CMN 120 Exam #2 Study Guide
CMN 120 Exam #2 Study Guide CMN 120
Popular in Interpersonal Communication
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeffrey Nam on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMN 120 at University of California - Davis taught by Meng Chen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
Reviews for CMN 120 Exam #2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/21/16
Jeffrey Nam CMN 120 Notes Exam #2 Considering Self *The self is an evolving composite of selfawareness, selfconcept, and selfesteem. Selfawareness“To what extent I know about myself?” Reduce blind and unknown self (Johari Window) How to increase selfawareness (asking for other’s perception) Selfconcept“Who I am?” It consists of your feelings and thoughts about your strength and weaknesses, your abilities and limitations, and your aspiration and worldview. –What you put in your Johari Window *Sources of SelfConceptCultural teachings (gender, cultural, family expectations), Others’ images (How do others see me?), Your interpretations and evaluations (“lookingglass self”), Social comparisons (Where do I stand) Selfconcept and Hierarchical Structure *Levels being superficial, intermediate, and central Superficialwill change, not important, Intermediateimportant, but not like main concern, Centralvery important, defines me *Selfdiscrepancy theory postulates three basic domains of the self. Actual selfwho I really am in reality Ex. Halfmarathon Ought selfexpectations from people I care (friends, families, etc.) Ex. 1,000 meters Ideal selfmy own expectations in who I want to be in the future Ex. Full marathon Selfesteem=Ought selfActual self High if actual self meets/exceeds ought self or ideal self Selfesteem=Ideal selfActual self Low if actual self cannot meet ought self or ideal self Experiencing and Expressing Emotions *Five FeaturesEmotion happening after interpretation of event, Experience physiological reactions, Express emotions through verbal and nonverbal cues, Manage emotions in an acceptable way given a situation or a context, Label the experience as emotional by assigning an emotion to it Ex. Trip to the Wave *Primary emotions involve unique and consistent behavior displays across cultures. Six of them including happy, sad, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust Using some muscles to display all these emotions *Blended emotions involve feeling two or more primary emotions simultaneously. Ex. Emotional moments in Oscars and Grammys The emotions I observed here are disgust, anger, surprise, etc. *Emotional intelligencethe ability to interpret your own and others’ emotions accurately and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior Emotionally intelligent people understand their own emotions, possess empathy, constructively manage their own emotions, and harness their emotional states in positive ways. *Emotion management attempts to influence how you experience and express emotions. Use our brain to control our heart The two most common ways to manage triggered emotions: Suppression (behave rationally) and Venting (behave emotionally). CatharsisOpenly expressing your emotions enables you to get rid of them. While venting may provide a temporary pleasure, it actually boosts anger. Jeffrey Nam Emotion Prevention *Encounter avoidanceStaying away from people, places, or activities that you know will provoke emotions you don’t want to experience *Attention focusIntentionally devoting your attention only to aspects of an event or encounter that you know will not provoke an undesired emotion *DeactivationSystematically desensitizing yourself to emotional experience Involving thinking and doing Presenting the Self *Impression ManagementAn individual’s conscious attempt to control behaviors in order to make a desirable impression *Dramaturgy (Erving Goffman)“Life is a drama” metaphor Individuals play different roles as “actors” and engage in different “performance” based on six elements of the “theater”. Actor: the roles you play, Audiencethe characters to whom you play, Stagecontext of the drama, Scriptevent schemata, Performanceskill in performing, audience reactionsfeedback from those around us Styles and Strategies of SelfPresentation *Ingratiation: using strategies to appear likeable Complimenting on others choices, behaviors, tastes, etc. Opinion conformityagreeing to others opinions Rendering favorsoffering tangible or intangible favors *Selfpromotionusing strategies to appear competent Selfhandicappingmaking external attribution for my fitin (making excuses) Ex. Cannot study for exam because my relative passed away Sandbaggingintentionally admitting our weaknesses; internal attributions Ex. Saying I cannot pass exam, reducing people’s defensiveness and perception of you, and proving them wrong *IntimidationUsing strategies to appear dangerous and tough Disclosing the Self *Selfdisclosureoccurring when you purposefully provide information to others about yourself that they would not learn if you did not tell them *Two types of selfdisclosure Descriptive intimacyobjective information I reveal on myself Ex. Number of people in my house Evaluative intimacyInvolving subjective feeling; revealing your evaluation Ex. Relationship with family members *Social Penetration TheoryIt looks into the role of selfdisclosure in process of relationship development. –Ex. The onion model Types of relationships: Breadth (disclosure in a broad area but all in superficial level), Depth (disclosure in a specific area of an individual’s life), Intimacy (Both breadth and depth) *Four Observations About Relational DevelopmentPeripheral items are exchanged more frequently and sooner than private information. Penetration is rapid at the start, but slows down as it reaches the inner layers (becoming more cautious). Dyadic effect: selfdisclosure is Jeffrey Nam reciprocal. Depenetration is a gradual process of layerbylayer withdrawal (feeling hesitant with old friends you meet up again). Seeking Compliance *Compliancegaining is defined as any action designed to induce a target individual to perform some desired behavior that the target otherwise will not perform. One type of instrumental goal Ex. Asking someone to turn the music down *To achieve complianceThe agent must communicate/perform concern (communicating that a topic matters), control (exerting authority –Ex. Returning book on time or being fined), and scrutiny (following through on the behavior Ex. Mailing you a fee) *Message strategiesReward power (When one person trying to influence another person provides rewards, benefits, or praise for changing a behavior; tactics such as liking and promise represent compliance messages that tap into a sense of rewarding activity), Coercive power (When a person uses punishments to change another person’s behavior; being represented by threat), Referent power (referring to the ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the follower’s loyalty, respect, admiration, or a desire to gain approval; celebrities, mass leaders, and widelyrespected people being examples of this in effect), Expert power (an individual’s power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person –Ex. Doctors, lawyers), Legitimate power (the power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position, being a science of persuasion –Ex. A police officer, security guard, or parents) Defending the Self *AccountsA linguistic device used whenever an action is subjective to evaluative inquiry; Apologies, excuses, and justifications are different forms of accounts. What we say; all of it being verbal messages *When communicating an apology, an individual accepts responsibility for their behavior while asking to be pardoned. A full apology contains an expression of regret, guilt, or embarrassment/recognition of the inappropriate conduct/acknowledgement of the appropriate conduct and a promise to behave accordingly in the future. *An excuse is a statement used to deny or reduce one’s perceived level of responsibility. Plea of ignorance excuse: A person claims that they were not fully aware of the facts of the matter (claiming it is not your fault and blaming others). Mitigating circumstances: Factors that kept a person from behaving in a normal fashion Diffusion of responsibility: A person claims that responsibility should be shared by a number of other people (not being the only person to be blamed). Justifications: A person accepts responsibility for the behavior in question but denies that it was harmful or tries to claim that it actually had positive consequences. *Attribution Theory: Assessments of the cause of an action or behavior of other people Ex. Good and bad reasons for missing school Controllable/UncontrollableParty last night and drank too much/grandma passed away Stable/UnstableBeing a lazy person/storm blocking my way out Intentional/UnintentionalNot liking school/forgetting about school Jeffrey Nam Good excuses being uncontrollable, unstable, and unintentional Bad excuses being the opposite of all these things Relationship Development *Dialectical tensionsconflict that arises when two opposing forces exist simultaneously AutonomyConnectionDialectic reflects the tension between wanting to be independent versus wanting to be connected. –External manifestation: inclusion/seclusion NoveltyPredictabilityDialectic concerns the tension between predictability and routine in a relationship versus desiring novelty and newness. –External manifestation: stability/change Ex. Teaching a course being new at first and exciting, and eventually being boring later, adding new things though to try and maintain the excitement OpennessClosednessDialectic reflects the tension between wanting to engage in open communication versus desiring privacy. **Screenshot of stage model and Anderson’s Cognitive Valence Theory Stages in Coming Together *Initiating: initial contact Carefully observe each other for cues regarding personality, attitudes, and attraction. Try to create favorable impressions. Very first sight between each other; can be important at places like a bar *Experimenting: Small talks about a variety of subjects to discover whether the relationship is worth pursuing Ex. “What do you do for a living?” Engage in small talk, usually relaxed, uncritical, and noncommittal Helps people reduce uncertainty about each other by uncovering topics for further communication *Intensifying: An increase in the breadth and depth of selfdisclosure More frequent use of “we” and “our”; direct expressions of commitment; satisfaction and excitement being high *Integrating: Parties begin to take on an identity as a social unit (to others). Social circles merge and invitations come addressed to both people together. Partners develop rituals, and shared property. –Ex. “our car” “our department” Partners begin to “sound” alike, using common phrases and speaking patterns. *Bonding: Relationship is defined by the performance of a public ritual that announces a formally contracted commitment and legitimizes the relationship. Ex. A wedding, a business partnership, blood brothers *Communication and other actions that partners use to sustain a personal relationship at a standard and desirable level of functioning and satisfaction Four horsemen of the Apocalypse stating four things people should avoid, which include criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling Stages in Coming Apart *Differentiating: Relationship partners attempt to regain their privacy and unique identities (can occur frequently). Still trying to use strategies to maintain the relationship *Circumscribing: constriction of the breadth and depth of selfdisclosure Jeffrey Nam Partners withdrawal rather than argue (mentally or physically). Doesn’t involve total avoidance but it does entail shrinking interest and communication *Stagnating: Relationship partners close themselves off from each other. Communication is infrequent. –May have businesslike interactions *Avoiding: Eventually, partners physically distance themselves from each other. Avoiding can be done through excuses and/or directly. –Moving to another place *Terminating: Summary dialogues that the relationship ends. Announce the upcoming separation Dialogue can be internal and/or external (putting it on facebook).
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'