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PSY 340 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Taylor Russell

PSY 340 Exam 1 Study Guide PSY340

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY340 > PSY 340 Exam 1 Study Guide
Taylor Russell
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About this Document

Covers chapter 1-4 Intro to Cognitive Development
Introduction to Cognitive Development
Dr. Rebecca Gomez
Study Guide
Psychology, cognition, development
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Russell on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY340 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Rebecca Gomez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cognitive Development in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
PSY 340 EXAM 1 Study Guide PSY 340 Chapter 1 Introduction and Overview Understanding cognition  How we sample change o Cross-sectional design: different children at different ages o Longitudinal design: same children at different ages  Cognitive processes o Thinking, reasoning, decision making  Mentally manipulating info, making inferences, choosing among options o Perception  Information comes in through raw unprocessed modes  Light waves, sound waves, chemicals  Changes with development  Familiarization o Attention  Selective attention: focusing on one thing in particular  Cocktail party effect  Multitasking  Growth  Duration of attention  Ability to fine tune selective attention o Memory  Working memory: active memory  Encoding: forming a memory  Manipulation: memories are easily manipulated with additional information o Language  Levels of comprehension and production of language  Parts of language: phonetics, morphology, semantics, syntax  Cultural Implications o Analytic Cognition  Western Culture: independent performance o Holistic Cognition  Eastern culture: collaboration and interdependence  Nature vs Nurture o Nature: genetics and biology influencing development and cognition o Nurture: experience and upbringing effects PSY 340 Chapter 2 Major Themes of Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory  Principles o New modes of thinking are based on earlier structures o Mistakes allow us insight into previous thought processes o Intelligence is active, dynamic, ever-changing  Assumptions o Children actively participate in creating new mental structures o Change takes place in a series of stages rather than in slow increments  Quantitative change: height  Qualitative change: reorganization such as a caterpillar to a butterfly  Criteria for stages o Qualitative change: stage involves differences in kind not differences in amount o Unified stages: system of underlying mental structures at each age process and guide information o Progression: stages build o Order: one stage is necessary for the next o Universality: cross culture similarity  Processes involved in mental structure organization o Assimilation: applying old strategies to new concepts o Accommodation: changing strategy to apply it to new concepts o These two are in balance usually or equilibration  Stages of Cognitive Development o Sensorimotor: Infancy, no mental representations, based on reflexes  Assumption: knowledge is based on sensation perception and action  Implication: focuses on present  Contrasted with: no memories of past events or complex thinking systems  Object permanence experiments o Properational: egocentric behavior, learning symbols, language  Achievements: semiotic function  Deficiencies: lack reversible function, can’t understand how to undo things  Centrate: conservation of volume, number, get fixed on a single property  Conservation experiments o Concrete operational: school age, mental operations with more logic  Achievements: recursive logic, systematic and distinctive object representation, math skills through division  Limitations: abstract thought  Conservation experiments, theory of mind o Formal operational: 11+, use abstract operations and introspection  Achievements: reflective abstraction, systematic thinking, abstract thought  Pendulum experiment  Challenges to Piaget’s Theory o Varied performance in conservation experiments o Young children surprisingly more competent, and older children surprisingly less competent than predicted  Egocentric thinking task o Proximal development zone  Ranging cognitive function capabilities (bottom, scaffolding, top) PSY 340 Chapter 3 Other frameworks relevant to cognitive development Information Processing Theory Learning theory Modules and Core Knowledge approach Cognitive Neuroscience perspective Cognitive Development theories  Help us organize knowledge, and make predictions about new information  Must explain how change happens (stage like or continuous), and why some behavior stays the same Information Processing  Memory o Working memory, recognition (Perirhinal cortex), recall (Hippocampus), episodic (late Hippocampus), semantic, implicit, explicit  Adult cognition: involves a number of different memory systems and how these operate  Cognitive development: how developmental change occurs within these memory systems  Adult system faster than child system  However expertise has influence Learning Theory  Classical conditioning theory o Little Albert: Unconditioned stimulus (loud sound) pair with conditioned stimulus (white rat)  Operant conditioning theory o Skinners Experiment  Positive reinforcement: adding positive to increase behavior  Punishment: disagreeable consequence to decrease behavior  Negative reinforcement: removing something negative to increase a behavior o Habituation  Discrimination of stimuli, preference for novel items, implies recognition  Social learning theory o Bandura Experiments (Bobo the doll) Chapter 4 Habituation/ dishabituation: observing infant gaze to a novel stimulus Basic sensory abilities and visual processes  Focus: adult like by 3 months  Acuity: Poor at birth adult like in 9 months  Color: Adult like 3 months  Visual scanning: improves over first few months Infants and color detection  Bornstein  Detection=dishabituation to certain wavelength o Infants habituated to 510, dishabituated to 480 showing there IS color detection Auditory abilities  Hearing in utero o 6 months gestational age, heart rate response to loud stimuli o learning shown by 8 months Visual abilities  movement, contrast, curvature, symmetry, facial recognition  perceptual constancy o shape: door changes from rectangle to trapezoid however we still perceive the door as a rectangle o size: we can perceive whether an object is close or far away  depth perception o infants experience heartrate deceleration when placed over a deep side rather than a shallow side o less locomotor experience leads to infants more likely to crawl off deep edge, more locomotor experience will not go to deep side Sense relation at birth  Piaget: uncoordinated senses at birth  Gibson: coordination, but also development Intermodal Perception  Vision and sound (face-voice match, age-voice match, vowels)  Vision and touch (looking at two different pacifiers and exploring them with their mouths)  Imitation  Synchrony of sight/sound Measuring Attention  OR: orienting  SA: sustained attention  AT: attention terminates Recognition Memory  Familiarization  Recognition o Longer looking at novel stimuli compared to familiar stimuli indicates memory of a familiar  Controlled Factors o Attractiveness  Elicited imitation o Two step sequence, infants learned to produce an action  General Principles in memory o Older infants encode faster o Older infants retain info longer o Older infants use wider range of cues for retrieval Effects of Media Exposure  Enriched environments lead to more brain development  Exposure to media linked to later attention deficits  Video deficit effect  Pediatricians discourage media use under the age of 2 (2011 ruling)


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