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Study Guide For Women and Communication

by: Emily Notetaker

Study Guide For Women and Communication COM 4030

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Emily Notetaker

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Women and Communication midterm study guide
Women and Communication
Amanda Kay Leblanc
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 4030 at University of South Florida taught by Amanda Kay Leblanc in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 166 views.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Study Guide for COM 4030 Gender and Communication: Why study it?  Biological sex o Sex: biological term used to categorize people as female, male or intersex  Genetic sex – chromosomal and hormonal characteristics  Anatomical sex – according to our physical genitals: ovaries, tests, etc. o Intersexuality  Describes people who possess mixtures of male and female genitalia and/or reproductive physiology  Approximately 1.7% of all people are intersexed o Gender  Social & cultural characteristics that are associated w/ male and female.  Gender identity  Gender scripts o Transgender  This community embraces the possibility of numerous genders and of multiple social identities  Often still understood within a gender dichotomy  Other cultureshave historically recognized more than 2 sexesand genders o Gender queer  Gender identity and sexual anatomy are not necessarily congruent Communicating gender  Communication is dynamic o Communication is a living thing  Communication is systematic o Context is key o Culture complicates everything!  Two ways of communication o Content-level  Sometimes called transmission model Message In Receiver Out Sender Medium (encodes) (decodes) Feedback o Relationship-level  Also known as the Construction Mode  Emphasizes the speakers’ identities  Communication Through Symbols o Humans rely heavily on symbols  But symbols don’t inherently have meaning; we assign meaning Explaining Gender Difference: Key Theories of Gender  Theory – what do I mean? o Explains, describes, and predicts relationship between/among phenomena o Helps us to make sense of a complicated world o We use theory to come up with explanations about the social world in which we live o Many theories are not mutually exclusive o Generalizations!  Biological theories: nature over nurture o Biological features explain gender difference. Especially:  Chromosomes  Hormones  Brain specialization o Sociobiology  To what extent is our social world affected by biology?  Survival of the fittest  Interpersonal theories: how are children nurtured? o These are organized around how relating explains gender difference o Psychodynamic (psychoanalytic)  Pre-cognitive  Primary caregiver is attributed to gender formation  Assumes fundamental differences in men and women as a result o Social learning theory  Passive response to external stimuli  We “absorb” a gender identity by mimicking behavior  Punishment or reward system (still about the NO!) o Cognitive development theory  Active search for self  We seek out “gender” role models  Cultural theories o Anthropological perspective  Documents situated constructions of gender  Where and when you live shapes your gendered self o Symbolic interactionism  Focus on the “interaction” part  Gender identity emerges from our interactions with each other and our particular culture  Critical o Criticizes the presumption that gender difference is a fact to be explained o Gender difference it a product of power relations o Standpoint theory  Our identities are a product of social location  In a society full of inequality, multiple realities stem from our social locations  Marginalized locations can yield unique insight o Queer performative theory (or Queer Theory)  A product of categorization  Gender difference is an illusion created by the binary alignment of sex/gender/sexuality  Dazzle & confuse with plurality and fluidity  Gender performance  We don’t have gender, we do gender  But (often) we are following society’s rules of performance  Drag helps in “seeing” this more clearly Political perspectives  Feminism o Belief in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes (movement is organized around this belief) o Feminism liberated women and men  First wave (1840-1925) cult of domesticity o Women are different than men  Pro-suffrage  Anti-suffrage o Women’s right movement  Women are the same as men  Women have a right to public and political representation o Women deserve equality under the law  Second wave (1960-1995ish) o Even more fragmented and complicated than the first wave o Liberal feminism  Rejecting the cult of domesticity in favor of equal rights and opportunities  Focus efforts on social change through the construction of legislation and regulation of employment practices  INCLUSION of women in the system o Radical feminism  The status quo operates with the male model as the name (ex: seeing the world and competitive and aggressive)  Sexism is the ultimate tool used by men to keep women oppressed  The important connection b/w STRUCTURE and OPPRESSION  Some braches of rad. Fem. o Separatist/lesbian separatist  Only women can put other women first  Woman-identified women who prioritize women’s interests o Revalorism  Focus on appreciating women’s artistic and creative achievements  Also prioritize women’s traditions knowledge or “ways of knowing” o Ecofeminism  Attend to a unique relationship b/w women and the natural world  Men and sexism oppress nature as they do women o Power feminism  Women need to stop seeing themselves as victims  Women should utilize the power and unique abilities they do have  Appeared at the end of “second wave” and the beginning of “third wave” o Womanist/multiracial/standpoint/feminism  Oppression is not only gendered  Womanism specifically came from black feminists who felt left out of “mainstream” feminisms  All challenge ideas about a “universal” woman  Men’s movements o Less politically active and publicly seen o Like feminism(s), there isn’t one agenda or goal  Some groups are in support of feminism, while others are against  Either way, most groups form in result to women’s movements  Pro-feminists movements o Men who believe women and men should be treated as equals  A liberal-kind of pro-feminism o Support women’s efforts to gain equality and fight sexism  Traitorous identity/behavior o Support men’s attention to their emotional development and growth  Men are oppressed by strict scripts and binaries too  Anti-violence groups o White ribbon campaign (WRC)  Largest anti-violence group committed to ending violence against women  All men are not violent, but some men channel their insecurity and anger as violence against women  Rhetorical strategies:  White ribbons  Not “male-bashers” o Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP)  Masculinity constructed around violence, aggression, control, and being dominant  Men must take personal responsibility to change  Masculinist (antifeminist) movements o Men’s rights activists  Men are discriminated against in certain spheres and masculinity needs to be (re)claimed  Traditional gender roles should be restored  Men as “head of household” but not meal tickets  Toughness, self-reliance, and invulnerability qualities to be valued as men  Free men  National coalition for men  Return of kings o Father’s rights  Believed that courts discriminate against fathers because of the belief that women are “primary parents” o Mythopoetic men  Men need to recover deep, mythic roots of masculine thinking  Need to restore spiritual, emotional, and intellectual wholeness  Father hunger


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