Triple Alliance- Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy that committed to support the existing political and social order while maintaining a defensive alliance against France
Triple Entente- Great Britain, France, and Russia- opposed the Triple Alliance.
Total War- unrestricted in terms of weapons used the territory involved and objectives pursued.
Fourteen points- 14 goals of the US in peace negotiations after WWI
Self Determination- “All well defined aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction”
Woodrow Wilson- President who created the 14 points and in article 23( the war guilt clause) which was the opening article of the Treaty of Versailles which ended the war.
Self-Strengthening- policy Quing rulers adapted in which western technology was adopted while Confucian principles and institutions were maintained intact
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Open Door notes/ Policy- opened door notes had a practical effect of reducing the imperialist hysteria over access to the china market while major nations opened up china for free trade(policy)
Sun Yat-Sen- Born into a peasant family- studied medicine in Hawaii-turned his attention to the ills of Chinese society leading bands of radicals to create attention
Tree Peoples Principle- Sun’s principle of Nationalism democracy and peoples “livelihood” which aimed to improve social and economic conditions
Young Turks- Forced the Sultan to restore the constitution and he was removed from power the following yearDon't forget about the age old question of What is the concept of justice cephalus speaks of?
Mustafa Kemal : war hero who commanded Turkish forces to their heroic defense of the Dardanelles against British invasion during WWI
Shari’a- Islamic law that was replaced by a revised version of the swill law code
Meiji Restoration- Gov’t Provided financial subsidies to needy industries, imported foreign advisors, and established a universal system of education emphasizing applied science We also discuss several other topics like What exactly are civil rights?
Japanese imperialism- Took place during 19th century where they quickly became industrialized and their egocentric views helped them dominate.
Bourgeoisie- middle class If you want to learn more check out What is the most common mistake students make on binomial distribution questions?
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Proletariat-workers or working-class people, regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism)
dialectical materialism-Marxist theory (adopted as the official philosophy of the Soviet communists) that political and historical events result from the conflict of social forces and are interpretable as a series of contradictions and their solutions.
The First International- was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class
Bolsheviks- the majority of people who accepted Lenin’s ideas Mensheviks- the minority that objected Lenin’s ideas
March Uprising 1917-revolution that happened to Russia
Bolshevik Revolution/October Revolution--revolution in Russia in 1917–1918, also called the October Revolution, that overthrew the czar and brought the Bolsheviks, a Communist party led by Lenin to Power
the Red Army - formed by the Bolsheviks within army regiments in the capital area who ended the revolt
Cheka-An organization under the Soviet regime for the investigation of counter-revolutionary activities. It executed many real and alleged enemies of Lenin's regime from its formation in 1917 until 1922, when it was replaced by the OGPU.
Foreignization- strategy in translation, regarding the degree to which translators make a text conform to the target culture.
ANC- African National Congress (1912) was dominated by western oriented intellectuals. Its goal was to achieve economic and political reforms
banana republics- a number of central american states because of their power and influence of the U.S owned united fruit company
United Fruit Company- Owned by the US that traded in tropical fruits grown on central and south american plantations and sold in europe and united states
good neighbor policy- rejected the use of US military force in the region
Indian National Congress (INC)-group of indians who hoped to speak for all of india about gradually gaining independence
Satyagraha-a policy of passive political resistance, especially that advocated by Mahatma Gandhi against British rule in India.
New Culture Movement- aimed at abolishing the remnants of the old system and introducing western values and institutions in china
Mr. Sai and Mr. De- Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy took over “confucius and sons”
CCP- responded to the killings of the communists by encouraging revolts in central china and canton - the uprisings were defeated and their leaders were killed and forced into hiding
and governed as the chairman of the communist party of china Mao Zedong- founder of the People’s Republic of China- he was a communist
deficit spending- used if necessary to finance and stimulate production and increase public works
New Deal- attempted to restore prosperity by creating the national recovery administration which required gov’t, labor, and industrial leaders to work out regulations for each industry