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Exam 1 study guide

by: Lily Heller

Exam 1 study guide SPHU 2220

Marketplace > Tulane University > SPHU 2220 > Exam 1 study guide
Lily Heller
GPA 4.0

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Everything that will be included on the first test
Concepts of Health and Wellness
Maya Begalieva
Study Guide
Health Wellness Maya Begalieva
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lily Heller on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPHU 2220 at Tulane University taught by Maya Begalieva in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
• wellness  is  not  a  destination-­‐‑  it  is  a  journey   knowledge  and  self-­‐‑awareness   • • requires  health  related  skills   • continues  throughout  lifetime   • components  of  wellness   • physical •eating  well,  exercising,  avoiding  harmful  habits,  safe  sex,  recognize  symptoms   of  disease,  regular  checkups,  avoiding  injuries   • emotional   •optimism,  ability  to  control  stress  and  anger,  self-­‐‑esteem,  self-­‐‑acceptance,  self-­‐‑ confidence,  ability  to  understand  and  accept  one’s  feelings,  ability  to  share   feelings  with  others   • intellectual   openness  to  new  ideas,  thinking  critically,  motivation,  humor,  creativity,   • curiosity,  learning,  health-­‐‑behavior  gap  (discrepancy  between  knowledge  and   behavior,  ex:  smoking,  not  exercising),  self-­‐‑efficacy  (confidence),  locus  of   control  (internal  vs.  external)   • spiritual   •compassion,  sense  of  values  ethics  and  morals,  forgiveness,  altruism,  caring  for   others,  meaning  and  purpose,  sense  of  belonging  to  something  greater  than   oneself   • social   •communication  skills,  capacity  for  intimacy,  ability  to  establish  and  maintain   satisfying  relationships,  ability  to  cultivate  support  system  of  friends  and   family   environmental   • •improving  environmental  conditions,  have  a  place  that  you  can  go  to  relax  and   feel  welcomed,  keeping  yourself  safe  (seatbelt),  laws  and  policies,  accessible   grocery  stores  stocked  with  affordable  fruits  and  vegetables,  income  housing   poverty  and  education   • occupational   •balance  between  work  school  and  leisure  time,  a▯itudes  about  work  school  and   career,  professional  flexibility,  maintaining  successful  career  path • financial  *   •all  of  these  components  interact  and  influence  each  other   • leading  causes  of  death  in  US  (all  ages)   • #1-­‐‑  heart  disease   #2-­‐‑  cancer   • • #3-­‐‑  stroke   #4-­‐‑  chronic  lower  respiratory  disease   • • #5-­‐‑  unintentional  injuries   • #6-­‐‑  diabetes   • #7-­‐‑  influenza/pnemonia   • #8-­‐‑  kidney  disease   • #9-­‐‑  suicide   • #10-­‐‑  liver  disease   • leading  causes  of  death  in  US  (ages  15-­‐‑24)   • #1-­‐‑  accidents  (vehicles,  alcohol) • #2-­‐‑  homicide   • #3-­‐‑  suicide   • #4-­‐‑  cancer   #5-­‐‑  heart  disease   • • underlying  causes  of  death   • tobacco   • obesity   • alcohol   • microbial  agents   • toxic  agents   • infectious  disease-­‐‑  disease  that  is  communicable  from  one  person  to  another   • chronic  disease-­‐‑  disease  that  develops  and  continues  over  a  long  period  of  time   • many  improvements  in  healthcare   • recognition  of  tobacco  use  as  a  hazard   • motor  vehicle  safety   safer/healthier  foods   • • family  planning   • healthier  mothers  and  babies   • factors  that  influence  wellness   • environment  (5%),  access  to  health  care  (10%),  social  circumstances  (15%),   heredity/family  history  (30%),  behavior  (most  influential  40%)   Nutrition • essential  nutrients  (not  provided  by  the  body)   • Macronutrients  (energy  nutrients)   • 1.  Carbs  (glucose)   •Supply  energy  for  the  body  cells  (45-­‐‑65%  of  total  calorie  intake) • 2,000  calorie  diet:  225-­‐‑325  grams   15000  calorie  diet:  169-­‐‑244  grams   • • Simple  carbs 1  or  2  sugar  units  (sugar,  fruit,  honey,  malt,  milk) • • Complex  carbs  (multiple  energy  units)   •Starches  and  fiber  (grains,  legumes,  potatoes,  yams)   • Refined  vs.  Whole  Grains   •All  grains  before  processing   •Inner  layer,  germ •Middle  layer,  endosperm •Outer  layer,  bran •During  processing   •Germ  and  bran  are  removed  leaving  just  the  starch  of  the  endosperm   • 2.  Proteins  (chains  of  amino  acids)   • Form  muscle,  bone,  blood,  enzymes,  hormones,  and  cell  membrane   20  common  amino  acids   • •11  nonessential  amino  acids  (produced  in  the  body)   •9  essential  amino  acids  (must  be  supplied  by  food)   •Complete  proteins  contain  all  essential  amino  acids    (animal  proteins)   •Most  plant  proteins  are  incomplete  (legumes  and  nuts)   •Combine  2  vegetables  to  make  up  missing  amino  acids   • 3.  Fats  (fa▯y  acids) • Most  concentrated  source  of  energy   • Triglycerides-­‐‑  glycerol  molecule  with  3  fa▯y  acids  (animal  fats  primarily   made  of  this)   • Stores  energy  and  provides  insulation  and  support  for  body  organs   • Dietary  Fat   saturated  fat  (animal  fa▯y  meats,  dairy,  palm  and  coconut  oils)   • •raises  cholesterol,  heart  disease,  cancer •mono-­‐‑unsaturated  (olive,  canola,  safflower  oils,  avocados,  olives,  nuts) •poly-­‐‑unsaturated   •omega  3  (fish,  nuts,  soybeans,  leafy  greens)   •omega  6  (corn,  soybean,  co▯onseed  oils)   •trans  fa▯y  acids  (fried  foods)   • Micronutrients   • vitamins,  minerals,  water   • Vitamins:  organic  substances  required  in  small  amounts  to  promote  specific   chemic  reactions  (catalyst)  within  a  living  cell   • 13  vitamins   4  fat  soluble:  A,  D,  E,  K   • •9  water  soluble:  C  and  8  B-­‐‑complex  vitamins   Minerals:  inorganic  compounds,  regulate  body  functions,  aid  in  growth,   • maintenance  of  body  tissues,  and  a  catalyst  for  energy  release   •17  essential  minerals   • major  minerals:  100  milligrams  or  more   • calcium,  magnesium,  sodium,  etc.   •Trace  minerals:  minute  amounts  (iron,  cobalt,  fluoride,  zinc,  etc.) •Water   •humans  composed  60%  of  water   •water  and  other  drinks  make  up  80-­‐‑90%  of  your  daily  water  intake   •Men:  13  cups,  women  9  cups   • 1  Kcalorie-­‐‑  amount  of  heat  it  takes  to  raise  the  temperature  of  1  gram  of  water  by  1   degree  celsius   1000  calories=  1  kcalorie   • • Fat=  9  calories  per  gram   • Protein=  4  calories  per  gram   • Carbs=  4  calories  per  gram   • 10%  of  total  calories  from  added  sugars  (most  americans  21%)   • Dietary  Fiber-­‐‑  indigestible  carbohydrate  that  is  present  naturally  (fruits,  veggies,   grains)   • sources:  all  plant  substances   • Antioxidants • reduction  in  cancers  (free  radicals)   • vitamins  C  and  E,  selenium,  carotenoids   • Phytochemicals   soy  foods  may  help  lower  cholesterol  levels  (phytoestrogens)   • • Allyl  sulfides  (garlic  and  onions)  boost  cancer  fighting  immune  cells   • Sulforaphane  (broccoli)  stimulates  anticancer  enzymes   • Dietary  Reference  Intakes  (DRIs)   • Fruits  and  veggies:  4.5  cups  (9  servings)   • Whole  grains   • Low  fat  milk  products   • Total  fat:  no  more  limits  (Previous  Guidelines:  35%  of  total  daily  calories) • Cholesterol:  no  more  limits  (Previous  Guidelines:  less  than  300  mg  per  day)   • Saturated  Fat:  less  than  10%  of  total  calories • Trans  fat:  as  li▯le  as  possible • ULs  (Tolerable  Upper  Intake  Levels)  –  the  safe  upper  limit  of  a  nutrient  from  total   intake  of  food • DVs  (Daily  Values)  –  U.S.  Food  and  Drug  Administration  use  on  food  labels Nutrition  Labels   • between  34-­‐‑42%  of  adults  claim  to  aways  look  at  the  calorie  count  on  a  nutrition  label   • only  9%  actually  do   • only  1%  look  at  the  other  components  (trans  fat,  total  fat,  sugar,  serving  size)   • FDA  responsible  for  safe  food   • food  labeling  is  required  for  most  prepared  foods   • nutrition  labeling  for  raw  produce/fish  is  voluntary  (conventional  foods)     • dietary  supplements  have  separate  labeling  requirements   • Multigrain  vs.  Whole  grain   • Multigrain  means  mixture  of  grains   • Whole  grain  is  associated  with  reduced  risk  of  heart  disease,  diabetes,  digestive   problems   • All  natural   • Implies  that  a  food  contains  no  artificial  ingredients/more  healthy  and  less   processed   • FDA  has  no  strict  definition  of  the  term-­‐‑  many  processed  foods  are  claimed   “natural”   • USDA  (regulates  meat  and  poultry)  has  a  more  precise  definition-­‐‑  no  artificial   ingredients  and  minimally  processed-­‐‑  but  still  allows  for  some  additives   •permissible  to  label  a  meat  product  as  natural  even  if  raised  with  antibiotics   and  hormones   • 2  valuable  egg  labels   • USDA  Organic   uncaged  hens  with  outdoor  access,  organic  feed  without  pesticides  or   • fertilizers,  facilities  checked  by  accredited  inspectors   • CA  SEFS  Compliant   •hens  have  enough  room  to  flap  their  wings  without  bumping  feathers   • 95%  of  eggs  come  form  chickens  raised  in  ba▯ery  cages  (house  4-­‐‑12  birds  with  very   limited  space)   • 1  gram=  the  mass  of  a  standard  plastic  pen  cap  or  American  dime   • Serving  sizes: • familiar  units  such  as  spoons,  cups,  ounces,  pieces  followed  by  metric  amount   (grams,  milliliters,  etc.)   • 65g  of  sugar  in  one  serving  of  Coke   • Calories  and  Fat  Calories   how  much  energy  you  get  from  1  serving  of  food   • • Nutrients   Limit  fat,  cholesterol.  sodium   • •Less  than  65  g  total  fat  (20  g  saturated)   •Less  than  300  mg  cholesterol   •Less  than  2400  sodium   • Maximize  fiber,  calcium,  iron   •at  least  300  carbs,  25  fiber   • Footnotes  must  be  on  every  product  (Percent  value  based  on  a  2,000  calorie  diet)   • Breakdown  of  nutrients  necessary  for  this  caloric  intake  is  optional  (white  box)  and   is  always  the  same   •Sodium  intake  is  the  same  for  2,000  or  2,500  diet  but  fat  changes   • Percent  daily  value   • Helps  determine  if  a  serving  of  food  is  high  or  low  in  a  nutrient   5%  or  less  is  low • •20%  or  more  is  high   • Sugar,  protein,  and  trans  fat  do  not  have  a  %DV •experts  could  not  establish  a  %DV  for  trans  fat  but  reports  link  trans  fat  with   high  cholesterol  and  heart  disease   •experts  don’t  feel  protein  is  that  essential   •no  daily  reference  value  has  been  established  for  sugars  because  no   recommendations  have  been  made  on  how  much  one  should  eat   • New  labeling  is  needed   • Definition  of  single  serving • More  information  to  help  consumers  understand  the  nutritional  significance  of   consuming  an  entire  container  containing  multiple  servings   GMOs   • • present  in  60-­‐‑70%  of  foods  on  US  supermarket  shelves •exception:  most  fresh  fruits/veggies   •most  common  in  papayas,  milk,  corn,  squash,  zucchini,  co▯on,  canola   Wellness  and  Physical  Fitness   • Physical  fitness-­‐‑  the  body’s  ability  to  respond/adapt  to  the  demands  and  stress  of   physical  effort   • 5  components: • Cardiorespiratory  endurance-­‐‑  ability  of  heart  and  lungs  to  deliver  oxygen  to   working  muscles  for  sustained  activity   • Muscular  strength-­‐‑  amount  of  force  a  muscle  can  produce  with  a  single  maximum   effort  (ex:  lifting  weights)   • Muscular  endurance-­‐‑  ability  of  muscle  to  sustain  a  given  level  of  muscle  tension   (e.g.,  lifting  light  weights  w/  high  repetitions) • Flexibility-­‐‑  ability  to  move  joints  through  their  full  range  of  motion • Body  composition-­‐‑  amount  of  lean  body  tissue  vs.  body  fat • 6  skill  related  components   • speed • power • agility  (change  position  quickly)   • balance • coordination • reaction  time   • Aerobic  vs.  Anaerobic   • Aerobic-­‐‑  with  air-­‐‑  powered  by  oxygen,  working  out  lungs   running,  swimming,  walking,  biking,  stairs   • • Pros:  raises  your  heart  ratel,  burns  more  calories   • Cons:  doesn’t  define  body  or  build  muscles • Anaerobic-­‐‑  without  air-­‐‑  high-­‐‑intensity  where  the  body  can’t  get  enough  oxygen  to   complete  them  so  it  relies  on  short-­‐‑term  supplies  of  fuel  stored  in  muscles   • sprinting,  lifting  heavy  weights,  running  up  several  flights,  jump  rope,   resistance  training • Pros:  completed  in  short  intervals,  sculpts  body  and  gives  you  lean  physique   • Cons:  doesn’t  burn  as  many  calories • Combining  aerobic  and  anaerobic  is  best  for  building  muscle  and  boosting  endurance     • Do  at  least  75  minutes  of  vigorous  aerobics  or  150  minutes  of  moderate  aerobics   per  week,  plus  a  minimum  of  two  weekly  anaerobic  strength  training  sessions Physical  activity  pyramid   • • Top:  sedentary  activities   • 2nd:  strength  training • 3rd:  cardiorespiratory  endurance  exercise   • Bo▯om:  Moderate-­‐‑Intensity  physical  activity   • Men  perform  more  physical  activity   • White  people  perform  more  physical  activity,  then  black  then  hispanic   • Physical  Activity  and  Muscles   • body  contains  over  600  muscles,  65%  above  waistline   • Axiom:  “use  it  or  lose  it”  (disuse  atrophy-­‐‑  muscle  stops  working  when  you  don’t   use  it)   • Progressive,  repetitive,  high  intensity,  anaerobic,  strength  developing  exercise   to  prevent  atrophy • Many  aerobic  activities  provide  limited  stimulation  of  upper  body  musculature   Resistance  training=  any  exercise  that  causes  the  muscles  to  contract  against  an   • external  resistance  with  the  expectation  of  increases  in  strength,  tone  (i.e.,  residual   muscle  tension),  mass,  and/or  endurance •The  external  resistance  can  be  dumbbells,  rubber  exercise  tubing,  your  own   body  weight,  bricks,  bo▯les  of  water,  parachutes  or  any  other  object  that  causes   the  muscles  to  contract • Static  versus  Dynamic  Muscle  Resistance  Training • Static-­‐‑  isometric  (same  length),  muscle  contractions  exert  a  force  but  don’t  shorten   or  lengthen   •pushing  against  walls,  pushing  sideways  against  a  door  jamb,  trying  to  lift  a   truck,  carrying  groceries,  posture   • Dynamic-­‐‑  isotonic  (normal  contraction),  muscle  contractions  are  either  concentric   (shortening)  or  eccentric  (lengthening)   •30-­‐‑40%  more  tension  produced  eccentrically  than  concentrically   • Circuit  Resistance  Training   • Effective  for  developing  several  fitness  dimensions  simultaneously • Exerciser  moves  between  stations  without  much  rest,  performing  a  15-­‐‑  to  45-­‐‑ second  set  of  8  to  20  reps  at  each  station •Repeat  circuit  as  needed  for  30  to  50  minutes • Muscular  Endurance-­‐‑  application  of  repeated  muscular  force  against  sub-­‐‑maximal   resistance   • Isotonic  (same  tension)   •walking  up  stairs,  lighting  same  weights,  fifty  sit  ups   • Isometric-­‐‑  same  length,  muscle  endurance  is  the  ability  to  sustain  a  sub-­‐‑maximal   contraction  for  a  time •holding  groceries,  carrying  children,  pushing  or  pulling  large  objects • Overload-­‐‑  push  beyond  the  limit   • subject  muscles  to  greater  resistance  as  they  adapt   •increase  weight,  sets,  decrease  rest  time • Progression-­‐‑  application  of  overload  rate   • Two-­‐‑for-­‐‑two  rule:  increase  load  when  able  to  perform  2  additional  reps  on  2   consecutive  weight-­‐‑training  sessions • Specificity • Reflects  body’s  response  to  exercise •High-­‐‑resistance  and  low  reps  increase  muscle  strength  and  size •Low-­‐‑resistance  and  high  reps  increase  endurance Variety • • Diminished  returns  on  development  of  muscle  strength,  size,  and  endurance  if   program  not  changed  every  few  months • Joint  and  Muscle  Flexibility • Flexibility  programs  are  planned,  deliberate,  and  regularly  performed  sets  of   exercises  designed  to  progressively  increase  joint  range  of  motion • 10  minute  stretching  done  daily   • Warm  muscles  with  gradual  activities  for  10  minutes   • Flexibility  declines  by  mid-­‐‑20s   • Dehydration,  muscle  fibrosis  (e.g.  scar  tissue  from  injury  or  aging),  and  inactivity   are  all  threats  to  flexibility • Regular  flexibility  exercises  can  help  maintain  a  full  range  of  joint  motion  and   good  posture • What  Is  The  Most  Effective  Workout? Gaining  muscle-­‐‑  weight  lifting  and  resistance  training   • • Weight  loss-­‐‑  high-­‐‑intensity  intervals   • Endurance-­‐‑  aerobic  exercise  like  running,  cycling  or  swimming • Flexibility-­‐‑  yoga  or  pilates   • Mind-­‐‑  brisk  walks   • Pain  Prevention   • Neck  shoulders  and  back  most  susceptible  to  pain   • Causes:  sedentary  lifestyle,  occupational  hazards,  deskwork,  automobile  driving,   stress   • Must  be  sensitive  to  lifestyle  and  behaviors  to  prevent  risk   • Keep  active  while  watching  TV   • Keep  good  posture   Lift  objects  with  legs  not  back • • Bunions  more  common  in  women,  still  unsure  if  high  heels  cause  bunions  or  whether   footwear  simply  contributes   • Tight  footwear  is  a  factor   • Drugs  and  supplements  are  not  regulated  and  usually  have  bad  side  effects   • Stay  away!!!   • Best  sources  for  vitamins,  minerals  and  proteins  are  through  the  consumption  of  fresh   ingredients • generally  not  needed  if  you  maintain  a  healthful,  balanced  diet • commonly  used  if  vegetarian  or  vegan   • Footwear  is  the  most  important  item  for  many  activities • Shop  late  in  day  or  after  a  workout,  as  foot  size  increases  over  the  day  and  during   exercise • Replace  shoes  when  tread  presents  a  slippage  risk Exercise  and  Distractions • • Pros:  helps  release  endorphins,  gets  you  to  go  to  the  gym,  commercial  breaks  help   with  intervals   • Research  suggests  the  right  tempo  boosts  stamina  and  energy  efficiency •One  study  found  that  cyclists  who  synchronized  their  movements  to  music   reduced  oxygen  uptake  by  as  much  as  7%.   • Cons:  affects  posture,  looking  down  is  not  good,  slows  down  pace   Factors  That  Influence  Wellness • behavioral  pa▯ers  (40%),  genetic  predisposition  (30%),  social  circumstances  (15%),   health  care  (10%),  environmental  exposure  (5%)     • Causes  of  death: 1.  tobacco   • • 2.  diet  physical  inactivity   • 3.  alcohol   • crucial  to  have  internal  locus  of  control,  social  support,  identify  what  you  want  to   change   • Self-­‐‑efficacy:  Situation-­‐‑specific  confidence  that  one  can  cope  with  high-­‐‑risk/tempting   situations  without  relapsing •  The  self-­‐‑help  approach  is  based  on  TTM  of  behavior  change  (6  stages): • pre-­‐‑contemplation   • awareness,  concern,  confidence • no  intention  of  taking  action  within  next  6  months • person  unaware  they  have  a  problem   underestimate  pros  of  changing,  overestimate  cons   • • avoids  confronting  behavior     • 5  Rs  (reveling,  reluctant,  rebellious,  resigned,  rationalizing)   • contemplation   • decision  making • intends  to  take  action  within  next  6  months   • aware  problem  exists  and  wants  to  change  but  has  not  made  commitment   • ambivalence  relation  to  pros  and  cons  of  changing  (decisional  balance)   • preparation • commitment,  effective/acceptable  plan • intends  to  take  action  within  next  30  days   • person  may  have  a  plan  of  action  ready  to  go  (joining  health  class,  lessen  bad   habits) • action adequate  implementation  of  plan • • has  changed  behavior  for  less  than  6  months   • person  modifies  their  behavior/environment   • considerable  commitment  to  change  current  behavior  and  implemented   strategies  to  sustain  behavior  change/avoid  relapses   • maintenance • integration  into  lifestyle • has  changed  observable  behavior  for  more  than  6  months   • person  works  to  prevent  relapse  and  build  on  the  gains  achieved  during  action   phase   • focused  mainly  on  preventing  relapse  and  not  on  accomplishing  additional   change   termination   • • TTM:  a  process  to  modify  a  problem  behavior  or  acquire  a  positive  behavior • people  change  when  they  become  concerned,  convinced,  organize  a  plan,  and  take   actions  necessary  to  change/sustain  change   • developing  skills  for  change/creating  plan:   • monitor  your  behavior  and  gather  data   • analyze  the  data  and  identify  pa▯erns   • devise  plan  of  action   • make  personal  contract   • SMART  goals  (specific,  measurable,  a▯ainable,  realistic,  trackable)   • Pu▯ing  plan  into  action:   • Staying  with  It Get  what  you  need • • Modify  you  environment • Control  related  habits • Rewards • Involve  people  around  you  (support  group) • regression:  person  reverts  to  earlier  stage  of  change   • relapse:  form  of  regression,  involves  regression  from  action  or  maintenance  to  earlier   stage   •


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