 4 calories per gram • 10% of total calories from added sugars (most americans 21%) • Dietary Fiber-‐‑ indigestible carbohydrate that is present naturally (fruits, veggies, grains) • sources: all plant substances • Antioxidants • reduction in cancers (free radicals) • vitamins C and E, selenium, carotenoids • Phytochemicals soy foods may help lower cholesterol levels (phytoestrogens) • • Allyl sulﬁdes (garlic and onions) boost cancer ﬁghting immune cells • Sulforaphane (broccoli) stimulates anticancer enzymes • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) • Fruits and veggies: 4.5 cups (9 servings) • Whole grains • Low fat milk products • Total fat: no more limits (Previous Guidelines: 35% of total daily calories) • Cholesterol: no more limits (Previous Guidelines: less than 300 mg per day) • Saturated Fat: less than 10% of total calories • Trans fat: as li▯le as possible • ULs (Tolerable Upper Intake Levels) – the safe upper limit of a nutrient from total intake of food • DVs (Daily Values) – U.S. Food and Drug Administration use on food labels Nutrition Labels • between 34-‐‑42% of adults claim to aways look at the calorie count on a nutrition label • only 9% actually do • only 1% look at the other components (trans fat, total fat, sugar, serving size) • FDA responsible for safe food • food labeling is required for most prepared foods • nutrition labeling for raw produce/ﬁsh is voluntary (conventional foods) • dietary supplements have separate labeling requirements • Multigrain vs. Whole grain • Multigrain means mixture of grains • Whole grain is associated with reduced risk of heart disease, diabetes, digestive problems • All natural • Implies that a food contains no artiﬁcial ingredients/more healthy and less processed • FDA has no strict deﬁnition of the term-‐‑ many processed foods are claimed “natural” • USDA (regulates meat and poultry) has a more precise deﬁnition-‐‑ no artiﬁcial ingredients and minimally processed-‐‑ but still allows for some additives •permissible to label a meat product as natural even if raised with antibiotics and hormones • 2 valuable egg labels • USDA Organic uncaged hens with outdoor access, organic feed without pesticides or • fertilizers, facilities checked by accredited inspectors • CA SEFS Compliant •hens have enough room to ﬂap their wings without bumping feathers • 95% of eggs come form chickens raised in ba▯ery cages (house 4-‐‑12 birds with very limited space) • 1 gram= the mass of a standard plastic pen cap or American dime • Serving sizes: • familiar units such as spoons, cups, ounces, pieces followed by metric amount (grams, milliliters, etc.) • 65g of sugar in one serving of Coke • Calories and Fat Calories how much energy you get from 1 serving of food • • Nutrients Limit fat, cholesterol. sodium • •Less than 65 g total fat (20 g saturated) •Less than 300 mg cholesterol •Less than 2400 sodium • Maximize ﬁber, calcium, iron •at least 300 carbs, 25 ﬁber • Footnotes must be on every product (Percent value based on a 2,000 calorie diet) • Breakdown of nutrients necessary for this caloric intake is optional (white box) and is always the same •Sodium intake is the same for 2,000 or 2,500 diet but fat changes • Percent daily value • Helps determine if a serving of food is high or low in a nutrient 5% or less is low • •20% or more is high • Sugar, protein, and trans fat do not have a %DV •experts could not establish a %DV for trans fat but reports link trans fat with high cholesterol and heart disease •experts don’t feel protein is that essential •no daily reference value has been established for sugars because no recommendations have been made on how much one should eat • New labeling is needed • Deﬁnition of single serving • More information to help consumers understand the nutritional signiﬁcance of consuming an entire container containing multiple servings GMOs • • present in 60-‐‑70% of foods on US supermarket shelves •exception: most fresh fruits/veggies •most common in papayas, milk, corn, squash, zucchini, co▯on, canola Wellness and Physical Fitness • Physical ﬁtness-‐‑ the body’s ability to respond/adapt to the demands and stress of physical eﬀort • 5 components: • Cardiorespiratory endurance-‐‑ ability of heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to working muscles for sustained activity • Muscular strength-‐‑ amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum eﬀort (ex: lifting weights) • Muscular endurance-‐‑ ability of muscle to sustain a given level of muscle tension (e.g., lifting light weights w/ high repetitions) • Flexibility-‐‑ ability to move joints through their full range of motion • Body composition-‐‑ amount of lean body tissue vs. body fat • 6 skill related components • speed • power • agility (change position quickly) • balance • coordination • reaction time • Aerobic vs. Anaerobic • Aerobic-‐‑ with air-‐‑ powered by oxygen, working out lungs running, swimming, walking, biking, stairs • • Pros: raises your heart ratel, burns more calories • Cons: doesn’t deﬁne body or build muscles • Anaerobic-‐‑ without air-‐‑ high-‐‑intensity where the body can’t get enough oxygen to complete them so it relies on short-‐‑term supplies of fuel stored in muscles • sprinting, lifting heavy weights, running up several ﬂights, jump rope, resistance training • Pros: completed in short intervals, sculpts body and gives you lean physique • Cons: doesn’t burn as many calories • Combining aerobic and anaerobic is best for building muscle and boosting endurance • Do at least 75 minutes of vigorous aerobics or 150 minutes of moderate aerobics per week, plus a minimum of two weekly anaerobic strength training sessions Physical activity pyramid • • Top: sedentary activities • 2nd: strength training • 3rd: cardiorespiratory endurance exercise • Bo▯om: Moderate-‐‑Intensity physical activity • Men perform more physical activity • White people perform more physical activity, then black then hispanic • Physical Activity and Muscles • body contains over 600 muscles, 65% above waistline • Axiom: “use it or lose it” (disuse atrophy-‐‑ muscle stops working when you don’t use it) • Progressive, repetitive, high intensity, anaerobic, strength developing exercise to prevent atrophy • Many aerobic activities provide limited stimulation of upper body musculature Resistance training= any exercise that causes the muscles to contract against an • external resistance with the expectation of increases in strength, tone (i.e., residual muscle tension), mass, and/or endurance •The external resistance can be dumbbells, rubber exercise tubing, your own body weight, bricks, bo▯les of water, parachutes or any other object that causes the muscles to contract • Static versus Dynamic Muscle Resistance Training • Static-‐‑ isometric (same length), muscle contractions exert a force but don’t shorten or lengthen •pushing against walls, pushing sideways against a door jamb, trying to lift a truck, carrying groceries, posture • Dynamic-‐‑ isotonic (normal contraction), muscle contractions are either concentric (shortening) or eccentric (lengthening) •30-‐‑40% more tension produced eccentrically than concentrically • Circuit Resistance Training • Eﬀective for developing several ﬁtness dimensions simultaneously • Exerciser moves between stations without much rest, performing a 15-‐‑ to 45-‐‑ second set of 8 to 20 reps at each station •Repeat circuit as needed for 30 to 50 minutes • Muscular Endurance-‐‑ application of repeated muscular force against sub-‐‑maximal resistance • Isotonic (same tension) •walking up stairs, lighting same weights, ﬁfty sit ups • Isometric-‐‑ same length, muscle endurance is the ability to sustain a sub-‐‑maximal contraction for a time •holding groceries, carrying children, pushing or pulling large objects • Overload-‐‑ push beyond the limit • subject muscles to greater resistance as they adapt •increase weight, sets, decrease rest time • Progression-‐‑ application of overload rate • Two-‐‑for-‐‑two rule: increase load when able to perform 2 additional reps on 2 consecutive weight-‐‑training sessions • Speciﬁcity • Reﬂects body’s response to exercise •High-‐‑resistance and low reps increase muscle strength and size •Low-‐‑resistance and high reps increase endurance Variety • • Diminished returns on development of muscle strength, size, and endurance if program not changed every few months • Joint and Muscle Flexibility • Flexibility programs are planned, deliberate, and regularly performed sets of exercises designed to progressively increase joint range of motion • 10 minute stretching done daily • Warm muscles with gradual activities for 10 minutes • Flexibility declines by mid-‐‑20s • Dehydration, muscle ﬁbrosis (e.g. scar tissue from injury or aging), and inactivity are all threats to ﬂexibility • Regular ﬂexibility exercises can help maintain a full range of joint motion and good posture • What Is The Most Eﬀective Workout? Gaining muscle-‐‑ weight lifting and resistance training • • Weight loss-‐‑ high-‐‑intensity intervals • Endurance-‐‑ aerobic exercise like running, cycling or swimming • Flexibility-‐‑ yoga or pilates • Mind-‐‑ brisk walks • Pain Prevention • Neck shoulders and back most susceptible to pain • Causes: sedentary lifestyle, occupational hazards, deskwork, automobile driving, stress • Must be sensitive to lifestyle and behaviors to prevent risk • Keep active while watching TV • Keep good posture Lift objects with legs not back • • Bunions more common in women, still unsure if high heels cause bunions or whether footwear simply contributes • Tight footwear is a factor • Drugs and supplements are not regulated and usually have bad side eﬀects • Stay away!!! • Best sources for vitamins, minerals and proteins are through the consumption of fresh ingredients • generally not needed if you maintain a healthful, balanced diet • commonly used if vegetarian or vegan • Footwear is the most important item for many activities • Shop late in day or after a workout, as foot size increases over the day and during exercise • Replace shoes when tread presents a slippage risk Exercise and Distractions • • Pros: helps release endorphins, gets you to go to the gym, commercial breaks help with intervals • Research suggests the right tempo boosts stamina and energy eﬃciency •One study found that cyclists who synchronized their movements to music reduced oxygen uptake by as much as 7%. • Cons: aﬀects posture, looking down is not good, slows down pace Factors That Inﬂuence Wellness • behavioral pa▯ers (40%), genetic predisposition (30%), social circumstances (15%), health care (10%), environmental exposure (5%) • Causes of death: 1. tobacco • • 2. diet physical inactivity • 3. alcohol • crucial to have internal locus of control, social support, identify what you want to change • Self-‐‑eﬃcacy: Situation-‐‑speciﬁc conﬁdence that one can cope with high-‐‑risk/tempting situations without relapsing • The self-‐‑help approach is based on TTM of behavior change (6 stages): • pre-‐‑contemplation • awareness, concern, conﬁdence • no intention of taking action within next 6 months • person unaware they have a problem underestimate pros of changing, overestimate cons • • avoids confronting behavior • 5 Rs (reveling, reluctant, rebellious, resigned, rationalizing) • contemplation • decision making • intends to take action within next 6 months • aware problem exists and wants to change but has not made commitment • ambivalence relation to pros and cons of changing (decisional balance) • preparation • commitment, eﬀective/acceptable plan • intends to take action within next 30 days • person may have a plan of action ready to go (joining health class, lessen bad habits) • action adequate implementation of plan • • has changed behavior for less than 6 months • person modiﬁes their behavior/environment • considerable commitment to change current behavior and implemented strategies to sustain behavior change/avoid relapses • maintenance • integration into lifestyle • has changed observable behavior for more than 6 months • person works to prevent relapse and build on the gains achieved during action phase • focused mainly on preventing relapse and not on accomplishing additional change termination • • TTM: a process to modify a problem behavior or acquire a positive behavior • people change when they become concerned, convinced, organize a plan, and take actions necessary to change/sustain change • developing skills for change/creating plan: • monitor your behavior and gather data • analyze the data and identify pa▯erns • devise plan of action • make personal contract • SMART goals (speciﬁc, measurable, a▯ainable, realistic, trackable) • Pu▯ing plan into action: • Staying with It Get what you need • • Modify you environment • Control related habits • Rewards • Involve people around you (support group) • regression: person reverts to earlier stage of change • relapse: form of regression, involves regression from action or maintenance to earlier stage •
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