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CDAE 002 Midterm Study Guide

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CDAE 002 Midterm Study Guide CDAE 002

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Because it covers everything this semester, it's 26 pages long...yikes. Enjoy!
World Food, Population and Development
Dr. Shoshanah Inwood
Study Guide
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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by HD on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDAE 002 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Shoshanah Inwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see World Food, Population and Development in Human Development at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
CDAE 002 Midterm Study Guide (Material in this study guide is up to the date 2/18. Information on lectures, textbook and regular readings after this date are not listed.) Happy studying  Highlighted words or phrases overlap in either lecture, the book and/or readings Lecture Development and Capitalism 1/19/16  Development o Definition = starting with an idea and building on it until it’s the best o Needed because = improvement in any way is positive— development leads to new ideas which leads to growth o Development is a process of improvement o Promotes higher standard of living, employment and conditions o End poverty/hunger with: economic growth, human development and environmental objectives  Capitalism o Stimulate the economy—economic growth o Encourage the production and sale of commodities  Capitalists = accumulation of profit  Laborers = accumulation of wages  Consumers= accumulation of goods o How does this encourage growth?  Brand loyalty 1/21/16  Fashion: Consumption and Manufacturing o Consumer society = 27% of world population o Commodity Chain Analysis o Linkages along production and consumption system (economic, social, political) o Kinderculture  American Girl  Build-A-Bear  Gender stereotyping  VIDEO: The Corporation = turning children into consumers o Externalrdies  3 party effect arising from production or consumption of goods and services for which no compensation is paid  Can cause: market failure without accounting for costs  Examples: positive = ipads in schools, negative = pollution o Globalization  Development of increasingly integrated global economy marked by free trade, free flow of capital and cheaper foreign labor markets  Interdependence = sense of equality, “I depend on you and you depend on me”  Interconnectedness = winners and losers, new patterns of inequality, global reactions are asymmetrical, institutions shape globalization with goals and values o Maquiladoras  Assembly plants in developing countries that can be assembled by low skilled workers (textiles, electronics and auto parts)  VIDEO: Maquilapolis = city of factories, story of two women and their social, economic and environmental issues  Wages of an average worker are low  No other jobs, you can’t pull yourself out of poverty with the wages 1/26/16  Development and Globalization o Advantages  Job creation for low skilled workers  Pays higher than agriculture  Learn new tech skills o Disadvantages  Advancement limited  Not manufacturing their assembly plants  Environmental and health costs  Ownership is foreign so they’re mobile  Worker Segmentation o Pattern in Capitalist Production System divided by  Race  Religion  Ethnicity  Age  Gender o Why hire women?  Physically able  Less likely to complain and unionize o Men’s nature  Tend to be managers  Men would run away  They are rebellious and restless o Women’s nature  Biologically suited  More passive  Women below 30 are easy to train and adapt, older women have obligations  Don’t have to pay them as much  Structure vs. Agency o Structure = relationships, institutions and elements of social structure that work together to shape thoughts, behaviors, experiences, choices of people  Lives shaped or constrained by: economic policies, trade agreements, jobs, quality of education, family, values and culture o Agency = power of individuals to act individually of determining constraints of social structure  Individuals thoughts, actions and powers  Will and ability to act independently  Globalization and Profit Maximization o Triangle Shirt Waist Factory = March 1911, NYC, fire, exits locked, the men responsible went free o Workplace conditions in sweat shops = low wages, long hours, health hazards, discipline, no job security, abuse, no voice, child labor o Bangladesh factory tragedy o Walmart and GAP refuse to sign safety agreements o Labor Day—act of Congress 1894  Cotton o Most water used for agriculture globally o Environment o Pesticides/Herbicides (weed and pest control)  Surface water/ground water contamination  Pesticide resistance o Who harvests it? = cotton gin, progress for cotton but not for slaves o Uzbekistan  Impacts: environmental, social, economic, political  Cycle of Capitalist Production o Investments o Labor treated as commodity to be purchased or rented o Minimize production costs o Production, distribution, disposal o Laborer characteristics (1-4) 1/27/16  The Black Box of Capitalism o Money goes in a comes out, something happens in between that’s “black”  Alternatives to T-shirt Production o Social movements and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) o Corporate Social Responsibility o Hemp based products o Larhea Pepper, Texas cotton farmer, turned organic, makes organic cotton products  Culture of Capitalism and Globalization o MLK Day, sales o Dr. King led workers in low wage protests o 3 evils of America = racism, poverty and war Critical Thinking and Paradigms of Development  Critical thinking essential for understanding, evaluating and evolving paradigms of development  Paradigm o Definition: set of assumptions and informal theories on how the world works, provides frame of reference (AKA a set of filters and molds, a worldview or an accepted model or pattern) o related to sustainable development o Donella Meadows, author, says the most fundamental way to leverage points is through a system of paradigms o Within paradigms = difficult to acknowledge validity, not universal  Critical Thinking o Definition: mode of thinking where thinker improves o Considers fundamental questions and problems o Gathers information and assesses o Come to conclusions and solutions  6 ways of critical thinking o #1 = Interpretation = understanding information you’re presented and communicating that to others o #2 = Analysis = connect information together to determine the intended meaning o #3 = Inference = statement you think to be true because of something else you know from the information given, draw conclusions from these o #4 = Evaluation = evaluate credibility of statements of a person’s experience to measure validity o #5 = Explanation = restate information but also add clarity and perspective so it’s fully understood o #6 = Self-Regulation =awareness of own thinking abilities and the elements you’re using o Assumptions = clarify them, consider influence o Logic = does this conclusion make sense? o Fact = something that can be proven true (Scientific Method— observe, hypothesis, test, analyze) o Opinion = Statement of a person’s feelings or impressions o Iclicker Q: Drinking Age Lowered?, we all don’t come to the same conclusions  Critical Thinking Questions o What’s the authors point of view? o What is the basis of the argument? o Does the author give other view points? o Etc. o Look for: references, triangulation, who the publisher is and is it more persuasive or reasonable?  Note o Critical thinking doesn’t mean being negative or cynical o Requires discipline, it’s never easy o Essential for democratic decision making  Manipulation of Imagery/Data o Getting easier o Who is controlling our information? = fabrication, oversimplification, hype, manipulation, malfeasance, questioning o Who owns the information? = illusion of choice, 90% of all media is controlled by 6 companies o VIDEO: The Filter Bubble = personally tailored search results and news done by your computer o The world in our own interests—whose voices do we hear?, fact checking 2/2/16  Paradigms o They shift, especially due to crisis  9/11 US paradigm shift = war on terror, fear politics, distorted focus (fear of Muslims), shifted thinking for emergency response and care for responders  Katrina = vulnerabilities recognized before it happened, shifted paradigm for better planning  Irene  Super-storm Sandy o Influence outlook on world  Religion  Climate change  Gun control = Batman shooting, Sandy Hook  Role of technology o Acceptable behavior set by paradigms (public discourse)  Pussy Riot vs. Putin  Women’s right to vote  Wonder Woman (Title IX)  Civil Rights Obama, Black Lives Matter  Olympics, Paralympics, adaptive sports  Outlook on beauty throughout the ages  Meaning of family throughout the ages o Paradigm shift in business  VIDEO: Ray Anderson = Interface Carpets, environmentally friendly Sustainability and Resiliency  Sustainable Development o Definition = meet current needs but don’t compromise the future o Most comprehensive: UN Sustainable Development Goals o Silo view = economy, ecology, social and cultural o “Systems” view of development = all silos are connected  Resilience o Definition = persistent, adaptable, transformative, recover in a matter that reduces vulnerability  Environment o Climate = long-term, weather = day to day  Economics o Gross Domestic Product (GDP) = sum of value added by all producers o Value added = net output of industry  outputs-inputs = value added o World Bank, Gross National Income (GNI) = nation’s GDP plus $ from overseas (low, middle and high income levels in countries, US has high GNI) o Distribution of wealth = 85% of world population is low or middle class, 4 out of 5 people o Economics contributes to quality of life by contributing the human progress  Human Development Index (HDI) o Measures  Long healthy life  Knowledge  Decent standard of living o Multidimensional Poverty Index = look at overlapping deprivations at once o Gender Development Index = HDI separated by gender o Gender Inequality Index = health, empowerment, labor market o Inequality Adjusted HDI  Inequality o Global distribution of wealth o VIDEO: Miniature Earth, statistics if the world was only 100 people 2/4/16  Inequality continued… o Mainstream economic thinking = economic growth will fix everything—it doesn’t o Gini coefficient = measure the income expenditure among individuals (the gap between the rich and the poor), best measure of inequality o Impacts of inequality= level of trust, mental illness, life expectancy, education in children, teen births, homicide rate, prison time, social mobility o Inequality creates = negative costs and social pollution o Equality vs. Equity  Equality = give everyone the same, works well if everyone has started from the same place  Equity = fairness, access to the same opportunities, need to ensure equity before there can be equality  Minimum Wage vs. Living Wage o Minimum wage = $7.25/hour, based on earnings threshold to not let families slip o Living wage = income needed to meet family’s basic needs, to enable to working poor to achieve financial independence while maintaining housing and food security o The US Restaurant Industry  13.1 million employees  VIDEO: Behind the Kitchen Door = can you really get ahead?, structure vs. agency  National Restaurant Association = doesn’t support living wage, spends lots of money on lobbying o Economic growth mostly goes to top 1%  Warriors, Builders and Weavers o Warrior: Resistance  Contest and challenge current system  Focuses on political sector (protests, boycotts, etc.)  Goal to change political and economic structures and attitudes and beliefs of civil society o Builder: Reconstruction  Create alternative approaches for agri-food system  Majority happens in economic sector (new food production, distribution relationships, etc.)  Many believe their work isn’t resistance o Weaver: Connection  Creating linkages to support change activities  Oriented toward social movement building  Performed by a wide range of people  Race = group of people with differences and similarities different from society  Ethnicity = shared culture and way of life (Ex: languages, religions)  Sex = male or female  Gender = social difference based on definition of masculinity and femininity  Class = education, income, occupation  Length of residence Evolutionary Times  Competition, cooperation, conflict resolution o VIDEO: Bonobos = conflict resolution with sex, women dominated o VIDEO: TEDx talk = empathy, cooperation 2/9/16  Gatherer/Hunter Societies o Definition = small bands of people, low population densities (people per unit of land), highly mobile and nomadic, deep ecological smarts, diet has wide variety of food (little food storage), few possessions and tools o Dominant culture = individual autonomy, children have self directed play, reverse dominance, nonviolence, sharing and cooperating, consensual decision making, equality of individuals o Egalitarian = shared food and land resources, no concept of food as commodity, redistribution of wealth, land resources occupied by use o Indigenous peoples = descended from pre-colonial inhabitants of the region; unique, close ties to land, suffer as a minority, considered indigenous because they define themselves that way  VIDEO: First Peoples: Enoughness = how would you contrast indigenous views with western paradigms? How are the costs described?  Soil o It’s alive, organisms and ecosystems o Organisms = don’t just live in soil, they’re a part of it, alter the appearance as a result of biochemical and physical processes o 1 cup of soil holds as much bacteria as people on Earth o Antibiotics = soil fungus (Penicillium species) o Drug resistant bacteria o VIDEO: Dirt! 2/11/16  Food Foraging o Oldest type of human adaptation o Residence = requires that people move their residence according to changing food sources o Group size = local group size is kept small with exceptions o Carrying capacity = the number of people that the available resources can support  Pastoralism o Means of survival relying on raising and managing herds of domesticated migratory grazing animals (cattle, sheep, goats) o Usually nomadic, moving where needed, NOT wandering aimlessly  Crop Cultivation o Horticulture  small communities of gardeners work with simple hand tools  Ex: swidden farming AKA slash and burn, crops planted among ashes o Agriculture  Cultivation that uses technology other than hand tools  Ex: irrigation, fertilizers, plows  Grows surplus food (for themselves as well as full time specialists and non-producing consumers like elderly and disabled)  What is Agriculture? o Farming = the cultivation of animals, plants, etc. for food, fiber, biofuel, drugs o Husbandry = science, art, practice of cultivating soil, producing crops and raising livestock  Emergence of Agriculture o The Ratchet Effect (Cohen)  Increased population  exploitation of less favorable habitats  increased effort for food  increased effort for local food  environment modifications, selection of best species  agriculture o Fishing Communities (Sauer)  Estuaries enabled sedentary communities  They naturally had food without the migration o Plants and animals domesticated food surplus/storage large dense sedentary stratified societies  new technology, political organization, writing, epidemic disease  Core Areas of Agricultural Development o Mesopotamia o China o MesoAmerica o 2 others: Andes of South America, Eastern USA  Mesopotamia = Fertile Crescent in the Middle East o 10,500-10,000 YBP o Rise = harvest of wild grains, small villages settled, domestic crops established, sheep and goats o Certain wild foods, like large seeded grasses (wheat and barley), grew in high density o Characteristics of early crops  Weedy types that are used to growing in open disturbed sites  Easily germinated  Produce large seeds  Dry season tolerance  Quick growing  Self pollinating o Difficult environment = low rainfall, high summer temperatures, dry-lands and swamps, irregular flooding o New technology = irrigation, written language, wheeled carts o Taxes, agricultural surplus, cuneiform writing, large cities o Social stratification  System which society rank categories of people in a hierarchy  Based on socioeconomic conditions  Elites  Artisans  Farmers  Armies o Efforts to maintain surplus = bring more land under cultivation (because of erosion and siltation), switch from wheat to barley (barley more tolerant) o Fell to army 2370 BS  European Agriculture o Developed from Fertile crescent o NOT core o Transition slow = new crops had to be domesticated o 3,000-2,000 BC o Slash and burn was norm  China o 8500-8000 YBP o Loess soils = windborne, easy to work, prone to wind erosion o Millet was domesticated, primary crop, rice is considered a luxury crop, then wet rice developed (AKA paddy rice) o Protein from pigs, poultry o Aguaculture = soybeans first legume domesticated in China 2/16/16  MesoAmerica o Sothern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, parts of Honduras, El Salvador o Earliest Mayan settlements 2,500 BC o Maize possibly cultivated  Small grain, high genetic variability  Development of cities followed cob size o Chinampas = raised field networks  “Garden of the world” –Hernan Cortez  VIDEO: Chinampas = raised “islands” for farming  Domesticated animals o Selectively bred in captivity and modified from wild ancestors o Used by humans to control animals breeding and food supply o Livestock  Convert non-edible biomass into = meat, plow, milk products, wool and fiber, fertilizer  Chickens  Started from jungle fowl  Broiler chicken (meat production)  Layers (egg production)  All shapes and sizes (purebred)  Fruits and Veggies o Origins of major food crops o Brassica Oleracea = many vegetables derived from this o Seed saving  Heirloom seeds= history of being passed down within a family o Less variety now than before o ***3 provide more than 50% of crops (wheat, rice and corn)*** o Commodity crops = we don’t eat a lot of it but farmers get more $ from the government to grow them (corn, soybeans, sugar cane, cotton, wheat)  Seeds and Genetic Diversity o VIDEO: Doomsday Vault = Norway, full of different kinds of seeds from around the globe in case of an emergency o Why are seeds important? = food production and feeding animals o Why does it matter today?  Cultural connections to food  Agricultural biodiversity  Food security  Population  Hunger  Food access  World Population Growth o Global urbanization, rural  urban o “Mega-cities”  Agriculture is important o Subsistence Agriculture = growing food for sustaining of community, family and household o Farming for the market 2/18/16 Plantation Agriculture and Colonialism  China o Richest country in 1400, also India o Epicenter of trade (social, economic and political systems) o Don’t have high levels of consumption o 1500 China retreats  Columbus o Explorer or Merchant Sailor?  (actually—Genocide Holocaust)  Human sex trafficker, slave owner/seller, torturer o Europe’s economic power grows  Impact of Africa and Americas  Slave trade  Gold and silver  Indigo  Cocoa o Found Hispaniola (AKA Dominican Republic)  2-8 million Taino Arawaks live there  Shared openly, never said no egalitarian society, helped Columbus with his ship  Searched for gold, found none, demanded more from Arawaks, enslaves them  Torturer Arawaks if they didn’t meet mine quotas for gold  Didn’t baptize them, husbands and wives separated, birth rate down  Led to mass Arawak suicides and abortions o Bartoleme de las Casas: His Own Words  Native people were “thinking beings”  He freed his slaves and became a priest  Documented atrocities  Opposed slavery (but advocated for importation of slaves from Africa) o Death toll  In one century 95-98% of indigenous people died  Reasons: battles with invaders, murdered, slavery, forced labor, malnutrition, diseases (small pox)  VIDEO: “Columbus Didn’t Discover Us”  VIDEO: Reconsider Columbus Day  What is Colonialism? o Control by one power over a dependent area of people (a policy advocating or based on control) o Colonial stpansion  1 phase 1500s = Spain and Portugal, sugar cane  2ndphase 1600s = British and French o Early expeditions for commercial ventures o Transfer of Wealth  Natural resources = gold, silver, enslavement of indigenous people  Economic transformation = Dutch East India Company: gave unused land to Dutch government who leased it to Dutch companies  Sugar Trade o Sugar cane (grass family) and sugar beets o Reliance on single export crops (sugar tobacco, tea, cotton, rubber) o Dependent on abundant and cheap labor o Why sugar?  Organization, transportation, capitalism, use of unskilled labor, grown on large scale lucrative markets  Social, political and economic power tied to increased sugar consumption o Who benefits the most?  Planters  Slavers  Shippers  Bankers  Refiners  Grocers  Government officials  Triangle Trade o Slaves  Compartments on ships very small  Africa = treated like family members, more access to land, acquire slaves through war, taxes paid on people  Europe = treated as property/cattle, war to acquire land, taxes paid on land  Three Tendencies o Grab for land = more land o Movement of People = enslaved people, indentured servants o Transfer of Wealth = transfer, establishment of system  New Ways of Making $ With $ o Investments = increase in activities that require large amounts of capital (states borrow $ to wage war, merchants use it for trade, investors use it for commodities) o Stock market  you buy stock you become a share holder  you own part of the company  You share in success and failure o Speculation  Investors borrow to speculate  Becomes more expensive until the bubble pops  Examples: Dutch Tulip Mania 1636, Railroad Speculation 1845, Collapse of housing values 2007 o Interest  Definition = fee you pay to lender in exchange for borrowing the lender’s $  Easiest way to get more money at the close of transactions = interest rates Robbins Textbook Chapter 1 (Page 12): Constructing the Consumer -Capitalists -Laborers -Consumers -People act as they must act -Learned behaviors  Remaking Consumption o People used to only purchase necessities o Transformation of luxuries to necessities through  Marketing and advertising  Restructuring of societal institutions  Revolution of spiritual and intellectual ideas  Reconfiguring class  Marketing and Advertising o To shape customers’ desires o Fashion, desire to conform, first fashion show o Customer credit in stores o Employees just for the customers (service)  Transformation of Institutions o Education, culture, government agencies, financial institutions and families all changed meaning to promote commodities o Universities started sales and business departments o Department of Commerce = growth to help encourage consumption of commodities o Turn workers into consumers  Pay them more  Ford assembly line o Credit, going into debt, car loans, mortgages, retail chains popular  Transformation of Spiritual/Intellectual Values o From frugality to compulsive spending o Growth of health professions and psychology due to focus on physical and psychological health o Commodities serve as satisfaction, “good” through “goods” o Mind cure religions  Reconfigure Space/Class o Shopping centers, malls o Appeal to desires of separate groups rather than mass markets Kinderculture in the US: Child as Consumer  The Role of Children in Capitalism o Started as workers, not consumers o Baby clothes, toys, commodities o Advised parents that children need their own space and possessions o Kids nagging makes them more $  Social Construction of Childhood o Christmas, Santa Claus, elves, Santa’s workshop, naughty/nice list o Baum’s Emerald City  Common man makes people do what he wants o Walt Disney World  To promote ethos of pleasure to get adults and children to consume  People resort to childhood  For appropriation of childhood to consume commodities and shield consumer from negatives of capitalism Chapter 2 (Page 35): The Laborer in the Culture of Capitalism -Capital, AKA income, doesn’t normally go to those who make it via labor  A Primer on the Elements of Capitalism o Economics of Capitalism came from interactions with  Commodities (C) = capital and consumer goods  Money (M)  Labor Power (lp) = turning one thing into another  Means of production (mp) = machines and tools  Production (P) o Goods need “exchange value” o Money to buy commodities mixed with other labor to sell profit (example: Nike) o Get loans or investors to start out o Black box = put something in and get something out o Baptism of Money = Columbian baptizing, money is animate and can bring back more money  The Construction and Anatomy of Working Class -Characteristics o Labor mobility = mobile/free to move, moving temporarily or permanently for employment (Ex: Italian worker)  Growth of overseas assembly plants  Maquiladoras o Segmentation = divided, reinforced by ethnicity, gender, age, creates conflict (Ex: Irish and blacks)  Women paid less  Women’s work considered unskilled because it’s performed by women o Discipline = control, factory, mills, employee/employer tension, time issue (time is $), anything not contributing to production was discouraged  Excepted to conform to behaviors o Resistance = protesting conditions, social revolutions of the laboring poor  Bourgeoisie (owners) vs. Proletariat (workers)  Protests  Unions Chapter 3 (Page 57): The Rise and Fall of the Merchant, Industrialist and Financier” -Merchant = people who control capital -Industrialist = people who employ laborers -Financier = people who profit from consumption of commodities  The Era of the Global Trader o A Trader’s Tour of the World in 1400  Long distance trade  What to do with $? Not many people on board with trading o Economic Rise of Europe and Its Impact on Africa/Americas  Withdrawal of China, emergence of Portugal  Africa has iron, steel and slaves  Slave trade African institution—treated like family  Uprooting of indigenous people  Scale of death, war, murder, forced labor, smallpox o Birth of Finance and The Tulip Bubble of 1636  Movement of money from point A to point B where it’s needed  United Dutch East Indian Company = first to sell stock  United East Indies Company = exclusive trading, joint stock company and stock market created at the same time  Amsterdam Exchange Bank = bank created for this  Tulip trade, prices collapsed  The Era of the Industrialist o Reasons for Industrial Development in England  Increased demand for goods  Increase in supply of capital  Population growth  Expansion of agriculture  Unique English culture  State support for trade  Ascendance of merchant class  Revolution of consumption o Textiles and the Rise of the Factory System  Bring together as many textile production phases as possible  To control quality and quantity o The Age of Imperialism  Shipping revolution  Worker resistance, economic depression due to capitalist cycles  Overproduction problem  Railroad stock, crash, Great Global Depression 1873-1895  Solution is expansion overseas  General Allotment Act = Native American reservations divided to families and the rest of the land was given to corporations  Processed goods are more costly than raw ones, they need further labor  Opium trade in China = British demanded trade of opium and textiles despite being illegal there  The Era of the Corporation, The Multilateral Institution and the Capital Speculator o Conflict created, led to WWI o Rise of Corporation  Used $ from WWI to get more power and legislation  Gained control of state legislatures  Supreme Court ruled corporations have same rights as people under the Constitution  3 spokespeople = economic nationalists, market liberals, members of the corporate class  Advocacy called “corporate liberalism”  They wanted: economic growth, free markets, economic globalization, privacy, property rights/contracts o Bretton Woods and the World Debt  NH meeting  International Monetary Fund (IMF) = make funds for countries to meet short term needs and stabilize currency exchange  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) = to make loans for projects  Global Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) = ensure free trade of commodities among countries  The “Second Great Contraction” o Bursting house bubble of 2007 o People bet wrongly that an asset would continue to increase in value o Start 1989, oil spill, loans, money in reserves o Broad Index Securities Trust Offerings (BISTROs) = took loans and shirted them to dummy corporations to sell to investors (JP Morgan did this) o Same thing with house market o Finance based on moving money and the money froze o US Trillion $ bailout o The problem is with internal logic of the economic system, not with greed  Conclusion o Increased division of world wealth o Changes in capital organization o Increase economic globalization o Reasons for financial crises o Economies have to grow Chapter 4 (Page 99): The Nation-State in the Culture of Capitalism -Nation-state regulates conflicts between competing capitalists at home and abroad -Role of violence  Origin and History of the State o Evolution of the State  Didn’t happen everywhere  Hydraulic theory = increased population and food production led to stratified society  Could have been external conflicted, takeover by groups o History and Function  State = political identity with identifiable components (buildings, organizations, etc.)  Nation = an imagined political community  Modern state = secure obedience and gain monopoly, exert control over economics, participate in religious life  Building block of global economy  Construction of Nation-State o Through invention and social engineering o Creating the “Other”  How to distinguish yourself, others that are not you o Language, Bureaucracy, Education  Peasants  citizens  Languages  Decay of rituals, rise of communal celebrations  Ceremonies  Patriotism  Railroads  Newspapers  Etc. o Violence and Genocide  Abuse of power  Eliminate/terrorize into submission  Committed in secret  “Nation killing”  “Punishable categories of people” Chapter 7 (Page 197): Environment and Consumption -Degree of environmental alteration due to population and technology -Greatest factor is consumption (energy, global warming, footprints) -Sugar and Beef  The Case of Sugar o Luxury good turned necessity o Sugar and Origins and Production  Sugar cane, product alters environment (deforestation, water, fossil fuels) o Uses of sugar  Trade item  Luxury  Medicine  Decoration o Development of Sugar Complex  Sugar as trade item, slave trade o Expansion of Sugar Production  Greater consumption (reduced prices, benefits of sugar, use as sweetener, middle class trying to emulate wealthy, government increased purchase of sugar/sugar products) o Mass Consumption of Sugar  British sugar tariff lifted  Diet transformed = dominated by tea, sugar, bread, etc. o Modern Sugar  Fast food, fat and sugar  Benefits budgets, schedules and needs while making $ Chapter 13 (Page 353): Solving Global Problems: Some Options and Courses of Action  Central Dilemma of Growth o Stopping growth would mean disaster o Continuing growth would end in catastrophe o Population growth can’t keep up with economic growth o Maintain growth on return of capital by:  Reducing wealthy people’s taxes  Keep inflation low  Loosen regulations n laws  Use tax dollars to stimulate economy  Keep interest rates low  Ease credit o System constructed on debt must always be growing o Other ways to get $ into the economy  The Depletion of Natural Capital and Wealth o Features of the world that humans draw on for maintenance/survival o Food, shelter, travel, communication, etc. o Every product/service we consume/spend $ on has 4 costs  Cost manufacturers pay to get it made and distributed, what people pay to buy it  Environmental costs with production  Environmental costs with items use  Environmental costs with items disposal  The Depletion of Political Capital and Wealth o The Human Freedom Index = to measure effectiveness of democratic institutions among countries, 39 freedoms, 1-40 score o Rich in political capital = enables members to have a decision in what affects their lives o 5 economic sectors = trading, cars, banking, retail, electronics o Erosion of political capital due to regulation of campaign financing o Corporations ignore the people o Debt depletes capital o Decline in political participation o Media controls everything, manipulation and control (propoganda)  The Depletion of Social Capital and Wealth o Connections among individuals and social networks, make decisions collectively o Main decline due to television o Time and social equality affect how we relate o Less time interacting due to technology o Debt is a big problem  Net debtors = pay more than they receive  Net creditors = receive more than they pay o Gini index = measures distribution of income (0-1 scale) Readings “Ethical Fashion: Is Tragedy in Bangladesh the Final Straw?”  Garment factory collapse in Bangladesh  It’s cheap to outsource  Low quality and cheap labor  Environmental problems = pollution in China, big user of water and energy, etc. “The All American Sock”  Marc and Ric Cabot ran Cabot Hosiery Mill  Now run Darn Tough Socks, outdoor sock company  Created when other sock companies went overseas “White Gold: The True Cost of Cotton”  Environmental Justice Foundation—Uzbekistan cotton  Human rights and social abuses o Workers get fraction of true cotton value o Oppression = freedoms rejected, non existent democracy, failure to hold fair elections, censorship, unfair trials, systematic torture o Death Penalty = numbers are hidden, many families not even informed o Authorities don’t support activists and organizations = sometimes they withhold registration making them illegal o Massacres o No freedom of movement = difficult and expensive  Environmental catastrophe o Seas dried up, irrigation mainly for cotton o Aral Sea = animals, plants, fish, trees dying out o Economic hardships—people lost their jobs o Soil structure eroded o Water used for energy  Child labor o Claimed to volunteer o Needed to fill quotas o School closed during harvest, some go home and some stay in dorms, poor conditions  People are unemployed with health problems o Chemicals in the fields o Karakalpakstan = poverty, no fish, bad economy, toxic chemicals, no safe drinking water, malnutrition, anemia, tuberculosis, toxic dust storms, diseases, infertility, miscarriage  Government mostly responsible, totalitarian control o President Karimov is in charge of everything o Government owned company Uzkhlopkoprom (UKP) = controls country’s cotton network o Farmers cheated, government gets bulk o Inner circle members make more money o Hokims = cotton barons, appointed by Karimov, enforce production o District Governors and Farm Chairmen = appointed by Hokims  Action needs to be taken to stop buying cotton from Uz. Because of slavery and environmental costs o Despite this, revenue is still coming from Europe o Corporate Social Responsibility = denies child labor, little knowledge of where clothes are even coming from o 2005 Textiles Initiative = boost annual exports, new products, lied to investors about conditions and the price of using that much water—will lead to increased oppression for farmers “6 Critical Skills You Need to Master Now”  #1 = Interpretation  #2 = Analysis  #3 = Inference  #4 = Evaluation  #5 = Explanation  #6 = Self-Regulation “Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet”  Ray Anderson, CEO Interface Carpets  Paradigm = framework containing basic assumptions and ways of thinking that are commonly accepted by a scientific community OR framework shared by members of a group or business  Anderson’s paradigm changed  Changed to sustainability in 1994  Challenges collogues to change too “FAO Calls for ‘Paradigm Shift’ Toward Sustainable Agriculture and Farming for Families”  Food Agriculture Association  Lower use of agricultural inputs (water and chemicals)  Climate smart agriculture  Consider family farming—helped Dominican Republic lower hunger rate “Climate-Smart Agriculture: Propaganda or Paradigm Shift”  Propaganda = buzzwords might have too much hype  Paradigm shift = actual actions are taking place  Translate evidence into action “Behind the Kitchen Door: The Hidden Reality of Philadelphia’s Thriving Restaurant Industry”  Some employers have fair wages, good conditions AKA “high road”  Most don’t do this, many violations  Overview of Industry o One of city’s major industries o Average age 32, 51% women o 60% people of color o 8.2% more immigrant workers employed than all industries in the city o Low education levels  Workers’ Perspectives o 2/3 not paid enough to support family of three above poverty level in Philly o Violations, off the clock working, no breaks o No benefits, no health insurance, no promotions o Health and safety hazards o No regular schedule o Don’t know their rights, too scared to speak up o Employee turnover very high  Employers’ Perspectives o Good conditions not standard o They’d like to offer insurance but it’s too high o Outside factors  Healthy food demand  Recession  Competition o Strategies  Minimize turnover  Increase worker productivity  Segregation and Discrimination o Both intentional and indirect forms happen o Whites get “high road” jobs and POC get “low road” o Three main areas  Occupation segment and position = front house and back house positions determined based on race, white people in fine dining and POC in quick serve  Hiring, promotion and training = both POC and women applicable  Abuse = based on gender, race and sexual orientation (verbal abuse, sexual harassment, discipline)  Social Cost of Low-Wage Jobs o Endangering public health working while sick  Lack of paid sick days  Delay in treatment o Low road model  Endanger customers to cut corners o Public Subsides  Low wages increase health care cost for society  Increased reliance on social programs  Tax payers pay for that o Declining Social Environment and Communities  Rise of poverty  Recommendations o Policymakers = support legislation for paid sick days, raise wages, healthcare, anti-discrimination, initiate dialogue o Consumers = support “high road” restaurants, speak to employees o Workers = become involved in the movement “Explaining Privilege Through Comics”  perfect-explanation-of-privilege-ive-ever-seen?g=2&c=ufb1  Some of us have advantages over others for any number of reasons  Some people have to overcome more than others  Success is about hard work and other factors out of our control “Warrior, Builder, Weaver…What Are You?”  Roles played in the organic/healthy food movement o Resistance o Reconstruction o Connection “Sustainable Development Goals: Change the World in 17 Steps”  Dignity, People, Planet, Partnership, Justice, Prosperity  #1 = End poverty in all forms everywhere  #2= End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition  #3 = Ensure healthy lives and promote well being for all ages  #4= Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education, promote lifetime learning  #5 = Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls  #6= Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation  #7 =Ensure access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy  #8 = Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full, decent and protective employment  #9 = Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation  #10= Reduce inequality within and among countries  #11 = Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable  #12 = Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns  #13 = Take urgent action to combat climate change and impacts  #14 = Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources  #15= Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystem, manage forests, and combat desertification  #16 = Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, access to justice for all, build effective and accountable institutions for all levels  #17= Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development “Learning to Bounce Back, Sustainability vs. Resilience”  Sustainability = with the right amount of incentives, technology and social change humanity can be at peace  Resilience = a way to manage an imbalanced world rather than make it balanced  Not so good in “unanticipated shocks” (ex: a building may be “green” but it can’t handle extreme weather)  People are more/less resilient depending person to person  Things can and will go wrong, roll with the waves don’t stop the ocean “Early Men and Women Were Equal, Say Scientists”  Egalitarian principles  Sexual equality was the normal for most of evolutionary history  Inequality emerged with the emergence of agriculture (people accumulation resources, men having many wives and children) “World Bank Social Development: Indigenous People”  Social groups with social and cultural identity distinct from dominant society that makes them vulnerable to being disadvantaged in the development process  Vulnerable to= poverty, discrimination, dependency on natural resources and lack of power and decision making  Knowledge transmitted orally  Indigenous organizations represent them and promote local development  Indigenous People’s Plans (IPPs) = formal required plans under bank projects to tailor benefits “Who Are Indigenous Peoples?”  400 million, 5,000 tribes, 20% of the Earth’s landmass  Assets being stripped from them and losing control of what they do have  Can’t secure rights legally because they’re seen as incompetent “How Our Societies Work”  Central principles  #1 = Community = everyone provided for so everyone has a sense of responsibility  #2 = Balance and Harmony = no individual is more powerful or wealthy, this way they can adapt  #3 = Nature is Knowledge = largely based on bio indicators AKA natural signs  #4 = Sustainability and Resilience = each generation must protect resources for those who follow it “Dirt the Ecstatic Skin of the Earth”  Anything can become soil  Saint Phocas—story of how he composted his own body  Soil PH is important  “Virgin” soil doesn’t become fertile overnight; prairie soils are best “virgin” soils  Manure is attractive to soil  Clark Gregory, compost man in Florida  Ash strategy contaminates soil  Graves—formaldehyde poisons soil  Dung Beetle = AKA scarab, lay their eggs in feces and are born in it  Groundwater = we are all basically afloat  Drowsing = finding groundwater close to surfaces “Dirt Part 2: Clay Alive”  Silt= in between big sand and small clay, travels, dams have “siltation”  Organic life and clay—two things in the universe that require liquid water  Earthworms are necessary to create healthy soil  Poly-culture = Growing plants in associated groups (Ex: corns, beans, squash) “Yali’s Question”  Yali, local politician in Papua New Guinea  Asks author question about contrasting lifestyles of New Guineans and white Europeans  Stone vs. iron tools used, technological and political differences lead to inequality  Response to objections to question o explanation doesn’t mean justification o we’re talking about more than just Europeans o not celebrating one way over the other way just understanding history  IQs of different people, does intellectual difference undermine technological difference?  Why didn’t Africa get the tools before other nations?, no real explanation “To Farm or Not to Farm”  World’s food producers: why?  Evolved  Main reasons for switching o Decline of wild foods o Decline in game/increase of wild plants o Technologies that food production was based from o Rise in population o Geographic boundaries “A Green History: The First Great Transition”  Neolithic Revolution = transition to agriculture, growth of settled societies, emergence of cities, rise of religion and politics  Transition from hunter/gatherer to agriculture happened over thousands of years  Asia, China, Mesoamerica  Mesopotamia = Sumer, cities, classes developed, steps toward hierarchal societies  Egypt, Indus Valley developed, then China, then Japan  Americas didn’t settle right away  Destruction and Survival o Increased strain on environment, villages, agriculture, deforestation, erosion o Switch from wheat to barley declined yield of crops o Human intervention tens to degrade ecosystems  Egypt was example of success before irrigation “Raised Field Agriculture in Tlaxcala, Mexico: An Ecosystem Perspective on Maintenance of Soil Fertility”  Countries mostly dependent on fossil fuels and fertilizers  Raised fields = farming platforms located on high water tables, created in canals “drained field”, “muck”  Central and South America, related to increased population and urbanization  Nutrient inputs = most watersheds introduced by weathering of minerals, rock and soil, through atmosphere and nitrogen fixing organisms  Nutrient exports = lost nutrients due to surface runoff, subsurface leaching and denitrification of manure piles “History Haves and Have Not’s”  Places not flourishing now got farming before places currently flourishing  Archeologists attempt to make sense of this  Radiocarbon dating—not perfect  Map of distribution  Mark the first appearance of domesticated forms of each locality  Some had abrupt starts to food production while others incorporated it into their wild foods


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