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Exam One Study Guide

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by: jsmith22

Exam One Study Guide 20100-02

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psychlogy > 20100-02 > Exam One Study Guide

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About this Document

This should cover most everything for exam one.
Proseminar in Development
Brandy Bessette-Symons
Study Guide
Psychology, development
50 ?




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"These were really helpful...I'll be checking back regularly for these"
Cora Cummerata

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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by jsmith22 on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20100-02 at Ithaca College taught by Brandy Bessette-Symons in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Proseminar in Development in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Exam 1 Study Guide    ● What is Lifespan Development?  ○ Starts at Birth and ends at death  ○ Examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior throughout human  lifespan  ● Periods of Development  ○ 8 Periods from Prenatal to Late Adulthood  ■ Prenatal­ Begins at conception, ends at birth  ■ Infancy­ Begins at birth, ends at 3 yrs; can be marked by speech  development  ■ Early Childhood­ Begins at 3 yrs, ends at 6 yrs; can end with start of  formal education  ■ Middle Childhood­ Begins at 6 yrs, ends at puberty  ■ Adolescence­ Begins with Puberty, ends at 20 yrs; Ends with newfound  independence and legal responsibility   ■ Early Adulthood­ Begins at 20 yrs, ends at 40 yrs  ■ Middle Adulthood­ Begins at 40 yrs, ends at 60 yrs  ■ Late Adulthood­ Begins at 60 yrs, ends at death  ○ Periods based on social constructions and norms  ● Influences on Development  ○ Age­graded universal changes­ changes that are common at a certain age, Ex.  Speech, potty training   ○ History­graded changes­ Influences the cohort or generation that experiences a  certain event, EX. 9/11 or Great Depression  ○ Sociocultural­graded changes­ social and cultural factors present for specific  individuals, Ex. ethnicity, social class, race  ○ Non­ Normative changes­ Events that occur at an atypical time to the norm for a  specific person, Ex. Potty training at 7 yrs  ● Developmental Theories  ○ Perspectives­ emphasizes different aspects of development  ○ Theories­ Broadly organized explanations and predictions concerning interest  ■ Framework based on hypothesis  ○ Psychodynamic  ■ Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud)­ Internal drives and emotions influence  personality and development  ● Superego­ What is right and wrong based on societal values and  norms, reality principle  ● Ego­ Balance between pleasure and reality principle  ● Id­ Make decisions based on the pleasure principle  ■ Psychosexual Stages (Freud)­ At each stage the libido centers on a  different part of the body  ● Stage 1­ Oral (Birth to 1 yrs) Weaning; Oral gratification from  sucking, eating, and biting   ● Stage 2­ Anal (1yrs to 2 yrs) Toilet training  ● Stage 3­ Phallic (2yrs to 5 or 6 yrs) Oedipal conflict, sexual  curiosity, Masturbation  ● Stage 4­ Latency (5 or 6 yrs to puberty)Sexual calm, interests in  school and other hobbies  ● Stage 5­ Genital (puberty on) revival of sexual interests  ■ Pros  ● Unconscious influences are undeniable   ■ Cons  ● Link between childhood stages and adulthood not proven  ● Very inconsistent  ■ Psychosocial Theory (Erikson)­ focuses on social rather than sexual  interactions   ● Stage 1­Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1 yrs)­ Children develop a  sense of trust or distrust based on level of care and affection and  its reliability   ● Stage 2­ Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1­3 yrs)­  Successfulness of development of physical skills and  independence lead either to autonomy or shame  ● Stage 3­ Initiative vs. Guilt (3­6 years)­ Children begin asserting  control over the environment, success leads to initiative,  disapproval and failure leads to guilt  ● Stage 4­ Industry vs. Inferiority (6­12 yrs)­ Children cope with new  social and academic demands, success leads to sense of  competence and failure leads to inferiority  ● Stage 5­ Identity vs. Confusion (12­19 yrs)­ Developing sense of  self, success leads to strong sense of identity, failure leads to role  confusion and weak sense of self  ● Stage 6­ Intimacy vs. Isolation (20­ 25 yrs)­ Forming intimate,  loving relationships with others, success leads to strong  relationships and sense of intimacy, failure results in isolation  ● Stage 7­ Generativity vs. Stagnation (26­64 yrs)­ Adults need to  create things that will outlast them, success brings feelings of  usefulness and accomplishment, failure results in feelings of  stagnation   ● Stage 8­ Integrity vs. Despair (65­ DEATH)­ Looking back on life  and feeling a sense of fulfillment, success leads to feelings of  wisdom and integrity, and failure leads to bitterness and despair  ■ Pros  ● Theory is life spanning  ■ Cons  ● Must question external validity  ● Male biased   ● No testability  ○ Behavioral Perspective  ■ Operant Conditioning (Skinner)­ Shaping of voluntary behavior through  trial and error  ● Positive reinforcement­Adding a positive object to the environment  to Increases behaviors, Ex. Allowances  ● Negative Reinforcement­ Taking something negative away to  Increase behaviors, Ex. Excused from chores   ● Positive punishment­ Adding something negative to the  environment to decrease a behavior, Ex. Fines  ● Negative punishment­ taking a positive out of the environment to  decrease behavior, Ex. getting grounded  ■ Social­Cognitive Learning Theory­ Vicarious reinforcement through  modeling behavior, through observation you can have behavior  modification   ○ Cognitive Perspective  ■ Piaget  ■ Evolution of Logical Thinking­ growth of processes involved in knowing,  understanding, and thinking  ● 1) Sensorimotor Stage,2)  Preoperational Stage,3)  Concrete  Operational,4)  Formal Operational Stage  ○ can progress through different stages at different times  ● Scheme­ you organize things for your understanding  ● Assimilation­ Add info into way of thinking  ● Accommodation­ change the way you think due to new info  ■ The Information Processing System­ Information is processed in stages   ● Sensory information is taken into sensory memory for a brief  period  ● Information selected for additional processing is taken into  short­term memory  ● Info to be stored “permanently” is sent to long­term memory  ● Info needed to comprehend new info is taken from long­term  memory back to short­term, as well as techniques for processing  new info  ■ Cognitive Neuroscience­ volume of parts of the brain physically change  due to development or disease   ○ Humanistic Perspective  ■ Uniquely Human Qualities  ● Free Will­ natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and  control their behaviors  ■ Carl Rogers  ● Positive Regard­ to be loved and respected, have high self­worth  ■ Maslow  ● Self­actualization­ achieve one’s greatest potential  ○ Contextual Perspective  ■ Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Approach   ● Micro­ immediate everyday environment; Friends, teachers,  parents  ● Meso­ interactions between various aspects of microsystem  ● Exo­ Societal Institutions   ● Macro­ Culture and society  ● Chrono­Time  ■ Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory­ focus on social interaction, cognitive  development, and reciprocal transaction   ● Problem solving, culture, and meaning  ○ Evolutionary Perspective  ■ Darwin's Natural Selection  ● Ethology­ how biology influences behavior  ● Behavioral Genetics­ genetics promote survival during natural  selection  ● Debates in Developmental Psychology  ○ Types of change  ■ Continuous­ Quantitative change in amount or degree  ■ Discontinuous­ Qualitative change in kind, gaining or losing in ability  ○ Timing  ■ Critical Period­ Only has and effect during a specific point in development  ■ Sensitive Period­ Can always have an effect, can have more of an effect  at specific points  ○ Nature Vs. Nurture  ■ Nature  ● Inborn Propensities­ innate tendencies   ● Influences and biases  ● Maturation­ predetermined unfolding of genetic info  ■ Nurture  ● Physical and social environment  ● Interaction between genetics and environment  ● General Designs for Research  ○ Correlational  ■ Pearson’s r  ■ Cause and Effect CANNOT be determined  ○ Experimental  ■ CAN determine Cause and Effect  ■ Control every variable except the desired   ○ Cross­sectional­ measure age related differences by taking multiple samples one  time  ○ Longitudinal­ measure individual age­related change by taking the same sample  multiple times over long periods  ○ Sequential­ two or more groups measured at several points  ○ Research Settings  ■ Field Studies  ● Natural behaviors in real­life settings  ● Correlational and experimental  ● Lack of control over situation and environment  ■ Laboratory  ● Control’s confounds  ● Clearer info about relationship  ● Psychophysiological Methods  ○ Structural­ measures volume of different brain structures  ■ CAT  ■ MRI  ○ Functional­ measures activation of different brain structures  ■ EEG  ■ fMRI  ● Conception and Genetics  ○ DNA­ influence development pattern  ○ Gametes­ ovum and sperm, single unpaired chromosomes  ○ Meiosis­ sexual mixing that leads to increased genetic diversity  ○ Zygote­ ovum and sperm mixed together  ○ Mitosis­ single cell replication  ○ Sex Chromosomes­ determine biological sex  ■ Males (X, Y)  ■ Females (X, X)  ○ Multiple births  ■ Identical twins­ Monozygotic, splits to create two identical fetuses  ■ Fraternal­ dizygotic, releases 2 fertilized eggs  ■ higher chance of premature delivery and birth complications  ○ Phenotypes­ trait that is displayed, only one trait can be displayed  ○ Genotype­ genetic material from parents  ○ Dominant­recessive pattern­ one allele in dominant over the other allele  ■ Homozygous: same alleles  ■ Heterozygous: different alleles  ■ Must have recessive genes from both parents to show recessive  phenotype   ○ Autosomal Recessive Disorders­ disease that is only present if carried and  passed on to offspring by both parents  ■ Sickle­cell disease  ■ Cystic Fibrosis  ■ Albinism  ○ Sex­linked Disorders­ caused by recessive gene on X chromosomes, associated  with 23rd pair of chromosomes or sex chromosomes  ■ Fragile X­ deformed X chromosomes mutates  ■ Males have only one X chromosome  ○ Autosomal Dominant disorders­ Non carriers, if you get the gene you are afflicted  ■ Far greater probability of afflicted children   ■ Huntington’s disease  ■ Schizophrenia   ○ Chromosomal Errors  ■ Trisomies  ● Down Syndrome­ extra copy of 21st chromosome, increased  dementia, shorter lifespan  ● XXY: Klinefelter’s Syndrome­ extra X chromosome,  underdeveloped testes, extreme height language and learning  problems  ● XYY­ taller than average, large teeth, developmentally normal  ● XXX­ Develop slowly, poor verbal skills, low intelligence  ■ Monosomies  ● XO: Turner’s syndrome­ Female only has one X, Infertile, No  puberty, stunted growth, poor skills  ○ Genetic Code  ■ Humans share 99.9% of DNA with other humans  ■ Genetic counseling allows warning of genetic disorders before symptoms  appear  ○ Fetal Assessment and Treatment  ■ Blood test­ chromosomal abnormalities   ■ Ultrasound­ heart problems  ■ Amniocentesis­ 100% accurate for certain genetic conditions  ● Fertilization and Prenatal Development  ○ Sperm­ 100 million produced daily, 300 million used per ejaculation  ○ Ovum­ 400,000 produced at birth, do not mature until puberty, ovulate every 28  days  ○ Blastocyst­ first stage of development after conception  ○ Stages of Prenatal Development  ■ Germinal Stage (0­2 weeks)  ● Blastocyst  ● Cell specialization­ needed to support development; Ex. Placenta,  umbilical cord, amnion  ■ Embryonic Stage (2­8 Weeks)  ● Ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm begin to differentiate  ● Organogenesis­Forms foundations of all body organs and systems  ○ Neural tube develops  ○ Nervous systems begins to develop  ■ Fetal Stage  ● Major growth (by far)  ● Organ refinement  ● Physical Sexual Development  ○ Androgen causes testes  ○ No Androgen causes ovaries  ● Viable at 24 weeks; full term is 37  ■ Problems  ● Infertility­ 15% of people, caused by:  ○ Age­ gametes become less viable  ○ hormone imbalance  ○ damage to sexual organs  ○ Stress  ○ STDs  ○ Too few Sperms   ○ Drugs  ○ tobacco  ● Miscarriage­ baby dies before end of pregnancy  ○ First Trimester  ○ 15­20%  ● Abortion­ choose to terminate pregnancy  ● Teratogens­ chemicals that cause damage to child during prenatal  development  ○ Duration and intensity of exposure are important  ○ Greatest damage during most rapid development  ○ First 8 weeks most dangerous time  ● Birth Defects  ○ Microcephaly­ greatly underdeveloped brain  ○ Anencephaly­ Do not develop top portion of brain  ○ Spina Bifida­ spinal cord bubbles off and does not form  correctly  ■ 90% co­occurrence with hydrocephalus  ○ Congenital Heart defects are most common defects  ● Parental Influence  ○ Mother  ■ Diet  ■ Age  ■ Prenatal Support, Ex. vitamins  ■ Health  ■ Drug use  ■ Alcohol use  ■ Tobacco use  ○ Father  ■ Tobacco use (second hand)  ■ Drug Use (treatment of mother)  ■ Alcohol use (treatment of mother)  ● Problems during labor and Delivery  ○ Preterm  ■ Delayed Tempo of Development  ■ Jerky irregular movement  ■ subtle long­term development  ■ Behavior disorders  ■ Small size  ■ Lower IQ  ○ Low­ Birth Weight  ■ Most vulnerable  ■ Immaturity of Organs  ■ Hugely Expensive  ○ Post­Mature­ more than 40 weeks  ■ Blood supply from placenta cut off  ■ can lead to Brain damage  ■ labor difficulties for the mother  ○ Position  ■ Breech­ feet First  ■ Transverse­ Sideways  ■ Cesarean Delivery­ open bottom of abdomen to  remove child, 500% increase since 70s  ○ Infant Mortality 7:1000­ dies in first year of life  ■ Stillbirth­ 1:100  ■ Fertility Methods  ● Artificial Insemination­ artificially insert sperm into vagina  ● In Vitro Fertilization­ fertilize egg then put into uterus   ○ GIFT­ put sperm and egg into fallopian tube  ○ ZIFT­ In vitro +GIFT  ● Surrogate Mother­ carries a child full term for someone else  ● Infancy  ○ Physical Growth in Infancy  ■ First year is marked by substantial growth  ■ Growth is most rapid in first year  ■ Begins to decrease immediately after infancy  ○ Sleep  ■ Newborns­ 16­17 hours per day in 2 hour bursts  ■ 16 weeks­ 6 hours and regular naps  ■ 1 year­ sleep through night  ■ Slightly different for every infant  ○ Rhythms­ repetitive, cyclic patterns of behavior  ■ Eating  ■ Pooping  ○ States­ degree of awareness to external and internal stimulation  ● Preschool (2­6 yrs)  ○ Walking and falling  ○ Sickness increases with worldly contact  ○ Proper diet and rest extremely important to fuel rapid growth  ● Puberty  ○ Need body fat to hit puberty  ■ 17% at least  ■ Produces leptin  ○ Develops primary sexual characteristics  ■ Genitals  ■ Gonads  ■ begins menstruation  ○ Develops secondary sexual characteristics  ■ Voice pitch  ■ Body Hair  ● Physical Development in Early and middle Adulthood  ○ Early   ■ Development is complete  ■ Mature brain wave patterns   ■ coordination continues to increase   ○ Middle  ■ Lifestyle choices catch up with you  ■ Emotional reaction to personal physical changes   ● Self­concept can change 


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