Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide SOCIOL 4511
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by ehoy32 on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCIOL 4511 at Ohio State University taught by Dana Haynie, Emily Shrider in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Review Sheet 511 Exam 1 Chapters 1 – 5 Definitions: Ego Identity: According to Erik Erickson; formed when persons develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for Chronic Juvenile Offenders: youths who have been arrested four or more times during their minority and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts. Their small group, known as the “chronic 6 percent,” is believed to engage in a significant portion of all delinquent behavior; these youths do not age out of crime but continue their criminal behavior into adulthood Paternalistic family: a style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children Egalitarian Family: husband and wife share power at home; daughters gain a kind of freedom similar to that of sons, and their lawviolating behaviors mirror that of their brothers English apprenticeship: voluntary apprenticeshipbound out by parents/guardians in exchange for a fee, legal authority was transferred to master; involuntary apprenticeship compelled by the legal authorities to serve a master until they were 21 or older, mater apprentice relationship was similar to parentchild relationship Poor Laws: English statutes that allowed the courts to appoint overseers for destitute and neglected children, allowing placement of these children as servants in the homes of the affluent Factory Act: improved the conditions for children working in factories Parens Patriae: the power of the state to act on behalf of the child and provide care and protection equivalent to that of a parent Child Savers: 19 century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system; today some critics view them as being more concerned with control of the poor than with their welfare Minor child: an individual who falls under a statutory age limit; usually age of 17 Waiver: aka bindover or removal; transferring legal jurisdiction over the most serious and experienced juvenile offenders to the adult court for criminal prosecution 1 UCR: Uniform Crime Report; Compiled by the FBI; most widely used source of national crime and delinquency statistics Selfreport data: research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts Victimization data: National Crime Victimization Survey; includes crimes that are not reported to police, uses careful sampling techniques, yearly, weakness Age of onset [of offending]: age at which youths begin their delinquent careers. Early onset is believed to be linked with chronic offending patterns General deterrence: crime control policies that depend on the fear of criminal penalties, such as long prison sentences for violent crimes. The aim is to convince law violators that the pain outweighs the benefit of criminal activity Specific deterrence: sending convicted offenders to secure incarceration facilities so that punishment is severe enough to convince them not to repeat their criminal activity Culture of poverty: the view that lowerclass people form a separate culture with their own values and norms, which are sometimes in conflict with conventional society Cultural transmission: the process of passing on deviant traditions and delinquent values from one generation to the next Truly Disadvantaged: according to Wilhelm Julius Wilson, those people who are left out of the economic mainstream and reduced to living in the most deteriorated innercity areas Social Disorganization: neighborhood or area marked by culture conflict, lack of cohesiveness, a transient population, and insufficient social organizations. These problems are reflected in the problems at schools in these areas Collective Efficacy: a process in which mutual trust and a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and help maintain public order create a sense of wellbeing in a neighborhood and help control antisocial behaviors Anomie: normlessness produced by rapidly shifting moral values; according to Merton, anomie occurs when personal goals cannot be achieved using available means Selffulfilling Prophecy: deviant behavior patterns that are a response to an earlier labeling experience; youths act out these social roles even if they were falsely bestowed 2 Adolescent limited offenders: kids who get into minor scrapes as youth but whose misbehavior ends when they enter adulthood Life course persistent [offenders]: delinquents who begin their offending career at a very early age and continue to offend well into adulthood Problem Behavior Syndrome: a cluster of antisocial behaviors that may include family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment, as well as delinquency Social Capital: positive relations with individuals and institutions, as in successful marriage or a successful career, that support conventional behavior and inhibit deviant behavior Marshmallow Test: way to measure selfcontrol in a child; put two marshmallows in front of them and tell them that if they wait 15 minutes they can have both. If they don’t wait the researcher will come back and take the other away Theorists (be able to connect theorist to their main theory) Lombroso: Trait Theories Studying criminals o Similar facial features – jaw line, teeth, nose, skull shape o Similar to primitive ancestors Shaw and McKay: Social Disorganization Theory Crime is a result of neighborhood characteristics, not individual characteristics William J. Wilson: Social Structure Theories Truly disadvantaged: those who are left out of the economic mainstream Sampson and Laub: AgeGraded theory How social controls vary over the life course o Most serious offenders will desist if social control/bonds are put in place Turning points – critical life events which may enable adult offenders to desist from delinquency Social capital – positive relations with individuals and institutions that support good behavior and inhibit deviant behavior Hirschi: Social Control theory Everyone has the potential to commit crime Robert Merton: Anomie/Strain Theory 3 The means for legitimate economic and social success are stratified by socioeconomic class o No acceptable means for achieving success Robert Agnew: General Strain Theory More sources of strain than economic strain If strain results in anger crime is more likely to occur Loeber: Trajectory Theory Pathways to Delinquency o Authorityconflict pathway o Covert pathway o Overt pathway Gottfredson and Hirschi: General Theory of Crime (GTC) Low selfcontrol is more impulsive o Selfcontrol: person’s ability to exercise restraint and control over their feelings, emotions, reactions, behaviors Moffitt: Lifecourse theory: Two patterns of lifecourse offending behaviors Adolescentlimited offenders Life course persistent offenders Concepts: What was childhood like in the Middle Ages? Treated as miniature adults; had adult roles, severely disciplined, limited contact with parents; paternalistic family (father in complete control); child mortality rate very high What were the child savers responsible for? Keeping troubled youth out of the Criminal Justice System What is the philosophy of the juvenile justice system? Removing power from the parents What are status offenses? Offenses that are illegal because the age of the offender What are the Part I offenses? Index crimes (homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, larceny, arson, motor vehicle theft, aggravated assault) How does the UCR express crime data? FBI compiled data from police reports of crimes and arrests 4 How do we interpret UCR crime rates? (# of crimes reported/total U.S. population) x 100,000 = rate per 100,000 What are the strengths and criticisms of official data (UCR), self report data, and victimization data? Official data: trends in frequency of arrests; age, gender, race breakdown of arrests; geographic variation in arrests; problems consistent over time so trends are consistent over time. Shortcomings: only tracks reported crimes; reports only one offense (most serious); victimless crimes are severely undercounting; problems with police reporting crime; reflects police/justice bias Selfreport data: measures behavior not detected by police; measures non delinquent behavior; gathers personal information on delinquents; includes behavior rarely detected by police; includes background on individuals who do and do not offend; captures dark figures of crime. Shortcomings: answers may be less than candid; nonrepresentative samples; trivial nature of some items may inflate figures; may exclude the most chronic offenders Victimization data: can get at data people may not want to tell anyone; yearly; uses careful sampling techniques. Shortcomings: relies on victim’s memory and honesty; omits substance abuse Do twin and adoption studies provide evidence of some genetic component of crime? MZ: 60% share criminal behavior patterns; higher risk for suicidal behavior DZ: 30% share criminal behavior patterns For which crime are females more likely than males to be taken into custody? Running away and prostitution What is the relationship between age and crime? As a person gets older, they are less likely to commit crimes; juveniles most likely to commit offenses Juveniles account for 15% of all crime arrests What is the link between age of onset of offending and adult criminality? Most adult criminals had a very early age of onset of offending Who is most and least likely to be victimized? Teens are 15 times more likely to be victimized than the elderly What percent of a population tends to be identified as chronic offenders according to research by Wolfgang and colleagues? 6% 5 Know the major premises of the following theories: classical theories, choice theories, social learning theories, trait theories, social structure theories, development theories. Classical theories: now known as rational choice theory/choice theory Choice theories: people have free will to choose their behavior and that those who violate the law were motivated by greed, revenge, survival, or hedonism Social learning theories: learning and social experiences, coupled with values and expectations, determine behavior Trait theories: delinquent acts are the product of personal problems and conditions o Substance abuse and violence Social structure theories: culture of poverty, permanent underclass, truly disadvantaged; tie delinquency rates to both socioeconomic structural conditions and cultural values Developmental theories: focus on the onset, continuity, and termination of a delinquent career Know the major premises of the following theories: routine activities theory, deterrence theory, biosocial theories, psychodynamic theories, differential association theory, social disorganization theory, general strain theory, social control theory, labeling theory, critical theory, agegraded theory, latent trait theory Routine activities theory: Cohen and Felson; crime is a normal function of the routine activities of modern living o Motivated offender o Suitable target o Lack of capable guardians Deterrence theory: keeping offenders and potential offenders away from committing the crime; pain outweighs the gains o General and specific Biosocial theories: interplay between biology, environment, and antisocial behaviors Psychodynamic theories: Freud; behavioral – personality is learned throughout observation (direct or indirect); cognitive – thinking, problem solving, script, moral development Differential association theory: Sutherland; criminal behavior is learned primarily in interpersonal groups and youths will become delinquent if definitions they learn in those groups are favorable to obeying the law 6 Social disorganization theory: neighborhood or area marked by culture conflict, lack of cohesiveness, a transient population, and insufficient social organizations o Reflected in the problems at schools in the area General strain theory: Agnew; links delinquency to the strain of being locked out of the economic mainstream, which creates the anger and frustration that lead to delinquent acts Social control theory: people are born bad and need to have controls placed on them in order for them to act good Labeling theory: society creates deviance through a system of social control agencies that labels certain individuals as delinquent; those labeled tend to act towards their label Critical theory: law is defined by those who hold social and political power; those in power use the justice system to maintain their statuses while keeping others subservient AgeGraded theory: how social controls/bonds vary over the life course; some bonds have more control while others have less Latent trait theory: delinquent behavior is controlled by a “master trait,” present at birth or soon after, that remains stable and unchanging throughout a person’s lifetime What are some of the contemporary biochemical factors related to delinquency? Prenatal care: exposure to damaging chemicals Zika virus: children born with very small heads and cognitive disabilities Abnormal body chemistry: diets Hormonal levels in teens: testosterone levels Environmental contaminants: lead, BPA Describe the three pathways to crime/delinquency outlined by Loeber. Authorityconflict pathway: o Begins at an early age with stubborn behavior o Leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance Covert pathway: o Begins with minor underhanded behavior (lying, shoplifting) that leads to property damage o Escalates to more serious forms of delinquency Overt pathway: o Begins with aggressive acts that lead to physical fighting and then to violence 7 What are the different sources of strain identified by Agnew and what are examples? Failure to achieve positively valued goals o Lack of American Dream Disjunction of expectations and achievements o Expected promotion and not having enough training Removal of positive stimuli o No one supporting them Presentation of negative stimuli o Gangs, drugs What are the social bonds that Hirschi identified (define and provide examples)? Attachment (emotional) o Children, parents, loved ones Commitment (stake in conformity) o Committed to a particular path in life Belief (moral code) o Religious, values instilled by parents Involvement (amount of time spent in conventional activities o Free time = higher likelihood of delinquent activities Sports, jobs What are characteristics associated with low self control? Inability to control feelings, emotions, reactions, behaviors Impulsive behavior Lacking in thought or deliberation when decision making 8
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