HIST 102 H Exam One Study Guide
HIST 102 H Exam One Study Guide HIST102H
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Breionna Real on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST102H at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Craig Saucier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see WESTERN CIVILIZATION FROM 1500 FOR HONOR STUDENTS in History at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide 1.) Indulgences WHAT Something that came to take the place of penance. By the late middle ages, indulgences took the place of penance. Penance is the punishment for sin. SIG. The key was that people could just buy them. Up until now, you had to fulfill certain conditions. But now, you could just buy an indulgence. This meant that people were literally purchasing divine forgiveness for sins. “Get outta hell free card.” Treasury of merit was where the pope could reach into the treasury and forgive sins. It was a way of making money. They could also spring souls from purgatory. With all of this, indulgences became popular and made the church money. However, it caused corruption. 2.) Simony WHAT sale of church offices. No ecclesiastical training necessary. If you have the money, you could purchase the position of an abbot or a bishop. Just like absenteeism, it was contrary to church law. All they cared about, however, was money. SIG. This led to more corruption. 3.) pluralism WHAT Holding of multiple church offices. It was contrary to church law. But, the prevailing opinion in most bishops was “Meh. So what? We got money!” 4.) Pope Julius II WHAT Most representative of all popes. He was the most militaristic. He chose his name after his personal hero, Julius Caesar, contrary to other popes. His favorite pastime was war. He created the “Swiss Guards”. He organized an army and fought. He absolutely loved bloodshed. Story of him hosting a banquet. He looked into the courtyard with unarmed criminals. He watched them get run through with a sword and laughed. 5.) Pope Leo X WHO Became an archbishop by the age of 9. At 14, he became a cardinal. Became pope at age 38. First thing he did was appointed three nephews and two cousins. “God has given us the papacy. Let us enjoy it.” 6.) Pope Alexander VI WHO He was assisted by his daughter, Lucrezia. She had a reputation for poisoning people. Innocent VIII died after dinner with her, but there is no evidence. When he died, Rodrigo Borgia was ready with money to bribe the College of Cardinals and troops to intimidate other cardinals, which insured his election. He had a head start. The first thing a pope did was appoint his male relatives to the College of Cardinals, which is the institution that elected the popes. SIG. This meant that the family had control. 7.) Pope Sixtus IV WHO Bribed the cardinals. He wanted to advance the fortunes of his family. Appointed 5 of his nephews, two of which were the Riario brothers. This led to conspiracy with the Riario brother to murder two Medici brothers in the middle of mass at the cathedral, Lorenzo and Juliano. Bell was rung, he killed Juliano, but Lorenzo got away. The Medici found the murderers and killed them. The pope responded with excommunicating the entire city and declare war on it. HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide 8.) Johann Staupitz WHO The abbot of Luther’s monastery. Told Luther to go out into the real world, deal with real people. Luther was driving himself crazy with his own sinful tendencies. Needs to stop meditation and get into the world. He has to see their real problems. Sends Luther to University of Wittenberg. He gets him appointed to teach biblical theology and scriptures. SIG. For the most part, it helped calm him down. Helped him to debate with members of the faculty and chill. But, he is still haunted. 9.) University of Wittenberg WHAT University Luther was sent to by Staupitz. See Staupitz for significance. 10.) Romans 1:17 WHAT One night, Luther was preparing a lecture on Paul’s letters to the Romans. He got to Romans 1:17, which said “The righteous shall live through faith.” When he read this, he suddenly felt calm. He experienced an epiphany. SIG. With this, he concluded that the key to salvation is faith and faith alone. Has nothing to do with Good Works. This idea is contrary to the Catholic teachings. 11.) Sola Fide WHAT“Faith Alone.” Based on the question “How are we saved?” Catholicism says that salvation is based on faith and good works. Luther rejects this and says that the things that humans do are not inherently good because humans themselves are not good. They are tainted with original sin. The things humans do are tainted by Adam and Eve, so therefore there are no such things as good works. So, we are only saved by faith, which is a gift from God. SIG. This was a fundamental part of Protestantism. 12.) Sola Scriptura WHAT “Scripture alone”. “What is the source of religious authority?” Catholics say that the church is the source of authority. This will later change. Luther rejects this and argues that scripture, the word of God, is the ultimate source. Luther said the church should be rejected as a human invention. SIG of both. These two will become the twin pillars of Protestant reform. There will be more reformers that follow Luther, but they will all follow these two. 13.) Albert of Hohenzollern WHO Family later founds Germany. Powerful German noble. He goes out to purchase several archdioceses. To do this, he has to take out a loan. In doing this, he cuts a deal with the pope, Leo X. The deal is: The pope will allow him to organize a sale of indulgences, restricted to Saxony. He uses Tetzel to sell the indulgences to ignorant people. Half of the money will pay off the loan, and the other half will go into Leo’s pocket. Leo uses it to rebuild St. Peter’s basilica. Albert has to raise a lot of money, requires a lot of planning. SIG. Actions with Tetzel led to the 95 Theses. HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide 14.) Johann Tetzel WHO Monk hired by Albert to fan out and sell indulgences. He took advantage of the lack of literacy and the ignorance of peasants. They made the sale by telling people they would be forgiven for past and future sins. SIG. This was a very sleazy move. Many of Tetzel’s colleagues were appalled by this. This appalled Luther as well. This led to Luther writing out a list of objections to the sale of indulgences. He contradicted the sale of indulgences, 95 laws to be precise, called the 95 Theses. This was a critical moment in the Reformation. 15.) Diet of Augsburg WHAT Charles wants to unify Europe under the church. The Lutherans made it harder for him to do this. Charles called a meeting of nobles to the city of Augsburg in 1530. They are told to find a compromise towards bringing Lutheran people back to the church. SIG. No compromise was reached. Lutheran nobles began to organize themselves into the League of Schmalkalden. It looks as if war will break out, so the Lutherans developed this league. 16.) League of Schmalkalden WHAT It looks as if war will break out, so the Lutherans developed this league. War does break out in the Holy Roman Empire. Things get crazy. War begins over religious tensions. Quickly, this gives way to political issues. So that, when the war begins, it’s mainly Charles vs the league. As the war drags on, more and more Catholic nobles begin fighting the emperor, Charles. This is caused by the issue of political power. He wants to strengthen his power. These two sides start fighting more and more to maintain political influence. SIG. This is part of a pattern. We see this quite a lot. Religion starts war, but it keeps going due to political power. 17.) Peace of Augsburg WHAT Peace treaty between the two sides. This does: 1.) Gave legal recognition to Lutherans, but only in Holy Roman Empire. Reflected that Lutheranism was here to stay.2.) Establishes the principle that each prince can determine the religion of his territory. None of the other’s services would be allowed. SIG Kept things quiet until another war, the 30 years war 18.) Henry VIII of England WHO Initiated religious reform. Started Anglican Church. SIG. Because of this, the English reformation will be significant in both religious and political terms. This movement will be important in shaping the course of English politics in the next few hundred years. 19.) Edward VI of England WHO Successor to Henry. There was a decade of uncertainty in terms of religion. It was during his reign that the Anglian church starts taking root in Protestantism. This was due to Edward’s advisors. In 1553, Edward dies without children. So, the throne passes to Henry’s daughter, Queen Mary I. HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide 20.) Queen Mary I of England WHO She takes the throne as Mary Tudor. She had grown up associating the break of the church and est. of the church with the humiliation of her mother. She associated it also with the efforts to keep her from the throne. She becomes hostile toward the Anglican Church. So, she starts trying to reestablish the Catholic Church in England. In her reign, Protestants were executed and tried for Heresy, earning her the nickname Bloody Mary. Her reign is characterized as trying to suppress the church in England. SIG. In 1558, she dies without children, passing the throne to Elizabeth I, one of the greatest monarchs to ever reign. 21.) The “Elizabethan Settlement” WHAT Resolves religious uncertainty. This settlement stated the Church of England would be protestant, but only moderately. Based on: 1.) Organization Church government. In organization, it was largely catholic, so the operant word is Episcopal. This means that it is governed by bishops. They all answer to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who answers to the king. 2.) Doctrine This is Lutheran protestant deliberately. This will be fuzzy due to the fuzzy aspect of Lutheranism. The intention of this compromise was to define Anglicanism in sufficiently ambiguous ways primarily to satisfy as many people as possible. Sig. For the most part, this keeps England peaceful and stable. 22.) Latin Vulgate Bible WHAT Only is interpreted by a member of the church. People could not form their own interpretation accept a member of the church. SIG. Authority is based on this one bible. Also, traditions. Protestants said there were only 2 sacraments, but the council reaffirmed there were seven. Council also reaffirmed the idea of purgatory. Protestants believed Eucharist was just a memorial service. Their term was consubstantiation. The council reaffirmed Transubstantiation, becomes the body and blood of Christ and gave grace to the recipient. 23.) Index of Prohibited Books WHAT A commission was appointed to compile a list of stuff Catholics shouldn't be allowed to read. It was part of censorship. SIG. It did not work. Led to books becoming best sellers due to everyone wanting to read them. 24.) Catherine de Medici WHO Mother of the young king and widow of Henry. She has a lot of problems as regent. She is enormously unpopular due to the fact that she isn't French, she's Italian. The French hate the nonFrench. SIG.She leads to more animosity toward the monarchy by French nobles who now see an opportunity to expand wealth and power at the expense of the monarchy at a time when the monarchy is weak and unpopular. Also, this is taking place at the same time as a rapid expansion of tension between French Catholics and French Calvinists (Huguenots). 25.) St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre WHAT There is tension between Catholics and Huguenots. As a sign of good faith, Catherine marries her daughter, Margot, to Henri of Navarre (Leading Huguenot). Despite these efforts, there were still high tensions. These were fueled by HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide extremists. They tried to kill Coligny, but they couldn't. So, Catherine was convinced that one blow could end it. She sets out to kill Calvinists. They all killed at random, including Coligny. By morning, thousands were dead. Continued for a few more weeks. By the time this whole massacre ended, 30,000 were dead. They weren't even all Huguenots, but some were Catholics. SIG This was meant to wipe out Huguenot resistance. It does not, but it weakens them. This will go on for another 20 years, until it is ended by Henry IV. 26.) Philip II of Spain WHO Ruled Spain with an iron fist. Had several resentments. Phillip decided to rule the Netherlands directly. Reason Netherlands was the wealthiest territory. A big chunk of their wealth was based on trade with England. England sold high quality wool to the Dutch and the Dutch would make great cloth with it. Both made a metric fuck ton of money. These people, who used to run their own affairs, are being dictated from Spain. This led to National resentments toward Spain. In 1540’s, there’s an expansion of Calvinism in Netherlands. As a result, Phillip (Catholic) launched a bloody suppression of Calvinism through the Netherlands. On the other hand, tensions began to break out between Dutch Calvinists and Dutch Catholics. Acts of violence broke out between the two. The Catholics were encouraged and protected by Spain. SIG. Phillip’s reign leads to resistance against Spain in Netherlands. Leads to the Dutch Republic. 27.) The Dutch Republic As a result of resentments of Spain in the Netherlands, violence broke out. With this, The Netherlands broke into two provinces. North was dominated by Calvinists; South was dominated by Catholics and supported by Spain. In 1581, the northern Calvinists declared independence from Spain, which led to a full scale war. In 1609, Spain gave up. This created a new state so that the Northern provinces became known as the Dutch Republic (Modern day Holland or Netherlands). SIG. Remains Calvinist until after WW2. South will remain under the Spanish, which will become Belgium. This will remain Catholic. 28.) Mary, Queen of Scots WHO Overthrown in Scotland. Phillip considered marrying her due to 2 reasons. She’s catholic and she loved the dick. Phillip is trying to overthrow Elizabeth and Mary is involved. In 1587, Elizabeth receives word that Mary is involved with this conspiracy. Elizabeth ordered her to be executed. For Phillip, this is the last straw. In 1588, Phillip decides to get revenge. Tries to launch an invasion of England. SIG. Her execution led to the Spanish Armada, one of the greatest military failures in history. 29.) Spanish Armada Phillip II launches ships to take control of the English Channel and transport Spanish troops to England. It was made of heavy warships and also nimbler ships so that a big chunk was caught in the channel and set fire by England. Spanish sail around the channel and shipwrecked. SIG. This was a disaster. Half of the Armada was destroyed. One of the most significant military engagements in history for 2 reasons 1.) This defeat means Spain HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide will never be able to defeat or invade England again. 2.) This marks the beginning of a significant transformation in the balance of power for two reasons A.) This defeat marks the beginning of the end for Spain. B.) Marks the point at which England will begin to rise. They will become the most powerful state in Europe. Because the Spanish navy was decimated, the ocean will be safer for English ships to sail to America, which leads to the establishment of the English empire in America. 30.) Politiques WHAT Change of attitude after the bad monarchs. Emerges in France. Faction composed of influential French Catholics and Huguenots. They are moderate politically in that they are pragmatists. They have the characteristic to see things realistically, similar to Elizabeth. The way they saw things was that a fact of life was that these wars were destroying the country. SIG In spite of religious differences, they are destroying stability and prosperity. Wanted to control the power of the state in one institution. Their attitude is a reflection of Absolutism. Figured it was the only way to have peace. 31.) Henry of Navarre WHO He is a Huguenot. He is a leading Huguenot and is the next in line for the throne. In spite of the fact of his religion, he is crowned Henry the IV. He will become one of the most important kings in France. He was strong, healthy, tolerant, etc. He was a good man. He was the ideal king of France. He had the main goal to restore stability and prosperity. Henry’s goal of doing this will involve three steps. Ending the wars by stopping the violence in the state, arresting the criminals and leaving soldiers to protect each city, etc. Second, he deals with religion the same way Elizabeth did, through compromise. He issues the Edict of Nantes and becomes Catholic because he knows no one will take him seriously as a Huguenot. Finally, he tightens up French finances. SIG. He significantly improved the country until he was murdered. 32.) Edict of Nantes WHAT Designed to deal with Huguenots. Issued by Henry IV to grant a broad array of rights to the Huguenots. However, it doesn't involve complete religious freedom. This also declares the Roman Catholic Church as the official church of France. They were given control of 200 fortified cities, making them almost autonomous. SIG It is the first step to toleration, though. This points 1598 as the end point to religious issues. Also gets Catholics around the king. 33.) Richelieu WHO One of the great 17th Century military geniuses. Advisor after Marie de Medici. The problem is that Louis the XIII, Henry’s son, is weak in character. He wasn't capable of running the government. Richelieu becomes De Facto king, fulfilling the King’s actions. He was not power hungry as he is portrayed in the Three Musketeers. He is completely devoted to HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide serving the interest of the monarchy. Wants to strengthen it and make it beyond the possibility of challenge. He has 3 goals: Wants to weaken the Huguenots by waging war on them. He takes control over them with the king’s permission and he takes their military power, but gives them complete religious freedom. 2nd, he wants to do the same to the aristocracy, whom were stubborn to the laws of the state. He weakens them by outlawing dueling. Francois Montmorency was killed by execution with a young butcher doing the killing. He took 30 tries to do it, though the tradition was that after one blow he would live if he hadn’t been killed. This allows the aristocracy to fall in line. He also wanted French dominance by starting the 30 years war to strengthen them. He did this, but he never lived to see the end of the war. SIG. He established France as a strong power and centralized the monarchy. 34.) Defenestration of Prague WHAT A group of Lutheran nobles kidnapped two of King Ferdinand’s most trusted but despised advisors. They brought them to the top of a tower where they interrogated them. Not getting any answers, they threw them out the window. They survived with only a few cuts and bruises. People questioned why this happened. Catholics believed that these guys were caught by angels and rescued. Protestants believed that they fell into cow shit and walked away. This was called the Defenestration of Prague. ***SIG led to a ruthless counterattack by Catholics throughout the entire HRE. Main reason it spread was that Ferdinand became the Holy Roman Emperor. Therefore, the religious issues that triggered it gave way to the political issues. 35.) The Fronde WHAT Rebellion against the regency of Mazarin by nobles. They never fought the monarchy. There was no fighting. They formed armies against other nobles, but never against the monarchy. There was lots of chaos and it forced Mazarin to flee. The nobles were never able to unify and overcome personal ambition. In the end, nothing really happened. Mazarin was able to continue Richelieu’s policies. SIG. Most citizens came to the conclusion that a strong monarchy means stability. When the king is weak, there is disorder. When he is strong, there is order and stability. The Fronde represented the last challenge to the French monarchy until 1789. Also, it had an impact on Louis XIV. 36.) Mazarin WHO Richelieu dies and the regency goes to Anne of Austria. Mazarin takes it over with her. The regency has problems. He and Anne were unpopular due to their foreigner status. Anne was Austrian and Mazarin was Italian. There was also the issue of economic stress caused by the 30 years war. Also, there was a powerful resentment for the monarchy because of Richelieu’s policies. SIG. Because of these issues, French nobles became convinced that the time was right to restore their privileges. So in 1648, the rebellion breaks out, the Fronde. 37.) Prince Henry the Navigator WHO Portugal took the lead in exploring the coast of Africa under his leadership. He founded a school for navigators on the southwestern coast of HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide Portugal. SIG. Shortly thereafter, Portuguese fleets began probing southward along the western coast of Africa in search of gold. Portuguese ships reached the Senegal River, just north of Cape Verde, and brought home a cargo of black Africans, most of whom were then sold as slaves to wealthy buyers elsewhere in Europe. Within a few years, a thousand slaves were shipped annually from Africa back to Lisbon. 38.) Bartholomew Dias WHO Hearing reports of a route to India around the southern tip of Africa, Portuguese sea captains continued their probing. He rounded the Cape of Good Hope. SIG. Vasco da Gama surpassed that accomplishment by rounding the cape, skirting the eastern coast of Africa, and cutting across the Indian Ocean to the southwestern coast of India. He brought home a cargo of pepper and precious stones and made a handsome profit on his valuable goods. Da Gama's successful voyage marked the beginning of an allwater route to India. 39.) Amerigo Vespucci WHO Explorers soon realized that Columbus had discovered a new frontier altogether. Statesponsored explorers joined the race to the New World. A Venetian seaman, John Cabot, explored the New England coastline of the Americas under a license from King Henry VII of England. The continent of South America was accidentally discovered by the Portuguese sea captain Pedro Cabral in 1500. Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, accompanied several voyages and wrote a series of letters describing the geography of the New World. SIG The publication of these letters led to the use of the name “America” (after Amerigo) for the new lands. 40.) Ferdinand Magellan WHO The first two decades of the sixteenth century witnessed numerous overseas voyages that explored the eastern coasts of both North and South America. Perhaps the most dramatic of all these expeditions was the journey of Ferdinand Magellan (14801521). After passing through the Straits named after him at the bottom of South America, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean and reached the Philippines where he met his death at the hands of the natives. SIG. Although only one of his original fleet of five ships survived and returned to Spain, Magellan's name is still associated with the first known circumnavigation of the earth. 41.) Encomienda WHAT This was a feudal system that permitted the Spanish colonial governors to collect tribute from the natives and use them as laborers. In theory the encomienda system was supposed to be a reciprocal feudal relationship between the lords and their peasants. In return for their work and tribute, the lords of an encomienda were supposed to protect the Indians, pay them wages, and supervise their spiritual needs. SIG. In practice, however, this meant that the Spanish settlers were free to govern as they pleased. Since the Spanish government was three thousand miles away in Madrid, Spanish settlers largely ignored HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide its decrees. They put Indians to work on plantations and in the gold and silver mines. Forced labor, starvation, and especially disease took a fearful toll of Indian lives. 42.) Ulrich Zwingli WHO He was a Catholic priest in the Swiss city of Zurich. He had been a chaplain for Swiss soldiers, and was quite a biblical scholar. He read Luther’s NinetyFive Theses with some fascination, and he followed closely Luther’s debates with Johann Eck and all of the stuff that was written about them. When Luther published his pamphlets in 1520, Zwingli transformed his congregation into a Lutheran one. At about this time, he also began a correspondence with Luther. But quite soon, the two began to disagree on a number of fairly important matters. SIG. Started the first nonLutheran Protestant movement. It spread very fast. 43.) transubstantiation Not in the reading 44.) The Institutes of the Christian Religion WHAT Calvin, not long after he had settled in Switzerland and when he was only 26 years old, published what would be the first edition of his book, the Institutes of the Christian Religion. This set down the first systematic explanation of Protestant theology. It was just the first edition. Calvin worked at this book all of his life. The second edition was twice as long as the first, and the eighth edition was twice as long as the seventh. SIG. It was without a doubt the most famous and most used book in the Reformation. 45.) The Ecclesiastical Ordinances WHAT John Calvin went far beyond the creation of a system of Protestant theology. He did not just say that society should try to be as Christian as possible. He wrote a book on how to do it. This book is entitled Ecclesiastical Ordinances, and it is a handbook on how to create a Protestant church and, through it, a Protestant Christian society. With the Institutes and Ecclesiastical Ordinances, Calvin’s book of theology and his book of social organization, one could establish a Protestant community anywhere in the world. SIG. In the Ecclesiastical Ordinances, Calvin called for the creation of four church offices, the pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons. 46.) Predestination WHAT The doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul. Explanations of predestination often seek to address the "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems incompatible with human free will. In this usage, predestination can be regarded as a form of religious determinism; and usually pre determinism. SIG. Calvin argued that predestination should stimulate people to do God’s work because, whereas no one knows who is among the elect, a righteous life was at least a hint of election. And besides, while the elect will perform God’s will by the Gift of God’s grace, the damned should honor God by conforming as far as possible to a Christian way of life. 47.) Geneva WHERE Switzerland. WHAT Calvin came here to reform both the church and state there according to his books. He arrived there in 1541 he made the city a model of what a HIST 102H Exam One Study Guide Protestant community should be. Without a doubt, the most important organization in the city of Geneva was something called the Consistory, which was a body of men consisting of the pastors (five at first) and the elders (twelve). It met every Thursday and, while not the president of the organization, Calvin, as one of the pastors, was the most influential member. It acted as a morals court. SIG With the consistory in this city, Calvin provided Protestants with two manuals on how to set up a church and what to think. People would set up Calvinist churches the world over. 48.) The Anabaptists WHO The Anabaptists emerged as an independent Protestant movement the same way Zwinglianism had—its leaders read the Bible and found stuff that disagreed with what Zwingli believed. A number of members of Zwingli’s church came to the conclusion—by reading the Bible—that there is no biblical authority for infant baptism. There is nothing in there about baptizing babies. They told Zwingli that infant baptism was in fact not valid, and that every adult Christian had to be “rebaptized,” and that is the meaning of the word “Anabaptist.” SIG. The Anabaptists were persecuted throughout Europe, but they did not disappear. They still exist, especially in the United States, and here there are two groups that are pretty well known. One is the Mennonites, who are numerous in the Midwest, and the other, more conservative group, is the Amish, who are also numerous in the Midwest and East. The Amish are the ones who resist modern technology.
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