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CMN 120 Exam #2 Study Guide

by: Jeffrey Nam

CMN 120 Exam #2 Study Guide CMN 120

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > CMN 120 > CMN 120 Exam 2 Study Guide
Jeffrey Nam

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These notes cover what is going to be on the next exam.
Interpersonal Communication
Meng Chen
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeffrey Nam on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMN 120 at University of California - Davis taught by Meng Chen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
Jeffrey Nam CMN 120 Notes Exam #2 Considering Self *The self is an evolving composite of self­awareness, self­concept, and self­esteem. ­Self­awareness­“To what extent I know about myself?”   ­Reduce blind and unknown self  (Johari Window)   ­How to increase self­awareness (asking for other’s perception) ­Self­concept­“Who I am?”   ­It consists of your feelings and thoughts about your strength and  weaknesses, your abilities and limitations, and your aspiration and worldview.   –What you put  in your Johari Window *Sources of Self­Concept­Cultural teachings (gender, cultural, family expectations), Others’  images (How do others see me?), Your interpretations and evaluations (“looking­glass self”),  Social comparisons (Where do I stand) Self­concept and Hierarchical Structure *Levels being superficial, intermediate, and central ­Superficial­will change, not important, Intermediate­important, but not like main concern,  Central­very important, defines me *Self­discrepancy theory postulates three basic domains of the self. ­Actual self­who I really am in reality   ­Ex. Half­marathon ­Ought self­expectations from people I care (friends, families, etc.)  ­Ex. 1,000 meters ­Ideal self­my own expectations in who I want to be in the future  ­Ex. Full marathon ­Self­esteem=Ought self­Actual self   ­High if actual self meets/exceeds ought self or ideal self ­Self­esteem=Ideal self­Actual self   ­Low if actual self cannot meet ought self or ideal self Experiencing and Expressing Emotions *Five Features­Emotion happening after interpretation of event, Experience physiological  reactions, Express emotions through verbal and nonverbal cues, Manage emotions in an  acceptable way given a situation or a context, Label the experience as emotional by assigning an  emotion to it   ­Ex. Trip to the Wave *Primary emotions involve unique and consistent behavior displays across cultures. ­Six of them including happy, sad, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust ­Using some muscles to display all these emotions *Blended emotions involve feeling two or more primary emotions simultaneously. ­Ex. Emotional moments in Oscars and Grammys   ­The emotions I observed here are disgust,  anger, surprise, etc. *Emotional intelligence­the ability to interpret your own and others’ emotions accurately and to  use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior  ­Emotionally intelligent people understand their own emotions, possess empathy, constructively  manage their own emotions, and harness their emotional states in positive ways. *Emotion management attempts to influence how you experience and express emotions. ­Use our brain to control our heart ­The two most common ways to manage triggered emotions: Suppression (behave rationally) and Venting (behave emotionally). ­Catharsis­Openly expressing your emotions enables you to get rid of them. ­While venting may provide a temporary pleasure, it actually boosts anger. Jeffrey Nam Emotion Prevention *Encounter avoidance­Staying away from people, places, or activities that you know will  provoke emotions you don’t want to experience *Attention focus­Intentionally devoting your attention only to aspects of an event or encounter  that you know will not provoke an undesired emotion *Deactivation­Systematically desensitizing yourself to emotional experience ­Involving thinking and doing Presenting the Self *Impression Management­An individual’s conscious attempt to control behaviors in order to  make a desirable impression *Dramaturgy (Erving Goffman)­“Life is a drama” metaphor ­Individuals play different roles as “actors” and engage in different “performance” based on six  elements of the “theater”. ­Actor: the roles you play, Audience­the characters to whom you play, Stage­context of the  drama, Script­event schemata, Performance­skill in performing, audience reactions­feedback  from those around us Styles and Strategies of Self­Presentation *Ingratiation: using strategies to appear likeable ­Complimenting on others choices, behaviors, tastes, etc. ­Opinion conformity­agreeing to others opinions ­Rendering favors­offering tangible or intangible favors *Self­promotion­using strategies to appear competent ­Self­handicapping­making external attribution for my fit­in (making excuses)  ­Ex. Cannot  study for exam because my relative passed away ­Sandbagging­intentionally admitting our weaknesses; internal attributions   ­Ex. Saying I cannot pass exam, reducing people’s defensiveness and perception of you, and proving them wrong *Intimidation­Using strategies to appear dangerous and tough Disclosing the Self *Self­disclosure­occurring when you purposefully provide information to others about yourself  that they would not learn if you did not tell them *Two types of self­disclosure ­Descriptive intimacy­objective information I reveal on myself ­Ex. Number of people in my house ­Evaluative intimacy­Involving subjective feeling; revealing your evaluation ­Ex. Relationship with family members *Social Penetration Theory­It looks into the role of self­disclosure in process of relationship  development.    –Ex. The onion model ­Types of relationships: Breadth (disclosure in a broad area but all in superficial level), Depth  (disclosure in a specific area of an individual’s life), Intimacy (Both breadth and depth) *Four Observations About Relational Development­Peripheral items are exchanged more  frequently and sooner than private information.  Penetration is rapid at the start, but slows down  as it reaches the inner layers (becoming more cautious).  Dyadic effect: self­disclosure is  Jeffrey Nam reciprocal.  Depenetration is a gradual process of layer­by­layer withdrawal (feeling hesitant  with old friends you meet up again). Seeking Compliance *Compliance­gaining is defined as any action designed to induce a target individual to perform  some desired behavior that the target otherwise will not perform. ­One type of instrumental goal ­Ex. Asking someone to turn the music down *To achieve compliance­The agent must communicate/perform concern (communicating that a  topic matters), control (exerting authority –Ex. Returning book on time or being fined), and  scrutiny (following through on the behavior  ­Ex. Mailing you a fee) *Message strategies­Reward power (When one person trying to influence another person  provides rewards, benefits, or praise for changing a behavior; tactics such as liking and promise  represent compliance messages that tap into a sense of rewarding activity), Coercive power  (When a person uses punishments to change another person’s behavior; being represented by  threat), Referent power (referring to the ability of a leader to influence a follower because of the  follower’s loyalty, respect, admiration, or a desire to gain approval; celebrities, mass leaders, and widely­respected people being examples of this in effect), Expert power (an individual’s power  deriving from the skills or expertise of the person –Ex. Doctors, lawyers), Legitimate power (the  power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position,  being a science of persuasion –Ex. A police officer, security guard, or parents) Defending the Self *Accounts­A linguistic device used whenever an action is subjective to evaluative inquiry;  Apologies, excuses, and justifications are different forms of accounts. ­What we say; all of it being verbal messages *When communicating an apology, an individual accepts responsibility for their behavior while  asking to be pardoned. ­A full apology contains an expression of regret, guilt, or embarrassment/recognition of the  inappropriate conduct/acknowledgement of the appropriate conduct and a promise to behave  accordingly in the future. *An excuse is a statement used to deny or reduce one’s perceived level of responsibility. ­Plea of ignorance excuse: A person claims that they were not fully aware of the facts of the  matter (claiming it is not your fault and blaming others).   ­Mitigating circumstances: Factors that kept a person from behaving in a normal fashion ­Diffusion of responsibility: A person claims that responsibility should be shared by a number of  other people (not being the only person to be blamed). ­Justifications: A person accepts responsibility for the behavior in question but denies that it was  harmful or tries to claim that it actually had positive consequences. *Attribution Theory: Assessments of the cause of an action or behavior of other people ­Ex. Good and bad reasons for missing school     ­Controllable/Uncontrollable­Party last night and drank too much/grandma passed away ­Stable/Unstable­Being a lazy person/storm blocking my way out ­Intentional/Unintentional­Not liking school/forgetting about school Jeffrey Nam ­Good excuses being uncontrollable, unstable, and unintentional ­Bad excuses being the opposite of all these things Relationship Development *Dialectical tensions­conflict that arises when two opposing forces exist simultaneously ­Autonomy­­­Connection­Dialectic reflects the tension between wanting to be independent  versus wanting to be connected.     –External manifestation: inclusion/seclusion ­Novelty­­­Predictability­Dialectic concerns the tension between predictability and routine in a  relationship versus desiring novelty and newness.    –External manifestation: stability/change ­Ex. Teaching a course being new at first and exciting, and eventually being boring later, adding  new things though to try and maintain the excitement ­Openness­­­Closedness­Dialectic reflects the tension between wanting to engage in open  communication versus desiring privacy. **Screenshot of stage model and Anderson’s Cognitive Valence Theory Stages in Coming Together *Initiating: initial contact ­Carefully observe each other for cues regarding personality, attitudes, and attraction.  Try to  create favorable impressions. ­Very first sight between each other; can be important at places like a bar *Experimenting: Small talks about a variety of subjects to discover whether the relationship is  worth pursuing ­Ex. “What do you do for a living?” ­Engage in small talk, usually relaxed, uncritical, and noncommittal ­Helps people reduce uncertainty about each other by uncovering topics for further  communication *Intensifying: An increase in the breadth and depth of self­disclosure ­More frequent use of “we” and “our”; direct expressions of commitment; satisfaction and  excitement being high *Integrating: Parties begin to take on an identity as a social unit (to others). ­Social circles merge and invitations come addressed to both people together. ­Partners develop rituals, and shared property.   –Ex. “our car” “our department” ­Partners begin to “sound” alike, using common phrases and speaking patterns. *Bonding: Relationship is defined by the performance of a public ritual that announces a  formally contracted commitment and legitimizes the relationship. ­Ex. A wedding, a business partnership, blood brothers *Communication and other actions that partners use to sustain a personal relationship at a  standard and desirable level of functioning and satisfaction ­Four horsemen of the Apocalypse stating four things people should avoid, which include  criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling Stages in Coming Apart *Differentiating: Relationship partners attempt to regain their privacy and unique identities (can  occur frequently). ­Still trying to use strategies to maintain the relationship *Circumscribing: constriction of the breadth and depth of self­disclosure Jeffrey Nam ­Partners withdrawal rather than argue (mentally or physically). ­Doesn’t involve total avoidance but it does entail shrinking interest and communication *Stagnating: Relationship partners close themselves off from each other. ­Communication is infrequent.   –May have business­like interactions *Avoiding: Eventually, partners physically distance themselves from each other. ­Avoiding can be done through excuses and/or directly.  –Moving to another place *Terminating: Summary dialogues that the relationship ends. ­Announce the upcoming separation ­Dialogue can be internal and/or external (putting it on facebook).


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