Biology 100: Exam 3 Study Guide
Biology 100: Exam 3 Study Guide 100
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 100 at Ball State University taught by William D Rogers (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Biology for a Modern Society in Biology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Human Interventions 1. Invasive Species a. Guam i. The Brown Tree Snake. ii. Discovered in Guam in the 1950’s as a stowaway in ship’s cargo. iii. No natural predator. iv. Plenty of food sources. v. Destiny: 13,000 snakes per square mile. vi. Has drastically reduced the bird and small mammal populatifns. b. Indian. i. Emerald Ash Borer. 1. Larva get into the ash tree, burrow, and end up killing the tree. 2. Came in through the Great Lakes. ii. Zebra Mussels. 1. Came in though the Great Lake waterways. 2. Costs millions of dollars in damage every year. iii. Stink Bugs. 1. No threat to other animals. 2. Excrete stink defense mechanism. c. Everglades. i. Burmese Python. 1. Pet trade. 2. Native to South East Asia. 3. Estimated 100,000 living in the Everglades. 2. Borneo Case Study. a. DDT affected but did not kill the cockroaches. b. The geckos feasted on the cockroaches. c. DDT slowed down the geckos, making them easy prey for the cats. d. With the geckos gone, the caterpillar population was out of control. e. The caterpillars destroyed the thatched roofs. f. The DDT slowed down the geckos, making them easy prey for the cats. g. The cats died after consuming the geckos. h. With the cats gone, the rat population grew quickly. i. With the large rat population came a huge increase in the number of fleas. j. Plague-carrying fleas bit humans, transmitting the fatal disease. Cells 1. Discovery of Cells. 2. Discovery of the Diversity of Types of Cells. 3. Microscopes. a. Hooke. i. Robert Hook (1665) b. Leeuwenhoek. i. Anton Von Leeuwenhoek (1670s) ii. See up to x500. c. Your high school microscope. i. See up to x400. d. Electron microscope. 4. Size of Cells. a. Smallest are bacteria. b. Largest by volume i. Ostrich egg. c. Longest in length. i. 9 meters long. 5. Advantages of being multi-celled. a. Selected parts of a cell and their function: i. Cell wall. 1. Laying outside of the plasma membrane of the cells of plant, fungi, and bacteria. 2. Consists mainly of cellulose. ii. Plasma membrane. 1. Regulates what enters and eaves the cell. 2. Boundary between the cell and its environment. iii. DNA. 1. Located in the cell nucleus. 2. Stored as a code made up of four chemical bases. a. Adenine. b. Guanine. c. Cytosine. d. Thymine. iv. Nuclear membrane. 1. Double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material. v. Cytoplasm. 1. Everything inside the cell besides the nucleus. vi. Ribosomes. 1. Minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. 2. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins. vii. Lysosomes. 1. Ancient molecular machines that are responsible for production of protein in all living cells. viii. Vesicles. 1. A fluid or air-filled cavity. ix. Endoplasmic reticulum. 1. Network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. 2. Continuous within the nuclear membrane. 3. Has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis. x. Golgi apparatus. 1. Complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. 2. Involved in secretion and intracellular transport. xi. Flagella. 1. Move the cell through the environment. xii. Cilia. 1. Move the environment around the cell. xiii. Central vacuole. b. Also review the main processes that occur in chloroplasts and mitochondria. i. Chloroplasts. 1. Work to convert light energy of the sun into sugars that can be used by cells. ii. Mitochondria. 1. Biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. 6. Plasma Membrane. a. General functions. i. Regulates what enters and leaves a cell. ii. Volume increases faster than surface area. b. Structure. i. Transport. 1. Tubles in the cytoplasm. 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum. ii. Receptor. 1. Nerve cells don’t touch other cells. iii. Recognition proteins. 1. Blood type compatibility. a. A (+ or -). b. B (+ or -). c. AB (+ or -). d. O (+ or -). c. Moving Substances In and Out of a Cell. i. Passive Transport. 1. Does not require ATP. 2. Diffusion. a. Process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. 3. Osmosis. a. The diffusion of water across a semi- permeable membrane. ii. Active Transport. 1. Dos require ATP. 2. Membrane pumps (transport proteins). 3. Endocytosis. a. Enters the cell. 4. Exocytosis. a. Exits the cell. DNA to Proteins. 1. Structure and Function of DNA. a. Double stranded molecule. b. Code for making proteins. c. One strand really matters. i. Coding strand. d. 4 bases. i. Adenine. ii. Thymine. iii. Cytosine. iv. Guanine. 2. Structure and Function of mRNA. a. Uracil replaces Thymine. b. Can move through the membrane and attach to the ribosome to make the protein. i. A-U ii. C-G iii. G-C iv. T-A 3. Making simple proteins (polypeptides). a. Ribosomes. i. Assemble amino acids to make simple proteins. ii. Polypeptide. 4. Gene expression. a. mRNA. Recombinant DNA. 1. General Process. a. Bacteria to make human proteins.
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