Exam 1 GRNT 2124-001
Popular in Psychology of Adult Development and Aging
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisa Abate on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GRNT 2124-001 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Maria-Carl Chiarella in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adult Development and Aging in Public Health at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
CHAPTER 5 Basic Concepts Gerontology- Study go aging from maturity thru old age Study the following Aspects: -social -psych -bio Psych of Aging - examines age- related changes, both normal and pathological “normal”- free from disease, natural aging “pathological”-Alzheimers, Parkinson’s, heart disease, etc -Aging occurs across the lifespan- WE START AGING THE DAY WE ARE BORN -Aging reveals dramatic individual differences-WE DONT ALLAGE AT THE SAME RATE -Primary aging-The “normal” aging (don’t know the when) -secondary aging- “impaired aging” caused by disease (physical or mental) Environmental inﬂuence -previous research:disengagement theory-1961-let go, elders go thru serious of losses in rolls and relationships. -Current Research:Optimal Aging- 80’s- we are suppose to make the most of our adaptations and transitions. NOT LOSSES. Maintaining a high quality of life. Social Roles social roles: expected behaviors and attitudes that come with ones position in society behavior- how we act attitudes= feeling, thoughts, and perceptions social timing: refers to the roles we occupy, how long we occupy them, and order in which we occupy them Ex. Role-College student How long- 4 years Order- High School—College—Work Social Roles during Early Adulthood WHY MARRY? -Institutional: helps spouses to fulﬁll basic physiological and safety needs -Ex.Sugar Mama, Gold digger, sounds like a business deal -Companionate: Through gender role specialization, spouses fulﬁll needs such as love and belonging Ex. sentimental, romantic, man’s working and providing, lady’s nurturing and taking care of the household, division caused by industrialization -Self- expressive:Inﬂuenced by equality movements, spouses fulﬁll esteem and self- actualization needs Ex. newest type of reasons, equalizes roles in relationships, grow individually and together, marrying your best friend -Circumstantial Successful Marriages: The most consistent difference between happy and unhappy couples is simply the pattern of positive and negative exchanges Positive Exchanges -Enhancing love maps: ones mental image/ -things you know about them schema of ones spouse -Keep adding to the info you already know -Nurturing fondness and admiration: - can i come up with them? Identifying cherished qualities of ones partner -Turning towards each other: connecting with -where/how do we connecting? ones spouse -Connecting over minor incidents -bids for attention -accepting inﬂuences: sharing power -decision making -letting everyone have a say -can we hear each other out? Solving Solvable Problems: preventing -small day-to-day stuff negativity from escalating during conﬂict -de-escalae resolution -repair attempts Overcoming gridlock: exploring the underlying -psychological issues contributing to conﬂict -whats REALLY going on Creating shared meaning: creating an inner -spiritual dimension life together -rituals or behavior Negative Exchanges - -Criticism: stating ones complaint as a defect see it as a ﬂaw or defect in ones partner’s personality - “you are messed up” - namecalling -Contempt: Commenting as if from a position -put-downs of superiority **The greatest sign of Divorce** -“Im better than you” -Defensiveness:Self protection(righteous -“ How daring you think i’d…” indignation or innocent victimhood) -youre appalled -“poor me” -“I didn't mean to do that” -Stonewalling: emotional withdrawl from -WHATEVER interaction -indifferent, minimally reacting to a person -shutting down Good Marriage Bad Marriage Validating: Mutual respect- Hostile/Negative: Show high -From both Parties, about the listening and supporting Each levels of anger towards each wife expressing other other disappointment and negative emotions Volatile: passionate- sitcom, Emotionally unexpressive: -no negative or positive disagreeing alot, but make up; Show extreme lack of emotion, blank-walling, no Humor and sense of affection emotion humor, no facial expressions, numb Avoidant: agree to disagree- **Negative patterns can be inﬂuencing one another- conﬂict minimizers, peaceful changed in therapy*** learning to make decisions together Becoming a parent -Most couples report that they were the HAPPIEST when they were newlyweds BEFORE their ﬁrst child was born -Becoming parents is accompanied by a decrease in marital happiness and satisfaction -mainly females -Pressure of being a mother -Previous Research: Curvilinear relationship between marital satisfaction and family stage -Current Research- Marital Satisfaction -Mothers= Greater decline in satisfaction -Non- Mothers= No Difference in Satisfaction -Fathers= No Difference in Satisfaction -Non-Fathers= No Difference in Satisfaction **What helps mothers with satisfaction** -Marital friendship: fondness and admiration -Husband shows his wife -Marital Friendship and -Awareness of relationship -Wife shows Husband -Awareness of Relationship Social Roles in Middle Adulthood -The Role Strain Theory: Competing demands and expectations of important roles; multiple roles can exacerbate stress -Generational squeeze: Between the older and younger generation demands -Role enhancement theory: Multiple roles are beneﬁcial because some roles serve as buffers against the stress from other roles -The empty nest: last child leaves the home **Post Honeymoon launch** -Mom’s Depressed Midlife Crisis - Men more affected -used clinical samples (someone already in counseling) -There is no solid evidence for a midlife crisis -Age discrimination after 50…. “over qualiﬁed” -divorce in midelife is tougher -people who report it have experience past crises ( crisis prone or people with personality issues) Positives: - you have a higher position at work, more money - leadership in family - better decision making abilities - more self conﬁdent Social Roles in Late Adulthood Grandparents Age: Curvilinear pattern of closeness -when the children are young,they spend a lot of time with them -dips down during teen years -rises back up as they get older Gender: Grandmothers are closer to grandchildren than grandfathers -more social interaction with Grandmother and granddaughters -more instrumental interaction with grandfather and grandsons (hands on help) -practical Ethnicity: African American, Latino, and Asian American grandparents have higher status within the family and carry more authority than european American grandparents -family leadership -family decisions -interpersonal as opposed to independence Types of grandparents -Companionate: feel close, no parental role spoil-y fun grandparents -Apportioned: involved in lives and development; do NOT indulge -not taken over parenting role, have boundaries with you -no spoiling -formal -Remote: less involved; due to geographic distance -Involved: Close geographically, often assume parent-like responsibilities, usually in response to a family crisis -disruption in the family -Individualized: doesn't contribute much to the lives of children even though they are emotionally closer than remote grandparent -Authoritative: Involves extensive support; almost the the point of assuming parental responsibilities; most common in african american homes Transition into simpliﬁed forms of former roles Widowhood: -the state of having lost ones spouse to death -common or time limited disruptions -loneliness -symptoms of depression -health problems -chronic disruption -lasting several years -absence of disruptions -powers onward Social support: -adult children: daughters -friends; ability to make new friendships CHAPTER 6 Intimate Partnerships in Adulthood Same-sex Couples -committed relationships -remarkably similar to heterosexual couples -similar in areas of psych adjustment and personality traits -Different in areas of relationship style, conﬂict resolution, and social support Parenting: -No signiﬁcant differences -Research compares children…all children show good psych -Longitudinal study comparing young adult children of lesbian and heterosexual mothers -Variables Studied -depression and anxiety -seeking professional help -peer hostility -sexual attraction -sexual identity NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE KIDS Life long singles -single: someone who is not married -subgroups -divorced -widowed -legally separated -lifelong single-I do not want to be in a relationship -numbers- double what it use to- now 40% -we are spending more of our lives single -men get remarried faster -implication of deﬁnition -not committing -deﬁned by what you're not -Among older single adults, lifelong singles report the most satisfaction with being single and have the best health -Well-being single men and women -No difference -Happiness Singles vs. Married couples -No difference -who had more sources of happiness, singles -Health Married couples vs. Single subgroups -married couple tend to edge out when it comes to health -of the subgroups, the lifelong singles are healthier -Social Networks size- Size doesn't differ. intentional communities- people you choose and maintain, keep up Singlism: Anti-singles sentiment; stigmatized group (married men and single women were the most harsh) interpersonal rejection -3rd wheel invisibility -ignoring single people economic disadvantage -taxes -insurance -employment beneﬁts discrimination -stereotypes Atypical Social Roles Childlessness voluntary (choosing) vs. Involuntary (infertility issues) Childless or child free? Couples tend to have less traditional view of sex roles and marriage, are better educated, are more likely to live in urban areas, and be non-religious Among older adults With and without child: -Happiness: No difference, FRIENDS make the difference -life satisfaction -loneliness -self-esteem (Men took it harder!! Women maintain relationships better) Relationships with other Family members and friends Parent-child relationships in adulthood -intergenerational solidarity theory: originally proposed that modernization would create family distance and isolation *****This part of the theory was rejected because technology has actually helped i avoiding family isolation and maintaining family solidarity -Associational solidarity: shared activities - affectional solidarity: positive, verbal and nonverbal expressions -consensual solidarity: degree of agreement on values, attitudes, and beliefs -functional solidarity: exchange of assistance -Normative solidarity: Family tradiations -intergenerational family structure: Number, type, and geographic proximity From Text: Eighth Edition Cohabitation & Marriage (pp. 182-183) AND The Effects of Late- Life Divorce; Problem Children inAdulthood (pp. 189-191) AND Relationships with Brothers and Sisters; Friendships inAdulthood (pp. 195-197) Seventh Edition Cohabitation & Marriage (pp. 181-183) AND The Effects of Late-Life Divorce; Problem Children inAdulthood (pp. 188-190) AND Relationships with Brothers and Sisters; Friendships inAdulthood (pp. 194-197)
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