PSY 303, First Exam
PSY 303, First Exam PSY 303
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Razan Alkhazaleh on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 303 at Pace University taught by Robert Rahni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Adolescent Psychology FIRST EXAM— February 24, 2016 • Plato’s theory on adolescence: • There are two qualities that differentiate children from adolescents— • The ability to reason, and self-determination • Rousseau’s theory: • As in the middle ages, children and adolescents were tried/subjected to harsh discipline as adults— he restored the belief that being a child is not the same as being an adult Storm and Stress view: • • Period in which adolescents are in conﬂict with their parents, are moody and engage in risk taking behavior • increase in volatility, and depression • Does not occur in every adolescent, but is more likely to occur in them than in children or adults • Stereotypes in adolescents: • Stubborn, irrational, lazy, self-centered, entitled, impulsive, all they think about is sex • Cognitive developmental view— PIAGET’S THEORY Sesorimotor: infants gain knowledge through physical actions • • Preoperational: child uses mental representations to understand (symbolic thinking) • Concrete operational: child can reason logically about concrete events • The Formal Operational Stage: • emerges from 11-15 • solves problems systematically • egocentrism • hypothetical/abstract proposition • (not ALL adolescents are full ﬂedged formal operational thinkers) Developmentalists’ argue that the formal operation thought consists of two sub periods • • Early formal operational thought • Late formal operational thought • Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development: • Identity vs. Role Confusion: occurs during adolescence, age 10-20 • Children become more independent, look at the future in terms of careers/relationships/ families/housing, etc. • wants to belong to a society and ﬁt in • possibilities are explored to form own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations Longitudinal Research: • • Studying the same individuals over a period of time • Advantages: • helpful in determining patterns, more data over long periods of time allows more concise results (higher validity) • Disadvantages: • expensive, time consuming, population decrease— which introduces the bias effect • Hormones: secreted by endocrine glands and carried through the blood • Androgen: main class of male sex hormones (testosterone is an androgen, and plays important role in male pubertal development when levels increase) • Estrogen: main class of female sex hormones (estradiol is an estrogen, important role in female pubertal development when its level rise) • Early/Late maturing girls and boys: Males Females Early Maturation - positive peer relations - associate with older peer - positive self perceptions groups - positive peer relations were to a lesser extent - age inappropriate behavior - early maturing females go through most of their stress around mid-adolescence Late Maturation - better sense of identity - conforming - sociable - more responsible - more self-controlled • Parts of brain, and how they impact decision making: Adolescent sleep patterns: • • 2006 study— 45% of adolescents get inadequate sleep on school nights (less than 8 hours) • though when given the opportunity, they sleep on average of 9 hours and 25 minutes • Synaptogenesis: • dramatic increase in connections between neurons (important aspect of the brains development) • vital neuron development occurs in childhood and adolescence • there are twice as many synaptic connections made than there will ever be used • Cognitive Processes: Schema: mental framework, useful for organizing and interpreting information • • Assimilation: incorporation of new info into existing knowledge/past experiences • Accommodation: adjustment of schema to new information • Equilibration: a shift in thought from one state to another • Vygotsky’s theory: • knowledge viewed as situated and collaborative learning • ZPD: Zone of Proximal Development • Social constructivist approach— rather than cognitive (piaget) • emphasizes importance of sociocultural inﬂuences on children’s development, which is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning • Self Esteem: • Reﬂects perceptions that does not always match reality • decreases when transitioning from elementary to middle/junior high adolescents with greater self esteem, have greater initiative (which can produce both • positive or negative outcomes) • “top dog phenomenon” — ‘highest in middle school (8th grade), then becoming the lowest in high school (9th grade) • Narcissism: self centered/self concerned— narcissistic adolescents are more aggressive than non narcissistic adolescents, ONLY WHEN SHAMED • lack of awareness to anything besides oneself contributes to adjustment problems • consequences of low self esteem: temporary, but can develop into other issues like depression or delinquency Domains linked to self esteem: Domain Speciﬁc Evaluation: (self-concept) • • Physical appearance (powerful/global) • Social contexts: Peer judgements, family, school • Emotional Competence: • being aware that the expression of emotions plays a major role in relationships • adaptively coping with negative emotions by using strategies to reduce intensity and duration of such emotional stages • understanding inner emotional states do not have to correspond to outer expressions • being aware of emotional state without being overwhelmed by them • being able to discern the emotions of others • Temperament: behavioral style/ characteristic way of responding • Easy child: develops routine quickly, quick to accept experiences • Difﬁcult child: reacts negatively, slow to accept experiences • Slow to warm up: display low mood intensity, low activity level • New classiﬁcations of temperament: • positive affect and approach: extraverson, and introversion • negative affect and approach: easily distressed, fruit and cry often— introversion and neuroticism • effortful control: self regulation • Identity: • role experimentation: natural part of identity formation • adolescents gradually realize that they will soon be responsible for themselves and their lives • vocational roles in late adolescence become central to identity development (especially in a highly technological society like the US) • Identity is a self portrait composed of: • vocational/career identity • political identity religious identity • • relationship identity • achievement/intellectual identity • sexual identity • cultural/ethnic identity interests • • personality • physical identity • The Four Statuses of Identity • Crisis: adolescent choosing among meaningful alternatives • Commitment: (resolution of crisis stage) personal investment in what an individual is going to do • Identity Diffusion: no crisis/ no commitment • Identity Foreclosure: experienced commitment, no crisis • Identity Moratorium: crisis/ no commitment Identity Achievement: undergone crisis, made commitment • • parents are important ﬁgures in an adolescents development of identity • family atmosphere that promotes individuality and connectedness • without self discipline and planing, emerging adults are likely to drift and not follow any particular direction • developing a positive identity in emerging adulthood requires considerable self discipline and planning • Big Five Personality Factors:
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