BIS CHAPTER 5 STUDY GUIDE
BIS CHAPTER 5 STUDY GUIDE 20263
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Salem on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20263 at Texas Christian University taught by Layne Colbert Bradley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Business Information Systems in Information technology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Chapter 5.1 It is the MIS infrastructure, which includes the plans for how a firm will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and MIS assets. A solid MIS infrastructure can reduce costs, improve productivity, optim Briefly defined, hardware consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system, and software is the set of instructions the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks. ize business operations, generate growth, and increase profitability A network is a communications system created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate. A client is a computer designed to request information from a server. A server is a computer dedicated to providing information in response to requests. A good way to understand this is when someone uses a web browser (this would be the client) to access a website (this would be a server that would respond with the web page being requested by the client) enterprise architect is a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, and able to provide the important bridge between MIS and the business. Firms employ enterprise architects to help manage change and dynamically update MIS infrastructure. Supporting Operations: Information MIS infrastructure identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured Supporting Change: Agile MIS Infrastructure includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization's goals. Supporting the environment: Sustainable MIS infrastructure identifies ways that a company can grow in terms of computing resources while simultaneously becoming less dependent on hardware and energy consumption To support continuous business operations, an information infrastructure provides three primary elements: •Backup and recovery plan •Disaster recovery plan •Business continuity plan A backup is an exact copy of a system's information. Recovery is the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure that includes restoring the information backup. Failover a specific type of fault tolerance, occurs when a redundant storage server offers an exact replica of the real-time data, and if the primary server crashes, the users are automatically directed to the secondary server or backup server Failback occurs when the primary machine recovers and resumes operations, taking over from the secondary server. Deciding how often to back up information and what media to use is a critical decision. Companies should choose a backup and recovery strategy in line with their goals and operational needs. If the company deals with large volumes of critical information, it will require daily, perhaps hourly, backups to storage servers. If it relies on small amounts of noncritical Disaster Recovery Plan Disrupting communications Damaging physical infrastructure Halting transportation Blocking utilities Therefore, to combat these disasters, a company can create a disaster recovery plan, which is a detailed process for recovering information or a system in the event of a catastrophic disaster. This plan includes such factors as which files and systems need to have backups and their corresponding frequency and methods along with the strategic location of the storage in a separate physical site that is geographically dispersed. A hot site is a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business. A cold site is a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment but is a place where employees can move after a disaster. A warm site is a separate facility with computer equipment that requires installation and configuration. Fault tolerance is the ability for a system to respond to unexpected failures or system crashes as the backup system immediately and automatically takes over with no loss of service. A disaster recovery cost curve charts (1) the cost to the company of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the company of recovering from a disaster over time An emergency is a sudden, unexpected event requiring immediate action due to potential threat to health and safety, the environment, or property. Emergency preparedness ensures that a company is ready to respond to an emergency in an organized, timely, and effective manner. For this reason many companies are turning to a more comprehensive and all- encompassing emergency preparedness plan known as business continuity planning (BCP), which details how a company recovers and restores critical business operations and systems after a disaster or extended disruption. BCP contains disaster recovery plans along with many additional plans, including prioritizing business impact analysis, emergency notification plans, and technology recovery strategies. A business impact analysis identifies all critical business functions and the effect that a specific disaster may have on them. A business impact analysis is primarily used to ensure that a company has made the right decisions about the order of recovery priorities and strategies A business continuity plan typically includes an emergency notification service, that is, an infrastructure built for notifying people in the event of an emergency. A technology failure occurs when the ability of a company to operate is impaired because of a hardware, software, or data outage. Technology failures can destroy large amounts of vital data, often causing incidents, unplanned interruption of a service. An incident record contains all of the details of an incident. Incident management is the process responsible for managing how incidents are identified and corrected. Technology recovery strategies focus specifically on prioritizing the order for restoring hardware, software, and data across the organization that best meets business recovery requirements. A technology recovery strategy details the order of importance for recovering hardware, software, data centers, and networking (or connectivity). Accessibility refers to the varying levels that define what a user can access, view, or perform when operating a system. Imagine the people at your college accessing the main student information system. Top-level MIS employees require administrator access, or unrestricted access to the entire system. Administrator access can perform functions such as resetting passwords, deleting accounts, and shutting down entire systems. Web accessibility means that people with disabilities, can use the web. The web accessibility initiative (WAI) brings together people from industry, disability organizations, government, and research labs from around the world to develop guidelines and resources to help make the web accessible to people with disabilities, including auditory, cognitive, neurological, physical, speech, and visual disabilities. Availability refers to the time frames when the system is operational. A system is called unavailable when it is not operating and cannot be used. High availability occurs when a system is continuously operational at all times. Maintainability (or flexibility) refers to how quickly a system can transform to support environmental changes. Maintainability helps to measure how quickly and effectively a system can be changed or repaired after a failure. Portability refers to the ability of an application to operate on different devices or software platforms, such as different operating systems. Reliability (or accuracy) ensures that a system is functioning correctly and providing accurate information. A vulnerability is a system weakness, such as a password that is never changed or a system left on while an employee goes to lunch, that can be exploited by a threat. Scalability describes how well a system can scale up, or adapt to the increased demands of growth. If a company grows faster than anticipated, it might experience a variety of problems, from running out of storage space to taking more time to complete transactions. Performance measures how quickly a system performs a process or transaction. Performance is a key component of scalability as systems that can't scale suffer from performance issues. Capacity represents the maximum throughput a system can deliver; for example, the capacity of a hard drive represents its size or volume. Capacity planning determines future environmental infrastructure requirements to ensure high-quality system performance. Usability is the degree to which a system is easy to learn and efficient and satisfying to use. Serviceability is how quickly a third party can change a system to ensure it meets user needs and the terms of any contracts, including agreed levels of reliability, maintainability, or availability Chapter 5.2 His prediction that this trend would continue has come to be known as Moore's Law, which refers to the computer chip performance per dollar doubling every 18 month Sustainable, or green, MIS describes the production, management, use, and disposal of technology in a way that minimizes damage to the environment. Sustainable MIS is a critical part of corporate social responsibility, that is, companies' acknowledged responsibility to society. Clean computing, a subset of sustainable MIS, refers to the environmentally responsible use, manufacture, and disposal of technology products and computer equipment. A green personal computer (green PC) is built using environment-friendly materials and designed to save energy Ewaste refers to discarded, obsolete, or broken electronic devices. Ewaste includes CDs, DVDs, thumb drives, printer cartridges, cell phones, iPods, external hard drives, TVs, VCRs, DVD players, microwaves, and so on. An upcycle reuses or refurbishes ewaste and creates a new product. Sustainable MIS disposal refers to the safe disposal of MIS assets at the end of their life cycle. It ensures that ewaste does not end up in landfills, causing environmental issues. Energy consumption is the amount of energy consumed by business processes and systems. Huge increases in technology use have greatly amplified energy consumption. The energy consumed by a computer is estimated to produce as much as 10 percent of the amount of carbon dioxide produced by an automobile Additional temperature increases are projected over the next 100 years, with serious consequences for Earth's environment, if carbon emissions, including the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide produced by business processes and systems, are not reduced. Grid computing is a collection of computers, often geographically dispersed, that are coordinated to solve a common problem. A smart grid delivers electricity using two-way digital technology. It is meant to solve the problem of the world's outdated electrical grid, making it more efficient and reliable by adding the ability to monitor, analyze, and control the transmission of power remotely Virtualization creates multiple virtual machines on a single computing device. Virtualization is essentially a form of consolidation that can benefit sustainable MIS infrastructures in a variety of ways, for example: •By increasing availability of applications that can give a higher level of performance, depending on the hardware used. •By increasing energy efficiency by requiring less hardware to run multiple systems or applications. •By increasing hardware usability by running multiple operating systems on a single computer. Storage virtualization combines multiple network storage devices so they appear to be a single storage device. •Network virtualization combines networks by splitting the available bandwidth into independent channels that can be assigned in real time to a specific device. •Server virtualization combines the physical resources, such as servers, processors, and operating systems, from the applications. (This is the most common form and typically when you hear the term virtualization, you can assume server virtualization.) A data center is a facility used to house management information systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cloud computing stores, manages, and processes data and applications over the Internet rather than on a personal computer or server. Multi-tenancy in the cloud means that a single instance of a system serves multiple customers. In the cloud, each customer is called a tenant, and multiple tenants can access the same system. Multi-tenancy helps reduce operational costs associated with implementing large systems because the costs are dispersed across many tenants as opposed to single-tenancy, in which each customer or tenant must purchase and maintain an individual system. The cloud fabric is the software that makes possible the benefits of cloud computing, such as multi-tenancy. A cloud fabric controller is an individual who monitors and provisions cloud resources, similar to a server administrator at an individual company. Utility computing offers a pay-per-use revenue model similar to a metered service such as gas or electricity. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) delivers hardware networking capabilities, including the use of servers, networking, and storage, over the cloud using a pay- per-use revenue model. This is known as dynamic scaling, which means the MIS infrastructure can be automatically scaled up or down based on requirements. Disaster Recovery as a Service (DRaaS) offers backup services that use cloud resources to protect applications and data from disruption caused by disaster. Software as a Service (SaaS) delivers applications over the cloud using a pay-per- use revenue model. Platform as a Service (PaaS) supports the deployment of entire systems, including hardware, networking, and applications, using a pay-per-use revenue model. Public cloud promotes massive, global, and industrywide applications offered to the general public. Private cloud serves only one customer or organization and can be located on the customer's premises or off the customer's premises. Community cloud serves a specific community with common business models, security requirements, and compliance considerations. Hybrid cloud includes two or more private, public, or community clouds, but each cloud remains separate and is only linked by technology that enables data and application portability. Cloud bursting is when a company uses its own computing infrastructure for normal usage and accesses the cloud when it needs to scale for peak load requirements, ensuring that a sudden spike in usage does not result in poor performance or system crashes.
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