New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 102 Test 2 Study Guide

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Test 2 Study Guide BIOL102

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Biology > BIOL102 > Biology 102 Test 2 Study Guide
C of C
GPA 3.4

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is for the exam on 2/25, covering chapters 18-22, and 27, which are Earth's early origins to plant reproduction.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Study Guide
Biology, biology 102
50 ?




Popular in Concepts/Apps in Biology II

Popular in Biology

This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


Reviews for Biology 102 Test 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/21/16
Bio 102 Study Guide for Test 2 (2/25) Chapters 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 27 Chapter 18 – Life’s Origin and Early Evolution - Conditions o Analysis of ancient rocks and crystals o The presence of water o Early atmosphere  Little to no oxygen (proof in rocks) - Formation of Simple Compounds o Amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides, and simple sugars o Stanley Miller and Harold Urey lightning experiment o Proof of meteorites falling to earth, bringing life’s building blocks o Hydrothermal vents - Formation of First Cells o 4 main stages –  Production of organic molecules  Meteorites and hydrothermal vents  Polymer formation  Chains of small molecules create carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins)  Polymer replication  “RNA World Hypothesis”, mistakes (mutations) lead to diversity, DNA evolving from RNA  Protocells  Membranes (phospholipid bilayer), microenvironment, nanobes - Prokaryotes – the universal common ancestor o Ex: stromatolite - Early Eukaryotes o Biomarkers o The effect of oxygen with early life  Bacteria photosynthesizing (oxygen producing)  Increase in oxygen led to extinction of many species, but many species adapted to the oxygen increase  Ozone layer o Eukaryotic organelles  The nucleus – where did it come from?  Membrane enfolding  Endosymbiont hypothesis Chapter 19 – Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea - Virus o Replication  Bacteriophages  Lytic pathway   Attachment, penetration, replication, assembly, release  Lysogenic pathway  Pathogens (evolution)  Viroids  Prions  Emerging diseases  Endemic  Epidemic  Pandemic - Bacteria o Reproduce with binary fission  o Metabolic diversity  Autotrophs  Photoautotrophs  Chemoautotrophs  Heterotrophs  Photoheterotrophs  Chemoheterotrophs o Bacterial diversity  Cyanobacteria  Chloroplast ancestors  Nitrogen fixation  Proteobacteria  Mitochondria ancestors  Gram-positive  Decomposers  Live on the skin and body (normal flora)  Disease causing  Endospores  Spirochetes  Most uncommon - Archaea o Extremophiles  Thermophiles  Deep sea vents, hot springs  Halophiles  Salt ponds, the Dead Sea  Methanogens  Greenhouse gases Chapter 20 – The Protists - “Catch all” group - Evolution o Colonial organism vs multicellular organism o Primary and secondary endosymbiosis - Characteristics o All aquatic o Most unicellular o Most have motility o Reproduction is either asexual via fission or mitosis and sexual via meiosis and fertilization o Nutrition: heterotrophic (protozoans), photosynthetic (algae), mixotrophic (euglena) - Flagellated protozoans o Pellicle membrane o Euglenoids (not disease causing) o Pathogenic protozoans  Diplomonads  Parabasalids  Trypanosomes - Rhizarians (shelled amoebas) o Foraminifera o Plankton o Radiolaria - Alveolates o Ciliates  Cilia  Heterotrophs  Paramecium o Dinoflagellates  Bioluminescence  Cellulose plates  Predators or parasites o Apicomplexans (parasitic alveolate)  Requires a vector and a tropical environment - Stramenophiles o Hairy flagella o Brown algae o Diatoms o Water molds - Protists that are close to plants o Red algae  Phycobilins  Lives in warm marine water  Plant-like: No flagellated states  Has “roots” that hold it down, a “stalk”, and a leaf- like blade o Green algae  Closely related to plants: charophytes, cholorophytes  Cellulose cells walls, chlorophyll a o Amoebas  Unicellular  Slime molds  Cellular slime molds: social amoebas o Sporangium  Spore producing structure Chapter 22 – Fungi - Yeasts – single celled fungi - Mycelium – multicelled fungi are held together by these tiny filaments o Hypha - Characteristics o Absorptive heterotrophs o Multicellular (except yeasts and chytrids) o Cell walls made of chitin o No motile cells - 3 fungal nutritional lifestyles o 1/3 Saprobes o 1/3 Parasites o 1/3 Mutualistic symbionts - 3 phase life cycle o Haploid, dikaryotic, diploid o Reproduce sexually (through meiosis) and/or asexually (mitosis by spores) - Diversity o Chytrids  Flagellated cells  Some parasitic o Zygomycetes  Zygote fungi  Most are saprobes  Ex: rhizopus o Ascomycetes  Sac fungi  Named for the sacs (asci) formed during sexual reproduction  Ex: morels and truffles, yeasts, penicillium o Basidiomycetes  Club fungi (these are the ones we eat)  Grows in “fairy circles”  Basidiocarps - Partners o Mycorrhizae  Provides sustainable crop production  Parasitic  Used as an antibiotic o Lichen  Composite organism  Indicator species Chapter 21 – Plant Evolution - Adaptations o Cuticle o Stomata o Vascular tissue system  Xylem and phloem o Pollen, seeds - Evolution progression o Altered generations (different life cycle) o - Nonvascular plants o Bryophytes  Found in moist area  Small  Require water o Mosses  Different life cycle   Peat moss ~HAVE NOT COVERED IN CLASS YET~ o Liverworts  One of the oldest plants  Eggs and sperm form on separate plants  Spores survive even if the plant is killed o Hornworts  Closest living relative to vascular plants  Grows continuously from the base - Seedless Vascular Plants o Ferns  Fern sporophytes grow from rhizomes  Spores grow in sori on the bottom of fronds, where they are dispersed by the wind when they are mature o Other close relatives  Whisk ferns  Different sporophytes  Horsetail  Different sporophytes  Spores form on a strobilus  Lycophytes - Vascular plants o Seed Plants  Seeds are spores that are protected  Haploid spores are pollen that forms in concealed pollen sacs  Called microspores  Haploid megaspores form the protective barrier called an ovule  Pollination  Fertilization  Seed plants produce wood o Gymnosperms  Plants with seeds that are protected by a papery covering o Conifers  Seeds are within their cones o Cycads and gingkos  Modern seed plants with flagellated sperm - Angiosperms o Flowers and fruits o Structure  Stamen  Carpel  Ovary  Fruit o Fertilization  Endosperms o Major Players  Monocots  Eudicots  Cotyledons o Diversity  Accelerated life cycle  Partnerships with pollinators  Coevolution  Animal dispersed fruits  Taken along for the ride or seed is dropped somewhere after the animal ate the fruit Chapter 27 – Plant Reproduction and Development - Structure and function o Flowers  Petals  Stamens  Anther  Pollen grains  Carpel  Stigma  Ovary  Ovule - Pollination o Pollen is transferred using a pollination vector  Animal vectors are pollinators o Nectar - Sexual reproduction in a flowering plant o Megaspores o Microspores o o After the pollen grain forms, there is a period of dormancy o After dormancy, if pollen takes, it germinates o Double fertilization can form a diploid and triploid zygote  Triploid endosperm - Seed development o Embryo sporophyte  The self-contained package is the seed o Fruits  - How plants break dormancy in the life cycle o Climate specific adaptation  Seeds dispersed in autumn in cold climates o Water  In cold climates, water will freeze, so some seeds don’t germinate until water becomes liquid again o Seed casing must be broken o Bright light o Freezing temperatures o Ultimately, water must reach the inside of the seed to begin germination o Germination ends when the embryonic root breaks out of the seed coat - After germination o The coleoptile protects the initial shoot as it breaks through the soil in monocots and eudicots - Asexual plant reproduction o Vegetative reproduction (potatoes and ginger) - Using what we know in agriculture o Tissue culture propagation o Plant hormones - Environmental response o Tropism  Gravitropism  Phototropism  Thismotropism o Daily change  Circadian rhythm o Seasonal changes  Photoperiodism  Vernalization o Stress responses  System acquired resistance


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.