Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide BIOL 1040
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by kqmorgan on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Tamera Wales in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Morgan 1 Chapters 1-3 Review Chapter 1 Hypothesis: A tentative explanation for a scientific observation or question. Experimental Group Control ("Placebo") Group Receives Treatment Receives FAKE Treatment Takes Pill Containing Takes Pill Containing Drug Sugar Shows Results Shows No Results (Because They Took (Because They Only The Drug!) Took Sugar!) Controlled Experiment: A carefully designed test, the results of which will either support or rule out a hypothesis. Independent Variable: The variable, or factor, being deliberately changed in the experimental group. Dependent Variable: The measured result of an experiment, analyzed in both the experimental and control groups. Experimental Control Group: The group in an experiment that experiences the environmental intervention or manipulation. Placebo: A fake treatment given to control groups to mimic the experience of the experimental groups. Epidemiology: The study of patterns of disease in populations, including risk factors. Morgan 2 Epidemiological Study: To make careful observations or comparisons of phenomena that exist in nature, generating data that can then be analyzed systematically. Randomized Clinical Trial: A controlled medicinal experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive either an experimental treatment or a standard treatment (“placebo”). Statistical Significance: A measure of confidence that the results obtained are “real” and not due to chance. Sample Size: The number of experimental subjects or the number of times an experiment is repeated. (Important because it shows statistical significance- the more times we get these results, the more likely they are to be accurate; the more times you check a math problem and get the same answer, the more likely it is that you have the right answer) Peer Review: A process in which independent scientific experts read scientific studies before they are published to ensure that the authors have appropriately designed and interpreted the study. Scientific Theory: An explanation of the natural world that is supported by a large body of evidence and has never been disproven. Chapter 2 Properties of Life: Morgan 3 Growth (Cells Multiply, Size Changes) Reproduction (Have Children) Homeostasis (Balance) Sense and Respond to Stimuli (Things that Affect Your Senses) Obtain and Use Energy (Food) Homeostasis: The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment. Atom: The smallest unit of an element that cannot be chemically broken down into smaller units. Elements in living things: Oxygen (ONLY) Carbon (CLEVER) Hydrogen (HOSPITAL) Nitrogen (NURSES) Calcium (CAN) Phosphorous (PRACTICE) Organic Molecule: A molecule with a carbon-based backbone and at least one C-H bond. Inorganic Molecule: A molecule that lacks a carbon-based backbone and C-H bond. Morgan 4 Do you see an H and C? If yes, it is organic. If no, it is inorganic. Organic Inorganic Molecule Molecule Organic Inorganic Molecule Molecule Hydrogen Bond: A weak electrical attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atom and an atom with a partial negative charge. Ionic Bond: A strong electrical attraction between oppositely charged ions formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. Covalent Bond: A strong chemical bond resulting from the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms. Polar: Opposite things at opposite ends. Ex. POLAR opposites; North and South POLES. Polar Molecule: A molecule in which electrons are not shared equally between atoms, causing a partial negative charge at one end and a partial positive charge at the other; for example, water. (See p.34 for more on water’s polarity and hydrogen bonds) Properties of Water: Sticky (Adhesive: Sticks to other things AND Cohesive: Sticks to other water; both because of Hydrogen bonding) Absorbs A Lot of Energy (It can absorb much heat/high temperatures before it boils) Morgan 5 Ice Is Less Dense than Liquid Water (Liquids with lower density go to the top of the container when mixed- this is why ice floats in water) See p.35 for Visual Aide Hydrophilic: Loves Water. Hydrophobic: Afraid of Water (PHOBIC- Think of phobias, Fear of water) pH- The concentration of hydrogen ions (H ) in a solution, defined as ranging from 0 to 14. Acid: A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of solutions, making them more acidic. (Low pH number, high Hydrogen concentration) Base: A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of solutions, making them more basic. (High pH number, low Hydrogen concentration) See p.37 for Visual Aide HyCdonogenntration pH Number Macromolecules: Large organic molecules that make up living organisms; they include carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. Macromolecule Monomer Carbohydrates Monosaccharides (Sugars) Morgan 6 Proteins Amino Acids Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Lipids No Monomers (But has several types: Fatty Acids, Sterols, triglycerides, and phospholipids) Chapter 3 All cells have: Cell Membranes (Made of Phospholipids and Proteins) Cytoplasm Ribosomes Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Both Cells Cells Cell Membranes No Organelles Organelles Cytoplasm No Nucleus (Nuclei Nuclues (Organelle) are Organelles) Ribosome Cell Wall Genetic Material No Cell Wall (DNA) Cell Wall: A rigid structure enclosing the cell membrane of some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape. (Pumps Out Antibiotics) Morgan 7 Cell Membrane: A phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that form the boundary of all cells. See p.48 for Visual Aide Water Hydrophilic (Water Loving) Head Hydrophobic (Water Alone Hating) Tail In Bilayer Water Phospholipid Bilayer: Hydrophobic tails, afraid of water, crowd between the hydrophilic heads that shield them from the water. See p.33 for Visual Aide Able to Cross a Semi-Permeable Membrane: Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Sugar Ions Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the movement of molecules across the cell membrane. See p.55 for Visual Aide. Protein? Energy? Concentration Gradient? Morgan 8 Simple Diffusion No No With (High to Low) Facilitated DiffusiYes No With (High to Low) Active Transport Yes Yes Against (Low to High) Osmosis: The diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. Hypotonic Isotonic Hypertonic Higher solute Higher solute concentration Equal solute concentration inside cell concentration in outside cell and out of cell Water flows into Water flows out cell of cell Water flows equally in both Cell Swells directions Cell Shrivels See p. 49 for Visual Aide. Eukaryotic Organelles: Smooth ER: Makes lipids Rough ER: Studded with ribosomes making proteins Golgi Apparatus: Packages proteins and prepares them for transport Cytoskeleton: Provides structure and facilitates cell movement Lysosomes: Degrades worn-out cell structures Mitochondrion: Responsible for energy-conversion reactions in eukaryotes Chloroplast: Site of photosynthesis Morgan 9 Endosymbiosis: The scientific theory that free-living prokaryotic cells engulfed other free- living prokaryotic cells billions of years ago, forming eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. See p.58-59 for Visual Aide Evidence- Mitochondria and chloroplasts: Are about the same size as bacteria Reproduce by dividing in a manner similar to prokaryotic cells Have circular strands of DNA, just like prokaryotic cells Contain ribosomes similar in structure to those in prokaryotic cells Some antibiotics that target prokaryotic ribosomes can affect the ribosomes in eukaryotic mitochondria Plant and Plant Cell Animal Cells Only Nucleus Water Vacuole Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosome Chloroplasts Mitochondrion Golgi Apparatus Cellulose Cell Wall Lysosome Morgan 10 See p.56 for Visual Aide *Most definitions are taken directly from the textbook. Though I compiled the study guide, the information used to make it is the work of Michele Shuster, Janet Vigna, Matthew Tontonoz, and Gunjan Sinha. Textbook: Scientific American Biology for a Changing World with Core Physiology 2nd Edition by Michele Shuster, Janet Vigna, Matthew Tontonoz, and Gunjan Sinha.
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